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Patterns of Ocular Manifestations in Ebola Virus Disease Survivors in the Port Loko, Sierra Leone [Meeting Abstract]

Vandy, Matthew; Mattia, John; Chang, Joyce; Platt, Devin; Mansaray, Yealie; Kamara, Amadu; Pinto, Ruxandra; Bausch, Daniel; Shantha, Jessica; Yeh, Steven; Dierberg, Kerry
ISSN: 0146-0404
CID: 2674122

Hepatitis B prevalence and treatment needs among Tibetan refugees residing in India

Stevens, Kathleen; Palmo, Trinley; Wangchuk, Tsering; Solomon, Sunil; Dierberg, Kerry; Hoffmann, Christopher J
Untreated chronic hepatitis B can lead to liver failure and/or liver cancer. These complications can be avoided through prevention with vaccination or treatment of disease. To inform health policy for the Tibetan community in India, we conducted study of hepatitis B prevalence and treatment needs. We conducted a cross-sectional study over 3 months of 2013. Households were randomly selected for participation via a satellite map; one boarding school and one residential monastery were also included. Participants were asked questions and a whole blood sample was collected for HBsAg assay. Participants with a positive HBsAg result were tested for hepatitis B e antigen, ALT, and AST. Participants with a negative HBsAg result were tested for anti-hepatitis B core antibodies. We recruited 2,769 participants; of which 247 (8.9%) were positive for HBsAg. Participants more likely to have a positive HBsAg result were those born in Tibet (12.4%) and aged 30-59 years old. Of those with a positive HBsAg result, 60.7% were positive for hepatitis B e antigen 7% of whom fit into a likely treatment-needed category; the others fit into management categories requiring repeat ALT testing with or without liver fibrosis assessment. Among participants negative for HBsAg, 52.9% from household sampling had anti-HBc antibodies. We identified a high endemicity of chronic hepatitis B in a Tibetan community in India. Resource appropriate approaches are needed for managing chronic hepatitis B in settings such as this one. J. Med. Virol. 88:1357-1363, 2016. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PMID: 26822932
ISSN: 1096-9071
CID: 2673952

Improved Detection of Tuberculosis and Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis among Tibetan Refugees, India

Dierberg, Kerry L; Dorjee, Kunchok; Salvo, Fulvio; Cronin, Wendy A; Boddy, J'Belle; Cirillo, Daniela; Sadutshang, Tsetan; Chaisson, Richard E
The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) among Tibetan refugees in India is 431 cases/100,000 persons, compared with 181 cases/100,000 persons overall in India in 2010. More than half of TB cases in these refugees occur among students, monks, and nuns in congregate settings. We sought to increase TB case detection rates for this population through active case finding and rapid molecular diagnostics. We screened 27,714 persons for symptoms of TB and tested 3,830 symptomatic persons by using an algorithm incorporating chest radiography, sputum smear microscopy, culture, and a rapid diagnostic test; 96 (2.5%) cases of TB were detected (prevalence 346 cases/100,000 persons). Of these cases, 5% were multidrug-resistant TB. Use of the rapid diagnostic test and active case finding enabled rapid detection of undiagnosed TB cases in congregate living settings, which would not have otherwise been identified. The burden of TB in the Tibetan exile population in India is extremely high and requires urgent attention.
PMID: 26889728
ISSN: 1080-6059
CID: 2673942

Early clinical sequelae of Ebola virus disease in Sierra Leone: a cross-sectional study

Mattia, John G; Vandy, Mathew J; Chang, Joyce C; Platt, Devin E; Dierberg, Kerry; Bausch, Daniel G; Brooks, Tim; Conteh, Sampha; Crozier, Ian; Fowler, Robert A; Kamara, Amadu P; Kang, Cindy; Mahadevan, Srividya; Mansaray, Yealie; Marcell, Lauren; McKay, Gillian; O'Dempsey, Tim; Parris, Victoria; Pinto, Ruxandra; Rangel, Audrey; Salam, Alex P; Shantha, Jessica; Wolfman, Vanessa; Yeh, Steven; Chan, Adrienne K; Mishra, Sharmistha
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the prevalence and predictors of clinical sequelae in survivors of Ebola virus disease (EVD). The EVD Survivor Clinic in Port Loko, Sierra Leone, has provided clinical care for 603 of 661 survivors living in the district. We did a cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence, nature, and predictors of three key EVD sequelae (ocular, auditory, and articular) in this cohort of EVD survivors. METHODS: We reviewed available clinical and laboratory records of consecutive patients assessed in the clinic between March 7, 2015, and April 24, 2015. We used univariate and multiple logistic regression to examine clinical and laboratory features of acute EVD with the following outcomes in convalescence: new ocular symptoms, uveitis, auditory symptoms, and arthralgias. FINDINGS: Among 277 survivors (59% female), median age was 29 years (IQR 20-36) and median time from discharge from an EVD treatment facility to first survivor clinic visit was 121 days (82-151). Clinical sequelae were common, including arthralgias (n=210, 76%), new ocular symptoms (n=167, 60%), uveitis (n=50, 18%), and auditory symptoms (n=67, 24%). Higher Ebola viral load at acute EVD presentation (as shown by lower cycle thresholds on real-time RT-PCR testing) was independently associated with uveitis (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.33, 95% CI 1.87-5.91, for every five-point decrease in cycle threshold) and with new ocular symptoms or ocular diagnoses (aOR 3.04, 95% CI 1.87-4.94). INTERPRETATION: Clinical sequelae during early EVD convalescence are common and sometimes sight threatening. These findings underscore the need for early clinical follow-up of survivors of EVD and urgent provision of ocular care as part of health systems strengthening in EVD-affected west African countries. FUNDING: Canadian Institutes of Health Research.
PMID: 26725449
ISSN: 1474-4457
CID: 2673962

First report of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in a systemic lupus erythematosus patient [Case Report]

Dorjee, Kunchok; Dierberg, Kerry L; Sadutshang, Tsetan D; Reingold, Arthur L
BACKGROUND: Treatment of a multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patient is clinically challenging, requiring a minimum of 18 months of therapy. Its occurrence in a systemic lupus erythromatosus (SLE) patient may complicate management of both MDR-TB and SLE. This is the first descriptive report of MDR-TB in an SLE patient. CASE PRESENTATION: A 19-year old female receiving long-term prednisolone for SLE was diagnosed with MDR-TB. She was started on MDR-TB treatment regimen and prednisolone was replaced with azathioprine. After an initial response to therapy, patient experienced a flare of lupus symptoms. Imaging studies revealed avascular necrosis of right femoral head. She was then treated with intravenous methyl-prednisolone, followed by maintenance corticosteroid. Azathioprine was discontinued due to hematological toxicity and failure to control SLE. Her symptoms of lupus regressed and did not re-occur for the duration of her MDR-TB treatment. Patient was declared cured of MDR-TB after 18 months of ATT. She is currently scheduled for a total hip replacement surgery. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the challenges of simultaneously managing MDR-TB and SLE in a patient due to their over-lapping signs and symptoms, drug-drug interactions, and the need for use of immunomodulatory agents in the absence of standard guidelines and documented previous experiences. Our experience underscores the importance of appropriate selection of treatment regimens for both MDR-TB and SLE.
PMID: 26245637
ISSN: 1756-0500
CID: 2673982

Prioritizing HIV care and support interventions-moving from evidence to policy

Langley, Carol L; Lapidos-Salaiz, Ilana; Hamm, Tiffany E; Bateganya, Moses H; Firth, Jacqueline; Wilson, Melinda; Martin, Julia; Dierberg, Kerry
PMID: 25768877
ISSN: 1944-7884
CID: 2673992

Genotypic anomaly in Ebola virus strains circulating in Magazine Wharf area, Freetown, Sierra Leone, 2015

Smits, Saskia L; Pas, Suzan D; Reusken, Chantal B; Haagmans, Bart L; Pertile, Peirro; Cancedda, Corrado; Dierberg, Kerry; Wurie, Isata; Kamara, Abdul; Kargbo, David; Caddy, Sarah L; Arias, Armando; Thorne, Lucy; Lu, Jia; Jah, Umaru; Goodfellow, Ian; Koopmans, Marion P
The Magazine Wharf area, Freetown, Sierra Leone was a focus of ongoing Ebola virus transmission from late June 2015. Viral genomes linked to this area contain a series of 13 T to C substitutions in a 150 base pair intergenic region downstream of viral protein 40 open reading frame, similar to the Ebolavirus/H.sapiens-wt/SLE/2014/Makona-J0169 strain (J0169) detected in the same town in November 2014. This suggests that recently circulating viruses from Freetown descend from a J0169-like virus.
PMID: 26539753
ISSN: 1560-7917
CID: 2673972

Survey of tuberculosis drug resistance among Tibetan refugees in India

Salvo, F; Dorjee, K; Dierberg, K; Cronin, W; Sadutshang, T D; Migliori, G B; Rodrigues, C; Trentini, F; Di Serio, C; Chaisson, R; Cirillo, D M
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem among Tibetans living in exile in India. Although drug-resistant TB is considered common in clinical practice, precise data are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of drug-resistant cases among new and previously treated Tibetan TB patients. DESIGN: In a drug resistance survey in five Tibetan settlements in India, culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) for first-line drugs were performed among all consecutive new and previously treated TB cases from April 2010 to September 2011. DST against kanamycin (KM), ethionamide, para-aminosalicylic acid and ofloxacin (OFX) was performed on multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) isolates. RESULTS: Of 307 patients enrolled in the study, 264 (193 new and 71 previously treated) were culture-positive and had DST available. All patients tested for the human immunodeficiency virus (n = 250) were negative. Among new TB cases, 14.5% had MDR-TB and 5.7% were isoniazid (INH) monoresistant. Among previously treated cases, 31.4% had MDR-TB and 12.7% were INH-monoresistant. Of the MDR-TB isolates, 28.6% of new and 26.1% of previously treated cases were OFX-resistant, while 7.1% of new cases and 8.7% of previously treated cases were KM-resistant. Three patients had extensively drug-resistant TB. CONCLUSIONS: MDR-TB is common in new and previously treated Tibetans in India, who also show additional complex resistance patterns. Of particular concern is the high percentage of MDR-TB strains resistant to OFX, KM or both.
PMID: 24903934
ISSN: 1815-7920
CID: 2674152

Epidemiology, outcomes, and mortality predictors of invasive mold infections among transplant recipients: a 10-year, single-center experience

Neofytos, D; Treadway, S; Ostrander, D; Alonso, C D; Dierberg, K L; Nussenblatt, V; Durand, C M; Thompson, C B; Marr, K A
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of invasive mold infections (IMI) in transplant recipients differs based on geography, hosts, preventative strategies, and methods of diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective observational study to evaluate the epidemiology of proven and probable IMI, using prior definitions, among all adult hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients in the era of "classic" culture-based diagnostics (2000-2009). Epidemiology was evaluated before and after an initiative was begun to increase bronchoscopy in HSCT recipients after 2005. RESULTS: In total, 106 patients with one IMI were identified. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) was the most common IMI (69; 65.1%), followed by mucormycosis (9; 8.5%). The overall rate of IMI (and IA) was 3.5% (2.5%) in allogeneic HSCT recipients. The overall incidence for IMI among lung, kidney, liver, and heart transplant recipients was 49, 2, 11, and 10 per 1000 person-years, respectively. The observed rate of IMI among human leukocyte antigen-matched unrelated and haploidentical HSCT recipients increased from 0.6% annually to 3.0% after bronchoscopy initiation (P < 0.05). The 12-week mortality among allogeneic HSCT, liver, kidney, heart, and lung recipients with IMI was 52.4%, 47.1%, 27.8%, 16.7%, and 9.5%, respectively. Among allogeneic HSCT (odds ratio [OR]: 0.07, P = 0.007) and SOT (OR: 0.22, P = 0.05) recipients with IA, normal platelet count was associated with improved survival. Male gender (OR: 14.4, P = 0.007) and elevated bilirubin (OR: 5.7, P = 0.04) were significant predictors of mortality for allogeneic HSCT and SOT recipients with IA, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: During the era of culture-based diagnostics, observed rates of IMI were low among all transplants except lung transplant recipients, with relatively higher mortality rates. Diagnostic aggressiveness and host variables impact the reported incidence and outcome of IMI and likely account for institutional variability in multicenter studies. Definitions to standardize diagnoses among SOT recipients are needed.
PMID: 23432974
ISSN: 1399-3062
CID: 2674072

Human immunodeficiency virus-associated tuberculosis: update on prevention and treatment

Dierberg, Kerry L; Chaisson, Richard E
Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of opportunistic infection and mortality among HIV-infected persons. Screening for symptoms of TB in people with HIV infection, use of isoniazid preventive therapy for those with latent TB infection, earlier diagnosis and treatment of active TB disease, and early initiation of antiretroviral therapy are essential for controlling the spread of TB. Treatment of HIV-related TB is complicated by overlapping drug toxicities and drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral therapy and anti-TB therapy and risk for development of immune reconstitution inflammatory disease. This review provides an overview of the prevention and treatment of TB in HIV-infected persons.
PMID: 23702172
ISSN: 1557-8216
CID: 2674002