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Genetic architecture and biology of youth-onset type 2 diabetes

Kwak, Soo Heon; Srinivasan, Shylaja; Chen, Ling; Todd, Jennifer; Mercader, Josep M; Jensen, Elizabeth T; Divers, Jasmin; Mottl, Amy K; Pihoker, Catherine; Gandica, Rachelle G; Laffel, Lori M; Isganaitis, Elvira; Haymond, Morey W; Levitsky, Lynne L; Pollin, Toni I; Florez, Jose C; Flannick, Jason; ,
The prevalence of youth-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D) and childhood obesity has been rising steadily1, producing a growing public health concern1 that disproportionately affects minority groups2. The genetic basis of youth-onset T2D and its relationship to other forms of diabetes are unclear3. Here we report a detailed genetic characterization of youth-onset T2D by analysing exome sequences and common variant associations for 3,005 individuals with youth-onset T2D and 9,777 adult control participants matched for ancestry, including both males and females. We identify monogenic diabetes variants in 2.4% of individuals and three exome-wide significant (P < 2.6 × 10-6) gene-level associations (HNF1A, MC4R, ATXN2L). Furthermore, we report rare variant association enrichments within 25 gene sets related to obesity, monogenic diabetes and β-cell function. Many youth-onset T2D associations are shared with adult-onset T2D, but genetic risk factors of all frequencies-and rare variants in particular-are enriched within youth-onset T2D cases (5.0-fold increase in the rare variant and 3.4-fold increase in common variant genetic liability relative to adult-onset cases). The clinical presentation of participants with youth-onset T2D is influenced in part by the frequency of genetic risk factors within each individual. These findings portray youth-onset T2D as a heterogeneous disease situated on a spectrum between monogenic diabetes and adult-onset T2D.
PMID: 38278947
ISSN: 2522-5812
CID: 5625502

Using electronic health records to enhance surveillance of diabetes in children, adolescents and young adults: a study protocol for the DiCAYA Network

Hirsch, Annemarie G; Conderino, Sarah; Crume, Tessa L; Liese, Angela D; Bellatorre, Anna; Bendik, Stefanie; Divers, Jasmin; Anthopolos, Rebecca; Dixon, Brian E; Guo, Yi; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Lee, David C; Reynolds, Kristi; Rosenman, Marc; Shao, Hui; Utidjian, Levon; Thorpe, Lorna E; ,
INTRODUCTION:Traditional survey-based surveillance is costly, limited in its ability to distinguish diabetes types and time-consuming, resulting in reporting delays. The Diabetes in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults (DiCAYA) Network seeks to advance diabetes surveillance efforts in youth and young adults through the use of large-volume electronic health record (EHR) data. The network has two primary aims, namely: (1) to refine and validate EHR-based computable phenotype algorithms for accurate identification of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among youth and young adults and (2) to estimate the incidence and prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among youth and young adults and trends therein. The network aims to augment diabetes surveillance capacity in the USA and assess performance of EHR-based surveillance. This paper describes the DiCAYA Network and how these aims will be achieved. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The DiCAYA Network is spread across eight geographically diverse US-based centres and a coordinating centre. Three centres conduct diabetes surveillance in youth aged 0-17 years only (component A), three centres conduct surveillance in young adults aged 18-44 years only (component B) and two centres conduct surveillance in components A and B. The network will assess the validity of computable phenotype definitions to determine diabetes status and type based on sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the phenotypes against the gold standard of manually abstracted medical charts. Prevalence and incidence rates will be presented as unadjusted estimates and as race/ethnicity, sex and age-adjusted estimates using Poisson regression. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The DiCAYA Network is well positioned to advance diabetes surveillance methods. The network will disseminate EHR-based surveillance methodology that can be broadly adopted and will report diabetes prevalence and incidence for key demographic subgroups of youth and young adults in a large set of regions across the USA.
PMID: 38233060
ISSN: 2044-6055
CID: 5626662

Risk of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with pre-coronavirus disease obstructive sleep apnea diagnoses: an electronic health record-based analysis from the RECOVER initiative

Mandel, Hannah L; Colleen, Gunnar; Abedian, Sajjad; Ammar, Nariman; Bailey, L Charles; Bennett, Tellen D; Brannock, M Daniel; Brosnahan, Shari B; Chen, Yu; Chute, Christopher G; Divers, Jasmin; Evans, Michael D; Haendel, Melissa; Hall, Margaret A; Hirabayashi, Kathryn; Hornig, Mady; Katz, Stuart D; Krieger, Ana C; Loomba, Johanna; Lorman, Vitaly; Mazzotti, Diego R; McMurry, Julie; Moffitt, Richard A; Pajor, Nathan M; Pfaff, Emily; Radwell, Jeff; Razzaghi, Hanieh; Redline, Susan; Seibert, Elle; Sekar, Anisha; Sharma, Suchetha; Thaweethai, Tanayott; Weiner, Mark G; Yoo, Yun Jae; Zhou, Andrea; Thorpe, Lorna E
STUDY OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been associated with more severe acute coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. We assessed OSA as a potential risk factor for Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC). METHODS:We assessed the impact of preexisting OSA on the risk for probable PASC in adults and children using electronic health record data from multiple research networks. Three research networks within the REsearching COVID to Enhance Recovery initiative (PCORnet Adult, PCORnet Pediatric, and the National COVID Cohort Collaborative [N3C]) employed a harmonized analytic approach to examine the risk of probable PASC in COVID-19-positive patients with and without a diagnosis of OSA prior to pandemic onset. Unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated as well as ORs adjusted for age group, sex, race/ethnicity, hospitalization status, obesity, and preexisting comorbidities. RESULTS:Across networks, the unadjusted OR for probable PASC associated with a preexisting OSA diagnosis in adults and children ranged from 1.41 to 3.93. Adjusted analyses found an attenuated association that remained significant among adults only. Multiple sensitivity analyses with expanded inclusion criteria and covariates yielded results consistent with the primary analysis. CONCLUSIONS:Adults with preexisting OSA were found to have significantly elevated odds of probable PASC. This finding was consistent across data sources, approaches for identifying COVID-19-positive patients, and definitions of PASC. Patients with OSA may be at elevated risk for PASC after SARS-CoV-2 infection and should be monitored for post-acute sequelae.
PMID: 37166330
ISSN: 1550-9109
CID: 5509392

Deep Learning on Electrocardiograms for Prediction of In-hospital Intradialytic Hypotension in ESKD Patients

Vaid, Akhil; Takkavatakarn, Kullaya; Divers, Jasmin; Charytan, David M; Chan, Lili; Nadkarni, Girish N
PMID: 37418626
ISSN: 2641-7650
CID: 5539462

The power of TOPMed imputation for the discovery of Latino-enriched rare variants associated with type 2 diabetes

Huerta-Chagoya, Alicia; Schroeder, Philip; Mandla, Ravi; Deutsch, Aaron J; Zhu, Wanying; Petty, Lauren; Yi, Xiaoyan; Cole, Joanne B; Udler, Miriam S; Dornbos, Peter; Porneala, Bianca; DiCorpo, Daniel; Liu, Ching-Ti; Li, Josephine H; Szczerbiński, Lukasz; Kaur, Varinderpal; Kim, Joohyun; Lu, Yingchang; Martin, Alicia; Eizirik, Decio L; Marchetti, Piero; Marselli, Lorella; Chen, Ling; Srinivasan, Shylaja; Todd, Jennifer; Flannick, Jason; Gubitosi-Klug, Rose; Levitsky, Lynne; Shah, Rachana; Kelsey, Megan; Burke, Brian; Dabelea, Dana M; Divers, Jasmin; Marcovina, Santica; Stalbow, Lauren; Loos, Ruth J F; Darst, Burcu F; Kooperberg, Charles; Raffield, Laura M; Haiman, Christopher; Sun, Quan; McCormick, Joseph B; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; Ordoñez, Maria L; Meigs, James; Baier, Leslie J; González-Villalpando, Clicerio; González-Villalpando, Maria Elena; Orozco, Lorena; García-García, Lourdes; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Tusié, Teresa; Dupuis, Josée; Ng, Maggie C Y; Manning, Alisa; Highland, Heather M; Cnop, Miriam; Hanson, Robert; Below, Jennifer; Florez, Jose C; Leong, Aaron; Mercader, Josep M
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:The Latino population has been systematically underrepresented in large-scale genetic analyses, and previous studies have relied on the imputation of ungenotyped variants based on the 1000 Genomes (1000G) imputation panel, which results in suboptimal capture of low-frequency or Latino-enriched variants. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) released the largest multi-ancestry genotype reference panel representing a unique opportunity to analyse rare genetic variations in the Latino population. We hypothesise that a more comprehensive analysis of low/rare variation using the TOPMed panel would improve our knowledge of the genetics of type 2 diabetes in the Latino population. METHODS:We evaluated the TOPMed imputation performance using genotyping array and whole-exome sequence data in six Latino cohorts. To evaluate the ability of TOPMed imputation to increase the number of identified loci, we performed a Latino type 2 diabetes genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis in 8150 individuals with type 2 diabetes and 10,735 control individuals and replicated the results in six additional cohorts including whole-genome sequence data from the All of Us cohort. RESULTS:). A Latino-tailored polygenic score constructed from our data and GWAS data from East Asian and European populations improved the prediction accuracy in a Latino target dataset, explaining up to 7.6% of the type 2 diabetes risk variance. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Our results demonstrate the utility of TOPMed imputation for identifying low-frequency variants in understudied populations, leading to the discovery of novel disease associations and the improvement of polygenic scores. DATA AVAILABILITY:Full summary statistics are available through the Common Metabolic Diseases Knowledge Portal ( ) and through the GWAS catalog ( , accession ID: GCST90255648). Polygenic score (PS) weights for each ancestry are available via the PGS catalog ( , publication ID: PGP000445, scores IDs: PGS003443, PGS003444 and PGS003445).
PMID: 37148359
ISSN: 1432-0428
CID: 5538202

Diabetes Care Barriers, Use, and Health Outcomes in Younger Adults With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

Pihoker, Catherine; Braffett, Barbara H; Songer, Thomas J; Herman, William H; Tung, Melinda; Kuo, Shihchen; Bellatorre, Anna; Isganaitis, Elvira; Jensen, Elizabeth T; Divers, Jasmin; Zhang, Ping; Nathan, David M; Drews, Kimberly; Dabelea, Dana; Zeitler, Philip S
IMPORTANCE:Treatment challenges exist for younger adults with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Health care coverage, access to, and use of diabetes care are not well delineated in these high-risk populations. OBJECTIVE:To compare patterns of health care coverage, access to, and use of diabetes care and determine their associations with glycemia among younger adults with T1D and with T2D. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:This cohort study analyzed data from a survey that was jointly developed by 2 large, national cohort studies: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth (SEARCH) study, an observational study of individuals with youth-onset T1D or T2D, and the Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) study, a randomized clinical trial (2004-2011) followed by an observational study (2012-2020). The interviewer-directed survey was administered during in-person study visits in both studies between 2017 and 2019. Data analyses were performed between May 2021 and October 2022. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Survey questions addressed health care coverage, usual sources of diabetes care, and frequency of care use. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were assayed in a central laboratory. Patterns of health care factors and HbA1c levels were compared by diabetes type. RESULTS:The analysis included 1371 participants (mean [range] age, 25 [18-36] years; 824 females [60.1%]), of whom 661 had T1D and 250 had T2D from the SEARCH study and 460 had T2D from the TODAY study. Participants had a mean (SD) diabetes duration of 11.8 (2.8) years. More participants with T1D than T2D in both the SEARCH and TODAY studies reported health care coverage (94.7%, 81.6%, and 86.7%), access to diabetes care (94.7%, 78.1%, and 73.4%), and use of diabetes care (88.1%, 80.5%, and 73.6%). Not having health care coverage was associated with significantly higher mean (SE) HbA1c levels in participants with T1D in the SEARCH study (no coverage, 10.8% [0.5%]; public, 9.4% [0.2%]; private, 8.7% [0.1%]; P < .001) and participants with T2D from the TODAY study (no coverage, 9.9% [0.3%]; public, 8.7% [0.2%]; private, 8.7% [0.2%]; P = .004). Medicaid expansion vs without expansion was associated with more health care coverage (participants with T1D: 95.8% vs 90.2%; participants with T2D in SEARCH: 86.1% vs 73.9%; participants with T2D in TODAY: 93.6% vs 74.2%) and lower HbA1c levels (participants with T1D: 9.2% vs 9.7%; participants with T2D in SEARCH: 8.4% vs 9.3%; participants with T2D in TODAY: 8.7% vs 9.3%). The T1D group incurred higher median (IQR) monthly out-of-pocket expenses than the T2D group ($74.50 [$10.00-$309.00] vs $10.00 [$0-$74.50]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Results of this study suggested that lack of health care coverage and of an established source of diabetes care were associated with significantly higher HbA1c levels for participants with T1D, but inconsistent results were found for participants with T2D. Increased access to diabetes care (eg, through Medicaid expansion) may be associated with improved health outcomes, but additional strategies are needed, particularly for individuals with T2D.
PMID: 37145592
ISSN: 2574-3805
CID: 5542252

Trends in incidence of youth-onset type 1 and type 2 diabetes in the USA, 2002-18: results from the population-based SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study

Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Lawrence, Jean M; Isom, Scott; Jensen, Elizabeth T; Dabelea, Dana; Liese, Angela D; Dolan, Lawrence M; Shah, Amy S; Bellatorre, Anna; Sauder, Katherine; Marcovina, Santica; Reynolds, Kristi; Pihoker, Catherine; Imperatore, Giuseppina; Divers, Jasmin
BACKGROUND:The incidence of diabetes is increasing in children and young people. We aimed to describe the incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in children and young people aged younger than 20 years over a 17-year period. METHODS:The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study identified children and young people aged 0-19 years with a physician diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 diabetes at five centres in the USA between 2002 and 2018. Eligible participants included non-military and non-institutionalised individuals who resided in one of the study areas at the time of diagnosis. The number of children and young people at risk of diabetes was obtained from the census or health plan member counts. Generalised autoregressive moving average models were used to examine trends, and data are presented as incidence of type 1 diabetes per 100 000 children and young people younger than 20 years and incidence of type 2 diabetes per 100 000 children and young people aged between 10 years and younger than 20 years across categories of age, sex, race or ethnicity, geographical region, and month or season of diagnosis. FINDINGS/RESULTS:We identified 18 169 children and young people aged 0-19 years with type 1 diabetes in 85 million person-years and 5293 children and young people aged 10-19 years with type 2 diabetes in 44 million person-years. In 2017-18, the annual incidence of type 1 diabetes was 22·2 per 100 000 and that of type 2 diabetes was 17·9 per 100 000. The model for trend captured both a linear effect and a moving-average effect, with a significant increasing (annual) linear effect for both type 1 diabetes (2·02% [95% CI 1·54-2·49]) and type 2 diabetes (5·31% [4·46-6·17]). Children and young people from racial and ethnic minority groups such as non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic children and young people had greater increases in incidence for both types of diabetes. Peak age at diagnosis was 10 years (95% CI 8-11) for type 1 diabetes and 16 years (16-17) for type 2 diabetes. Season was significant for type 1 diabetes (p=0·0062) and type 2 diabetes (p=0·0006), with a January peak in diagnoses of type 1 diabetes and an August peak in diagnoses of type 2 diabetes. INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:The increasing incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in children and young people in the USA will result in an expanding population of young adults at risk of developing early complications of diabetes whose health-care needs will exceed those of their peers. Findings regarding age and season of diagnosis will inform focused prevention efforts. FUNDING/BACKGROUND:US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and US National Institutes of Health.
PMID: 36868256
ISSN: 2213-8595
CID: 5448582

Estimating incidence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes using prevalence data: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study

Hoyer, Annika; Brinks, Ralph; Tönnies, Thaddäus; Saydah, Sharon H; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Divers, Jasmin; Isom, Scott; Dabelea, Dana; Lawrence, Jean M; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Pihoker, Catherine; Dolan, Lawrence; Imperatore, Giuseppina
BACKGROUND:Incidence is one of the most important epidemiologic indices in surveillance. However, determining incidence is complex and requires time-consuming cohort studies or registries with date of diagnosis. Estimating incidence from prevalence using mathematical relationships may facilitate surveillance efforts. The aim of this study was to examine whether a partial differential equation (PDE) can be used to estimate diabetes incidence from prevalence in youth. METHODS:We used age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-specific estimates of prevalence in 2001 and 2009 as reported in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Using these data, a PDE was applied to estimate the average incidence rates of type 1 and type 2 diabetes for the period between 2001 and 2009. Estimates were compared to annual incidence rates observed in SEARCH. Precision of the estimates was evaluated using 95% bootstrap confidence intervals. RESULTS:Despite the long period between prevalence measures, the estimated average incidence rates mirror the average of the observed annual incidence rates. Absolute values of the age-standardized sex- and type-specific mean relative errors are below 8%. CONCLUSIONS:Incidence of diabetes can be accurately estimated from prevalence. Since only cross-sectional prevalence data is required, employing this methodology in future studies may result in considerable cost savings.
PMID: 36788497
ISSN: 1471-2288
CID: 5427142

Projections of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Burden in the U.S. Population Aged <20 Years Through 2060: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study

Tönnies, Thaddäus; Brinks, Ralph; Isom, Scott; Dabelea, Dana; Divers, Jasmin; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J; Lawrence, Jean M; Pihoker, Catherine; Dolan, Lawrence; Liese, Angela D; Saydah, Sharon H; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Hoyer, Annika; Imperatore, Giuseppina
OBJECTIVE:To project the prevalence and number of youths with diabetes and trends in racial and ethnic disparities in the U.S. through 2060. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS/METHODS:Based on a mathematical model and data from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study for calendar years 2002-2017, we projected the future prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among youth aged <20 years while considering different scenarios of future trends in incidence. RESULTS:The number of youths with diabetes will increase from 213,000 (95% CI 209,000; 218,000) (type 1 diabetes 185,000, type 2 diabetes 28,000) in 2017 to 239,000 (95% CI 209,000; 282,000) (type 1 diabetes 191,000, type 2 diabetes 48,000) in 2060 if the incidence remains constant as observed in 2017. Corresponding relative increases were 3% (95% CI -9%; 21%) for type 1 diabetes and 69% (95% CI 43%; 109%) for type 2 diabetes. Assuming that increasing trends in incidence observed between 2002 and 2017 continue, the projected number of youths with diabetes will be 526,000 (95% CI 335,000; 893,000) (type 1 diabetes 306,000, type 2 diabetes 220,000). Corresponding relative increases would be 65% (95% CI 12%; 158%) for type 1 diabetes and 673% (95% CI 362%; 1,341%) for type 2 diabetes. In both scenarios, substantial widening of racial and ethnic disparities in type 2 diabetes prevalence are expected, with the highest prevalence among non-Hispanic Black youth. CONCLUSIONS:The number of youths with diabetes in the U.S. is likely to substantially increase in future decades, which emphasizes the need for prevention to attenuate this trend.
PMID: 36580405
ISSN: 1935-5548
CID: 5426252

A Longitudinal View of Disparities in Insulin Pump Use Among Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study

Everett, Estelle M; Wright, Davene; Williams, Adrienne; Divers, Jasmin; Pihoker, Catherine; Liese, Angela D; Bellatorre, Anna; Kahkoska, Anna R; Bell, Ronny; Mendoza, Jason; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth; Wisk, Lauren E
PMID: 36475821
ISSN: 1557-8593
CID: 5383072