Echocardiographic agreement in the diagnostic evaluation for infective endocarditis
Echocardiography is essential for the diagnosis and management of infective endocarditis (IE). However, the reproducibility for the echocardiographic assessment of variables relevant to IE is unknown. Objectives of this study were: (1) To define the reproducibility for IE echocardiographic variables and (2) to describe a methodology for assessing quality in an observational cohort containing site-interpreted data. IE reproducibility was assessed on a subset of echocardiograms from subjects enrolled in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis registry. Specific echocardiographic case report forms were used. Intra-observer agreement was assessed from six site readers on ten randomly selected echocardiograms. Inter-observer agreement between sites and an echocardiography core laboratory was assessed on a separate random sample of 110 echocardiograms. Agreement was determined using intraclass correlation (ICC), coverage probability (CP), and limits of agreement for continuous variables and kappa statistics (kappaweighted) and CP for categorical variables. Intra-observer agreement for LVEF was excellent [ICC = 0.93 +/- 0.1 and all pairwise differences for LVEF (CP) were within 10 %]. For IE categorical echocardiographic variables, intra-observer agreement was best for aortic abscess (kappaweighted = 1.0, CP = 1.0 for all readers). Highest inter-observer agreement for IE categorical echocardiographic variables was obtained for vegetation location (kappaweighted = 0.95; 95 % CI 0.92-0.99) and lowest agreement was found for vegetation mobility (kappaweighted = 0.69; 95 % CI 0.62-0.86). Moderate to excellent intra- and inter-observer agreement is observed for echocardiographic variables in the diagnostic assessment of IE. A pragmatic approach for determining echocardiographic data reproducibility in a large, multicentre, site interpreted observational cohort is feasible.
Association between surgical indications, operative risk, and clinical outcome in infective endocarditis a prospective study from the international collaboration on endocarditis
Background-Use of surgery for the treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) as related to surgical indications and operative risk for mortality has not been well defined. Methods and Results-The International Collaboration on Endocarditis-PLUS (ICE-PLUS) is a prospective cohort of consecutively enrolled patients with definite IE from 29 centers in 16 countries. We included patients from ICE-PLUS with definite left-sided, non-cardiac device-related IE who were enrolled between September 1, 2008, and December 31, 2012. A total of 1296 patients with left-sided IE were included. Surgical treatment was performed in 57% of the overall cohort and in 76% of patients with a surgical indication. Reasons for nonsurgical treatment included poor prognosis (33.7%), hemodynamic instability (19.8%), death before surgery (23.3%), stroke (22.7%), and sepsis (21%). Among patients with a surgical indication, surgical treatment was independently associated with the presence of severe aortic regurgitation, abscess, embolization before surgical treatment, and transfer from an outside hospital. Variables associated with nonsurgical treatment were a history of moderate/severe liver disease, stroke before surgical decision, and Staphyloccus aureus etiology. The integration of surgical indication, Society of Thoracic Surgeons IE score, and use of surgery was associated with 6-month survival in IE. Conclusions-Surgical decision making in IE is largely consistent with established guidelines, although nearly one quarter of patients with surgical indications do not undergo surgery. Operative risk assessment by Society of Thoracic Surgeons IE score provides prognostic information for survival beyond the operative period. S aureus IE was significantly associated with nonsurgical management.
Influence of the timing of cardiac surgery on the outcome of patients with infective endocarditis and stroke
BACKGROUND: The timing of cardiac surgery after stroke in infective endocarditis (IE) remains controversial. We examined the relationship between the timing of surgery after stroke and the incidence of in-hospital and 1-year mortalities. METHODS: Data were obtained from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study of 4794 patients with definite IE who were admitted to 64 centers from June 2000 through December 2006. Multivariate logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were performed to estimate the impact of early surgery on hospital and 1-year mortality after adjustments for other significant covariates. RESULTS: Of the 857 patients with IE complicated by ischemic stroke syndromes, 198 who underwent valve replacement surgery poststroke were available for analysis. Overall, 58 (29.3%) patients underwent early surgical treatment vs 140 (70.7%) patients who underwent late surgical treatment. After adjustment for other risk factors, early surgery was not significantly associated with increased in-hospital mortality rates (odds ratio, 2.308; 95% confidence interval [CI], .942-5.652). Overall, probability of death after 1-year follow-up did not differ between 2 treatment groups (27.1% in early surgery and 19.2% in late surgery group, P = .328; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.138; 95% CI, .802-1.650). CONCLUSIONS: There is no apparent survival benefit in delaying surgery when indicated in IE patients after ischemic stroke. Further observational analyses that include detailed pre- and postoperative clinical neurologic findings and advanced imaging data (eg, ischemic stroke size), may allow for more refined recommendations on the optimal timing of valvular surgery in patients with IE and recent stroke syndromes.
Therapeutic Levels of Anticoagulation Do Not Increase Embolic Risk Early in the Course of S. Aureus Infective Endocarditis [Meeting Abstract]
INFLUENCE OF TIME OF CARDIAC SURGERY (CS) ON THE OUTCOME OF PATIENTS WITH INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS (IE) AND STROKE [Meeting Abstract]
Non-HACEK gram-negative bacillus endocarditis
BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis caused by non-HACEK (species other than Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens, or Kingella species) gram-negative bacilli is rare, is poorly characterized, and is commonly considered to be primarily a disease of injection drug users. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with non-HACEK gram-negative bacillus endocarditis in a large, international, contemporary cohort of patients. DESIGN: Observations from the International Collaboration on Infective Endocarditis Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS) database. SETTING: 61 hospitals in 28 countries. PATIENTS: Hospitalized patients with definite endocarditis. MEASUREMENTS: Characteristics of non-HACEK gram-negative bacillus endocarditis cases were described and compared with those due to other pathogens. RESULTS: Among the 2761 case-patients with definite endocarditis enrolled in ICE-PCS, 49 (1.8%) had endocarditis (20 native valve, 29 prosthetic valve or device) due to non-HACEK, gram-negative bacilli. Escherichia coli (14 patients [29%]) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (11 patients [22%]) were the most common pathogens. Most patients (57%) with non-HACEK gram-negative bacillus endocarditis had health care-associated infection, whereas injection drug use was rare (4%). Implanted endovascular devices were frequently associated with non-HACEK gram-negative bacillus endocarditis compared with other causes of endocarditis (29% vs. 11%; P < 0.001). The in-hospital mortality rate of patients with endocarditis due to non-HACEK gram-negative bacilli was high (24%) despite high rates of cardiac surgery (51%). LIMITATIONS: Because of the small number of patients with non-HACEK gram-negative bacillus endocarditis in each treatment group and the lack of long-term follow-up, strong treatment recommendations are difficult to make. CONCLUSION: In this large, prospective, multinational cohort, more than one half of all cases of non-HACEK gram-negative bacillus endocarditis were associated with health care contact. Non-HACEK gram-negative bacillus endocarditis is not primarily a disease of injection drug users.
The relationship between the initiation of antimicrobial therapy and the incidence of stroke in infective endocarditis: an analysis from the ICE Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS)
BACKGROUND: Embolic events to the central nervous system are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with infective endocarditis (IE). The appropriate role of valvular surgery in reducing such embolic events is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the initiation of antimicrobial therapy and the temporal incidence of stroke in patients with IE and to determine if this time course differs from that shown for embolic events in previous studies. METHODS: Prospective incidence cohort study involving 61 tertiary referral centers in 28 countries. Case report forms were analyzed from 1437 consecutive patients with left-sided endocarditis admitted directly to participating centers. RESULTS: The crude incidence of stroke in patients receiving appropriate antimicrobial therapy was 4.82/1000 patient days in the first week of therapy and fell to 1.71/1000 patient days in the second week. This rate continued to decline with further therapy. Stroke rates fell similarly regardless of the valve or organism involved. After 1 week of antimicrobial therapy, only 3.1% of the cohort experienced a stroke. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of stroke in IE falls dramatically after the initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy. The falling risk of stroke in patients with IE as a whole precludes stroke prevention as the sole indication for valvular surgery after 1 week of therapy
Mitral and tricuspid valve regurgitation in dilated cardiomyopathy
Ileocecal tuberculosis in a patient with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome [Letter]