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Prevention of Post-Mastectomy Pain Syndrome: A Review of Recent Literature on Perioperative Interventions

Wu, Rachel R; Katz, Simon; Wang, Jing; Doan, Lisa V
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:Up to 60% of breast cancer patients continue to experience pain three months or more after surgery, with 15 to 25% reporting moderate to severe pain. Post-mastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) places a high burden on patients. We reviewed recent studies on perioperative interventions to prevent PMPS incidence and severity. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Recent studies on pharmacologic and regional anesthetic interventions were reviewed. Only nine of the twenty-three studies included reported a significant improvement in PMPS incidence and/or severity, sometimes with mixed results for similar interventions. Evidence for prevention of PMPS is mixed. Further investigation of impact of variations in dosing is warranted. In addition, promising newer interventions for prevention of PMPS such as cryoneurolysis of intercostal nerves and stellate ganglion block need confirmatory studies.
PMID: 38814502
ISSN: 1534-6269
CID: 5663762

Fluoroscopy-Guided Transgluteal Pudendal Nerve Block for Pudendal Neuralgia: A Retrospective Case Series

Levin, Danielle; Van Florcke, Daniel; Schmitt, Monika; Kendall, Lucinda Kurzava; Patel, Alopi; Doan, Lisa V.; Kirpekar, Meera
Background/Objective: Pudendal neuralgia is a distressing condition that presents with pain in the perineum. While a positive anesthetic pudendal nerve block is one of the essential criteria for diagnosing this condition, this block can also provide a therapeutic effect for those afflicted with pudendal neuralgia. There are multiple ways in which a pudendal nerve block can be performed. The objective of this study is to share our results and follow-up of fluoroscopy-guided transgluteal pudendal nerve blocks. Methods: This is a retrospective case series. Included were 101 patients who met four out of the five Nantes criteria (pain in the anatomical territory of the pudendal nerve, pain worsened by sitting, pain that does not wake the patient up at night, and no objective sensory loss on clinical examination) who did not respond to conservative treatment and subsequently underwent a fluoroscopy-guided transgluteal pudendal nerve block. Therapeutic success was defined as a 30% or greater reduction in pain. Success rates were calculated, and the duration over which that success was sustained was recorded. Results: For achieving at least 30% relief of pain, using worst-case analysis, the success rate at two weeks was 49.4% (95% CI: 38.5%, 60.3%). In addition to pain relief, patients experienced other therapeutic benefits, such as reductions in medication use and improvements in activities of daily living. Conclusions: Fluoroscopy-guided transgluteal pudendal nerve block appears to be effective in patients who have pudendal neuralgia that is resistant to conservative therapy, with good short-term success.
ISSN: 2077-0383
CID: 5659882

Optimizing the use of ketamine to reduce chronic postsurgical pain in women undergoing mastectomy for oncologic indication: study protocol for the KALPAS multicenter randomized controlled trial

Wang, Jing; Doan, Lisa V; Axelrod, Deborah; Rotrosen, John; Wang, Binhuan; Park, Hyung G; Edwards, Robert R; Curatolo, Michele; Jackman, Carina; Perez, Raven; ,
BACKGROUND:Mastectomies are commonly performed and strongly associated with chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP), more specifically termed postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS), with 25-60% of patients reporting pain 3 months after surgery. PMPS interferes with function, recovery, and compliance with adjuvant therapy. Importantly, it is associated with chronic opioid use, as a recent study showed that 1 in 10 patients continue to use opioids at least 3 months after curative surgery. The majority of PMPS patients are women, and, over the past 10 years, women have outpaced men in the rate of growth in opioid dependence. Standard perioperative multimodal analgesia is only modestly effective in prevention of CPSP. Thus, interventions to reduce CPSP and PMPS are urgently needed. Ketamine is well known to improve pain and reduce opioid use in the acute postoperative period. Additionally, ketamine has been shown to control mood in studies of anxiety and depression. By targeting acute pain and improving mood in the perioperative period, ketamine may be able to prevent the development of CPSP. METHODS:Ketamine analgesia for long-lasting pain relief after surgery (KALPAS) is a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to study the effectiveness of ketamine in reducing PMPS. The study compares continuous perioperative ketamine infusion vs single-dose ketamine in the postanesthesia care unit vs placebo for reducing PMPS. Participants are followed for 1 year after surgery. The primary outcome is pain at the surgical site at 3 months after the index surgery as assessed with the Brief Pain Inventory-short form pain severity subscale. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:This project is part of the NIH Helping to End Addiction Long-term (HEAL) Initiative, a nationwide effort to address the opioid public health crisis. This study can substantially impact perioperative pain management and can contribute significantly to combatting the opioid epidemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION/ NCT05037123. Registered on September 8, 2021.
PMID: 38243266
ISSN: 1745-6215
CID: 5624462

An Overview of Cannabidiol

Sideris, Alexandra; Doan, Lisa V
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the most interesting constituents of cannabis, garnering significant attention in the medical community in recent years due to its proven benefit for reducing refractory seizures in pediatric patients. Recent legislative changes in the United States have made CBD readily available to the general public, with up to 14% of adults in the United States having tried it in 2019. CBD is used to manage a myriad of symptoms, including anxiety, pain, and sleep disturbances, although rigorous evidence for these indications is lacking. A significant advantage of CBD over the other more well-known cannabinoid delta-9-tetrahydroncannabinol (THC) is that CBD does not produce a "high." As patients increasingly self-report its use to manage their medical conditions, and as the opioid epidemic continues to drive the quest for alternative pain management approaches, the aims of this narrative review are to provide a broad overview of the discovery, pharmacology, and molecular targets of CBD, its purported and approved neurologic indications, evidence for its analgesic potential, regulatory implications for patients and providers, and future research needs.
PMID: 38108806
ISSN: 1526-7598
CID: 5612642

Evaluating chronic pain as a risk factor for COVID-19 complications among New York State Medicaid beneficiaries: a retrospective claims analysis

Perry, Allison; Wheeler-Martin, Katherine; Terlizzi, Kelly; Krawczyk, Noa; Jent, Victoria; Hasin, Deborah S; Neighbors, Charles; Mannes, Zachary L; Doan, Lisa V; Pamplin Ii, John R; Townsend, Tarlise N; Crystal, Stephen; Martins, Silvia S; Cerdá, Magdalena
OBJECTIVE:To assess whether chronic pain increases the risk of COVID-19 complications and whether opioid use disorder (OUD) differentiates this risk among New York State Medicaid beneficiaries. DESIGN, SETTING, AND SUBJECTS/METHODS:This was a retrospective cohort study of New York State Medicaid claims data. We evaluated Medicaid claims from March 2019 through December 2020 to determine whether chronic pain increased the risk of COVID-19 emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and complications and whether this relationship differed by OUD status. We included beneficiaries 18-64 years of age with 10 months of prior enrollment. Patients with chronic pain were propensity score-matched to those without chronic pain on demographics, utilization, and comorbidities to control for confounders and were stratified by OUD. Complementary log-log regressions estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of COVID-19 ED visits and hospitalizations; logistic regressions estimated odds ratios (ORs) of hospital complications and readmissions within 0-30, 31-60, and 61-90 days. RESULTS:Among 773 880 adults, chronic pain was associated with greater hazards of COVID-related ED visits (HR = 1.22 [95% CI: 1.16-1.29]) and hospitalizations (HR = 1.19 [95% CI: 1.12-1.27]). Patients with chronic pain and OUD had even greater hazards of hospitalization (HR = 1.25 [95% CI: 1.07-1.47]) and increased odds of hepatic- and cardiac-related events (OR = 1.74 [95% CI: 1.10-2.74]). CONCLUSIONS:Chronic pain increased the risk of COVID-19 ED visits and hospitalizations. Presence of OUD further increased the risk of COVID-19 hospitalizations and the odds of hepatic- and cardiac-related events. Results highlight intersecting risks among a vulnerable population and can inform tailored COVID-19 management.
PMID: 37651585
ISSN: 1526-4637
CID: 5599602

Independent and joint contributions of physical disability and chronic pain to incident opioid use disorder and opioid overdose among Medicaid patients

Hoffman, Katherine L; Milazzo, Floriana; Williams, Nicholas T; Samples, Hillary; Olfson, Mark; Diaz, Ivan; Doan, Lisa; Cerda, Magdalena; Crystal, Stephen; Rudolph, Kara E
BACKGROUND:Chronic pain has been extensively explored as a risk factor for opioid misuse, resulting in increased focus on opioid prescribing practices for individuals with such conditions. Physical disability sometimes co-occurs with chronic pain but may also represent an independent risk factor for opioid misuse. However, previous research has not disentangled whether disability contributes to risk independent of chronic pain. METHODS:Here, we estimate the independent and joint adjusted associations between having a physical disability and co-occurring chronic pain condition at time of Medicaid enrollment on subsequent 18-month risk of incident opioid use disorder (OUD) and non-fatal, unintentional opioid overdose among non-elderly, adult Medicaid beneficiaries (2016-2019). RESULTS:We find robust evidence that having a physical disability approximately doubles the risk of incident OUD or opioid overdose, and physical disability co-occurring with chronic pain increases the risks approximately sixfold as compared to having neither chronic pain nor disability. In absolute numbers, those with neither a physical disability nor chronic pain condition have a 1.8% adjusted risk of incident OUD over 18 months of follow-up, those with physical disability alone have an 2.9% incident risk, those with chronic pain alone have a 3.6% incident risk, and those with co-occurring physical disability and chronic pain have a 11.1% incident risk. CONCLUSIONS:These findings suggest that those with a physical disability should receive increased attention from the medical and healthcare communities to reduce their risk of opioid misuse and attendant negative outcomes.
PMID: 37974483
ISSN: 1469-8978
CID: 5610482

Multiorganizational consensus to define guiding principles for perioperative pain management in patients with chronic pain, preoperative opioid tolerance, or substance use disorder

Dickerson, David M; Mariano, Edward R; Szokol, Joseph W; Harned, Michael; Clark, Randall M; Mueller, Jeffrey T; Shilling, Ashley M; Udoji, Mercy A; Mukkamala, S Bobby; Doan, Lisa; Wyatt, Karla E K; Schwalb, Jason M; Elkassabany, Nabil M; Eloy, Jean D; Beck, Stacy L; Wiechmann, Lisa; Chiao, Franklin; Halle, Steven G; Krishnan, Deepak G; Cramer, John D; Ali Sakr Esa, Wael; Muse, Iyabo O; Baratta, Jaime; Rosenquist, Richard; Gulur, Padma; Shah, Shalini; Kohan, Lynn; Robles, Jennifer; Schwenk, Eric S; Allen, Brian F S; Yang, Stephen; Hadeed, Josef G; Schwartz, Gary; Englesbe, Michael J; Sprintz, Michael; Urish, Kenneth L; Walton, Ashley; Keith, Lauren; Buvanendran, Asokumar
Significant knowledge gaps exist in the perioperative pain management of patients with a history of chronic pain, substance use disorder, and/or opioid tolerance as highlighted in the US Health and Human Services Pain Management Best Practices Inter-Agency Task Force 2019 report. The report emphasized the challenges of caring for these populations and the need for multidisciplinary care and a comprehensive approach. Such care requires stakeholder alignment across multiple specialties and care settings. With the intention of codifying this alignment into a reliable and efficient processes, a consortium of 15 professional healthcare societies was convened in a year-long modified Delphi consensus process and summit. This process produced seven guiding principles for the perioperative care of patients with chronic pain, substance use disorder, and/or preoperative opioid tolerance. These principles provide a framework and direction for future improvement in the optimization and care of 'complex' patients as they undergo surgical procedures.
PMID: 37185214
ISSN: 1532-8651
CID: 5544112

Single-Dose of Postoperative Ketamine for Postoperative Pain After Mastectomy: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

Doan, Lisa V.; Li, Anna; Brake, Lee; Ok, Deborah; Jee, Hyun Jung; Park, Hyung; Cuevas, Randy; Calvino, Steven; Guth, Amber; Schnabel, Freya; Hiotis, Karen; Axelrod, Deborah; Wang, Jing
Background and Objectives: Perioperative ketamine has been shown to reduce opioid consumption and pain after surgery. Ketamine is most often given as an infusion, but an alternative is single-dose ketamine. Single-dose ketamine at up to 1 mg/kg has been shown to reduce symptoms of depression, and a wide range of dosages has been used for pain in the emergency department. However, limited data exists on the tolerability and efficacy of a single-dose of ketamine at 0.6 mg/kg for pain when administered immediately after surgery. We conducted a pilot study of single-dose ketamine in patients undergoing mastectomy with reconstruction, hypothesizing that a single-dose of ketamine is well tolerated and can relieve postoperative pain and improve mood and recovery. Methods: This is a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, two-arm parallel, single-center study. Thirty adult women undergoing mastectomy with reconstruction for oncologic indication received a single-dose of ketamine (0.6mg/kg) or placebo after surgery in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU). Patients were followed through postoperative day (POD) 7. The primary outcome was postoperative pain measured by the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) pain subscale on POD 1 and 2. Secondary outcomes include effects on opioid use, PROMIS fatigue and sleep, mood, Quality of Recovery-15, and the Breast Cancer Pain Questionnaire. Results: Side effects were minor and not significantly different in frequency between groups. The ketamine group reported lower scores on the BPI pain severity subscale, especially at POD 7; however, the difference was not statistically significant. There were no statistically significant differences between ketamine and placebo groups for the secondary outcomes. Conclusion: A single-dose of ketamine at 0.6mg/kg administered postoperatively in the PACU is well tolerated in women undergoing mastectomy and may confer better pain control up to one week after surgery. Future studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to adequately characterize the effect of postoperative single-dose ketamine on pain control in this population.
ISSN: 1178-7090
CID: 5447712

Pain associated with breast cancer: etiologies and therapies

Doan, Lisa V.; Yoon, Jenny; Chun, Jeana; Perez, Raven; Wang, Jing
Pain associated with breast cancer is a prevalent problem that negatively affects quality of life. Breast cancer pain is not limited to the disease course itself but is also induced by current therapeutic strategies. This, combined with the increasing number of patients living with breast cancer, make pain management for breast cancer patients an increasingly important area of research. This narrative review presents a summary of pain associated with breast cancer, including pain related to the cancer disease process itself and pain associated with current therapeutic modalities including radiation, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and surgery. Current pain management techniques, their limitations, and novel analgesic strategies are also discussed.
ISSN: 2673-561x
CID: 5631242

In search of a composite biomarker for chronic pain by way of EEG and machine learning: where do we currently stand?

Rockholt, Mika M; Kenefati, George; Doan, Lisa V; Chen, Zhe Sage; Wang, Jing
Machine learning is becoming an increasingly common component of routine data analyses in clinical research. The past decade in pain research has witnessed great advances in human neuroimaging and machine learning. With each finding, the pain research community takes one step closer to uncovering fundamental mechanisms underlying chronic pain and at the same time proposing neurophysiological biomarkers. However, it remains challenging to fully understand chronic pain due to its multidimensional representations within the brain. By utilizing cost-effective and non-invasive imaging techniques such as electroencephalography (EEG) and analyzing the resulting data with advanced analytic methods, we have the opportunity to better understand and identify specific neural mechanisms associated with the processing and perception of chronic pain. This narrative literature review summarizes studies from the last decade describing the utility of EEG as a potential biomarker for chronic pain by synergizing clinical and computational perspectives.
PMID: 37389362
ISSN: 1662-4548
CID: 5540572