Impact of early eyelid weight placement on the development of synkinesis and recovery in patients with idiopathic facial paralysis
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Determine the impact of upper eyelid weight placement at 3 months post onset of idiopathic facial paralysis (IFP) on the recovery of facial function in patients with lagophthalmos. METHODS:-test was used to evaluate the data comparing the 3 and 12 month FaCE and FGS scores within and between the 3 groups. RESULTS:Â =Â 0.01), voluntary eye closure (-1.75, PÂ =Â 0.05) and overall FGS scores (-28.75, PÂ =Â 0.04) at 3 months compared to those in Group C, there were no differences between these two groups at 12 month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:For patients with lagophthalmos at 3 months, early eyelid weight placement may lead to improved facial function at 12 months.
Laryngeal fracture presentation and management in United States emergency rooms
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS:There are limited data on laryngeal fracture presentation and management in US emergency departments (EDs). We aimed to characterize patients who are diagnosed with laryngeal fractures in the ED and identify management patterns. STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective review of the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) from 2009 to 2011. METHODS:The NEDS was queried for patient visits with a primary diagnosis of open or closed laryngeal fracture (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 807.5 and 807.6). Patient demographics, comorbidities, ED management, and hospital characteristics were extracted. RESULTS:There were 3,102 ED visits with a diagnosis of laryngeal fracture during the study period. Mean patient age was 40.9 years (range, 3-93 years). The majority of patients were male (85.5%) and sustained a closed (vs. open) fracture (91.4%), with an overall mortality rate of 3.8%. The majority of patients were treated for more than one injury during the same visit (76.2%). Most patients were evaluated at a trauma hospital (53.9%), and most patients were admitted to the hospital (71.9%). Emergent intubation or tracheostomy was rarely reported (2.6% and 0.1% of all cases), and a minority of patients underwent fiberoptic flexible laryngoscopy in the ED (1.9%). Laryngeal fractures occurred more frequently during summer months (28.2%). Mean charge for the entirety of the ED stay was $4,957.34. CONCLUSIONS:Laryngeal fracture is rare and frequently associated with other injuries. The frequency of emergent airway procedure, imaging, and flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy is lower than expected, raising concerns about appropriate workup and management or recognition of injury in the ED setting. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:NA Laryngoscope, 129:2341-2346, 2019.
The grass isn't always greener: The effects of cannabis on embryological development
With the increasing publicity of marijuana due to recent legislation, it is pertinent that the effects of fetal exposure to the drug are assessed. While in utero cannabis exposure has been associated with early pregnancy failure, birth defects and developmental delay, the mechanisms of such outcomes are largely unexplained. Furthermore, the use of cannabinoids in cancer treatment via growth inhibition and apoptosis may indicate how cannabis exposure likely harms a growing fetus. Cannabinoid signaling is required for proper pre-implantation development, embryo transport to the uterus, and uterine receptivity during implantation. In post-implantation development, cannabinoid signaling functions in a multitude of pathways, including, but not limited to, folic acid, VEGF, PCNA, MAPK/ERK, and BDNF. Disrupting the normal activity of these pathways can significantly alter many vital in utero processes, including angiogenesis, cellular replication, tissue differentiation, and neural cognitive development. This paper aims to demonstrate the effects of cannabis exposure on a developing embryo in order to provide a molecular explanation for the adverse outcomes associated with cannabis use during pregnancy.
High-temperature beverages and foods and esophageal cancer risk--a systematic review
Coffee, tea and matÃ© may cause esophageal cancer (EC) by causing thermal injury to the esophageal mucosa. If so, the risk of EC attributable to thermal injury could be large in populations in which these beverages are commonly consumed. In addition, these drinks may cause or prevent EC via their chemical constituents. Therefore, a large number of epidemiologic studies have investigated the association of an indicator of amount or temperature of use of these drinks or other hot foods and beverages with risk of EC. We conducted a systematic review of these studies and report the results for amount and temperature of use separately. By searching PubMed and the ISI, we found 59 eligible studies. For coffee and tea, there was little evidence for an association between amount of use and EC risk; however, the majority of studies showed an increased risk of EC associated with higher drinking temperature which was statistically significant in most of them. For matÃ© drinking, the number of studies was limited, but they consistently showed that EC risk increased with both amount consumed and temperature, and these 2 were independent risk factors. For other hot foods and drinks, over half of the studies showed statistically significant increased risks of EC associated with higher temperature of intake. Overall, the available results strongly suggest that high-temperature beverage drinking increases the risk of EC. Future studies will require standardized strategies that allow for combining data and results should be reported by histological subtypes of EC.