Health care systems issues and disparities in ADHD care for Hispanic adults
Many adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are undiagnosed, and Hispanic adults with ADHD in particular face numerous barriers to accessing mental health care. Some of these barriers are cultural, such as stigma related to mental illness and misconceptions about psychotropic treatment. Other barriers are instrumental, such as language barriers, lack of insurance, or illegal immigration status. Clinicians can take many steps to help Hispanic patients overcome these barriers and should strive to be culturally sensitive in managing the unique challenges and needs of Hispanic patients with ADHD.
Solutions for treating hispanic adults with ADHD
Hispanic Americans make up the largest minority group in the United States. The Hispanic community is heterogeneous, composed of individuals from various regions of Central and South America, Mexico, and the Caribbean Islands, all with different cultures, language proficiency, and economic status. The Hispanic community is heterogeneous, composed of individuals from various regions of Central and South America, Mexico, and the Caribbean Islands, all with different cultures, language proficiency, and economic status.
Barriers to care for Hispanic adults with ADHD
Development and Preliminary Evaluation of an Integrated Treatment Targeting Parenting and Depressive Symptoms in Mothers of Children With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Objective: More than 50% of mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a lifetime history of major depressive disorder (MDD). Maternal depressive symptoms are associated with impaired parenting and predict adverse developmental and treatment outcomes for children with ADHD. For these reasons, we developed and examined the preliminary efficacy of an integrated treatment targeting parenting and depressive symptoms for mothers of children with ADHD. This integrated intervention incorporated elements of 2 evidence-based treatments: behavioral parent training (BPT) and cognitive behavioral depression treatment. Method: Ninety-eight mothers with at least mild depressive symptoms were randomized to receive either standard BPT (n = 51) or the integrated parenting intervention for ADHD (IPI-A; n = 47). Participants were assessed at baseline, posttreatment, and 3- to 6-month follow-up on measures of (a) self-reported maternal depressive symptoms, (b) observed positive and negative parenting, and (c) observed and mother-reported child disruptive behavior and mother-reported child and family impairment. Results: The IPI-A produced effects of small to moderate magnitude relative to BPT on maternal depressive symptoms, observed negative parenting, observed child deviance, and child impairment at posttreatment and on maternal depressive symptoms, child disruptive behavior, child impairment and family functioning at follow-up. Contrary to expectations, the BPT group demonstrated moderate to large effects relative to IPI-A on observed positive parenting at follow-up. Conclusions: This treatment development study provides encouraging preliminary support for the integrated intervention targeting parenting and depressive symptoms in mothers of children with ADHD. Future studies should examine whether this integrated intervention improves long-term developmental outcomes for children with ADHD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
The Relation Between Maternal ADHD Symptoms & Improvement in Child Behavior Following Brief Behavioral Parent Training is Mediated by Change in Negative Parenting
This study examined the extent to which maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms predict improvement in child behavior following brief behavioral parent training. Change in parenting was examined as a potential mediator of the negative relationship between maternal ADHD symptoms and improvement in child behavior. Seventy mothers of 6-10 year old children with ADHD underwent a comprehensive assessment of adult ADHD prior to participating in an abbreviated parent training program. Before and after treatment, parenting was assessed via maternal reports and observations and child disruptive behavior was measured via maternal report. Controlling for pre-treatment levels, maternal ADHD symptomatology predicted post-treatment child disruptive behavior problems. The relation between maternal ADHD symptomatology and improvement in child behavior was mediated by change in observed maternal negative parenting. This study replicated findings linking maternal ADHD symptoms with attenuated child improvement following parent training, and is the first to demonstrate that negative parenting at least partially explains this relationship. Innovative approaches combining evidence-based treatment for adult ADHD with parent training may therefore be necessary for families in which both the mother and child have ADHD. Larger-scale studies using a full evidence-based parent training program are needed to replicate these findings
Use of treatment services for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in latino children
This article reviews recent research that examines service use for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among Latino children. Using MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and PubMed, literature searches were conducted for research published between January 2008 and April 2010 that specifically focused on Latino children or included a sufficient sample of Latino children and examined racial/ethnic differences between groups. Eight studies regarding general service use, treatment with medication, and parenting interventions were identified and are reviewed herein. Results of these studies highlight important factors associated with the continued mental health service use disparities among Latino children, such as parental attitudes toward service use. Results also provide much-needed data with regard to adapting and engaging Latino parents into parenting interventions. Suggestions for clinical practice and future research are discussed
Stable early maternal report of behavioral inhibition predicts lifetime social anxiety disorder in adolescence
OBJECTIVE: Behavioral inhibition (BI), a temperamental style identifiable in early childhood, is considered a risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders, particularly social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, few studies examining this question have evaluated the stability of BI across multiple developmental time points and followed participants into adolescence-the developmental period during which risk for SAD onset is at its peak. The current study used a prospective longitudinal design to determine whether stable early BI predicted the presence of psychiatric disorders and continuous levels of social anxiety in adolescents. It was hypothesized that stable BI would predict the presence of adolescent psychiatric diagnoses, specifically SAD. METHOD: Participants included 126 adolescents aged 14 to 16 years who were first recruited at 4 months of age from hospital birth records. Temperament was measured at multiple time points between the ages of 14 months and 7 years. In adolescence, diagnostic interviews were conducted with parents and adolescents, and continuous measures of adolescent- and parent-reported social anxiety were collected. RESULTS: Stable maternal-reported early BI was associated with 3.79 times increased odds of a lifetime SAD diagnosis, but not other diagnoses, during adolescence (95% confidence interval 1.18-12.12). Stable maternal-reported early BI also predicted independent adolescent and parent ratings of ongoing social anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggesting that stable maternal-reported early BI predicts lifetime SAD have important implications for the early identification and prevention of SAD
Associations between maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and parenting
Mothers of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for an ADHD diagnosis themselves, which is likely associated with impairments in parenting. The present study utilized a multi-method assessment of maternal ADHD and parenting to examine the extent to which maternal ADHD symptoms are associated with maladaptive parenting. Participants included 70 6-10 year old children with DSM-IV ADHD and their biological mothers. Results suggested that mothers with higher levels of ADHD symptoms reported lower levels of involvement and positive parenting and higher levels of inconsistent discipline. During observed parent-child interactions, maternal ADHD symptoms were negatively associated with positive parenting, and positively associated with negative parenting and repeated commands before giving the child an opportunity to comply. Given prior research suggesting that maladaptive parenting behaviors are risk factors for the later development of conduct problems among children with ADHD, these findings have important clinical implications for family-based assessment and treatment of ADHD
Demographics of disenrollment from SCHIP: evidence from NJ KidCare
The State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) provides health insurance coverage for children in low-income families. Although there is evidence of substantial disenrollment from SCHIP, few studies have examined how disenrollment varies by demographic characteristics. This study uses data from administrative records of all 41,881 children enrolled prior to April 2000 in NJ KidCare (New Jersey's SCHIP) separate state plans for families with incomes between 133% and 350% of the Federal Poverty Level. Survival methods were used to analyze disenrollment according to demographic and plan characteristics. Reasons for disenrollment were also studied. Overall, 18.9% of children disenrolled within 12 months of enrollment. Disenrollment was higher among non-Hispanic black children, children aged 1 to 5, and children without siblings in NJ KidCare than among their counterparts. Surprisingly, English speakers had the highest disenrollment rate of all language groups. Children in families with moderate income categories for whom premium contributions were required were 3 times as likely as lower-income children to disenroll, principally due to non-payment of premiums. To maximize retention in SCHIP and ensure access to care and continuity of care for low-income children, research is needed concerning why some groups disenroll more quickly