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Existing Nongated CT Coronary Calcium Predicts Operative Risk in Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgeries (ENCORES)

Choi, Daniel Y; Hayes, Dena; Maidman, Samuel D; Dhaduk, Nehal; Jacobs, Jill E; Shmukler, Anna; Berger, Jeffrey S; Cuff, Germaine; Rehe, David; Lee, Mitchell; Donnino, Robert; Smilowitz, Nathaniel R
BACKGROUND:Preoperative cardiovascular risk stratification before noncardiac surgery is a common clinical challenge. Coronary artery calcium scores from ECG-gated chest computed tomography (CT) imaging are associated with perioperative events. At the time of preoperative evaluation, many patients will not have had ECG-gated CT imaging, but will have had nongated chest CT studies performed for a variety of noncardiac indications. We evaluated relationships between coronary calcium severity estimated from previous nongated chest CT imaging and perioperative major clinical events (MCE) after noncardiac surgery. METHODS:We retrospectively identified consecutive adults age ≥45 years who underwent in-hospital, major noncardiac surgery from 2016 to 2020 at a large academic health system composed of 4 acute care centers. All patients had nongated (contrast or noncontrast) chest CT imaging performed within 1 year before surgery. Coronary calcium in each vessel was retrospectively graded from absent to severe using a 0 to 3 scale (absent, mild, moderate, severe) by physicians blinded to clinical data. The estimated coronary calcium burden (ECCB) was computed as the sum of scores for each coronary artery (0 to 9 scale). A Revised Cardiac Risk Index was calculated for each patient. Perioperative MCE was defined as all-cause death or myocardial infarction within 30 days of surgery. RESULTS:<0.0001). An ECCB ≥3 was associated with 2-fold higher adjusted odds of MCE versus an ECCB <3 (adjusted odds ratio, 2.11 [95% CI, 1.42-3.12]). CONCLUSIONS:Prevalence and severity of coronary calcium obtained from existing nongated chest CT imaging improve preoperative clinical risk stratification before noncardiac surgery.
PMID: 37732454
ISSN: 1524-4539
CID: 5599072

Using clinical decision support tools to increase defibrillator deactivations in dying patients

Kalil, Ramsey; Choi, Daniel Y; Geleris, Joshua D; Lee, Jennifer I; Wagner, Michael P
PMID: 35926983
ISSN: 2399-6641
CID: 5591632

Prognostic role of diastolic dysfunction in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement

Kampaktsis, Polydoros N; Vavuranakis, Manolis; Choi, Daniel Y; Sherifi, Ines; Christofi, Angela; Triantafyllou, Dionysis; Siasos, Gerasimos; Salemi, Arash; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Wong, S Chiu; Devereux, Richard B
OBJECTIVES:Prior studies have shown that left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (DD) is associated with increased mortality after surgical aortic valve replacement but studies on transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are limited and have not taken into account mitral annular calcification (MAC), which limits the use of mitral valve annular tissue Doppler imaging. We performed a single-center retrospective analysis to better evaluate the role of baseline DD on outcomes after TAVR. METHODS:After excluding patients with atrial fibrillation, mitral valve prostheses and significant mitral stenosis, 359 consecutive TAVR patients were included in the study. Moderate-to-severe MAC was present in 58% of the patients. We classified patients into severe versus nonsevere DD based on the evaluation of elevated left ventricular filling pressure. The outcome measure was all-cause mortality or heart failure hospitalization. RESULTS:Over a mean follow-up time of 13 months, severe DD was associated with an increased risk for the outcome measure (HR 2.02 [1.23-3.30], p = .005). However, this association was lost in a propensity-matched cohort. In multivariate analysis, STS score was the only independent predictor of all cause mortality of heart failure hospitalization (HR 1.1 [1.05-1.15], p < .001). CONCLUSIONS:We evaluated the role of baseline DD on outcomes after TAVR by taking into account the presence of MAC. Severe DD was associated with increased all-cause mortality or heart failure hospitalization but not independently of other structural parameters and known predictors of the outcome measure.
PMID: 31397970
ISSN: 1522-726x
CID: 5412242

Regional isolation in the right atrium with disruption of intra-atrial conduction after catheter ablation of atrial tachycardia

Markowitz, Steven M; Choi, Daniel Y; Daian, Foysal; Liu, Christopher F; Cheung, Jim W; Thomas, George; Ip, James E; Lerman, Bruce B
BACKGROUND:Ablation of atrial tachycardia (AT) that occurs after cardiac surgery or prior ablation often requires complex lesion sets. In combination with the pre-existing atrial scar, these lesion sets may result in inadvertent intra-atrial conduction block. This study reports the phenomenon of incidental isolation of right atrial (RA) regions that occurs secondary to AT ablation, which in some cases results in profound bradycardia due to sinus exit block. METHODS AND RESULTS:Intracardiac electrograms were examined in consecutive patients who underwent AT ablation in the RA. Cases of localized isolation of the RA were defined as areas that developed electrical dissociation during ablation. Of 132 patients having ablation in both the RA free wall and the cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI), 10 (7.6%) developed unintentional isolation of the lateral RA. Five of these patients had prior mitral valve surgery, comprising 12.2% of all 41 patients with mitral surgery who underwent ablation in the CTI and the RA free wall. All patients with regional isolation had a pre-existing scar in the lateral wall of the RA. In six patients, isolation of the lateral RA resulted in profound bradycardia due to exit block from the peri-sinus node myocardium. CONCLUSIONS:Complex ablation lesions in patients with prior valve surgery, prior ablation, or atrial myopathy may result in unintended localized conduction block in the RA. In some cases, isolation of the lateral RA can result in complete sinus exit block with profound bradycardia requiring pacemaker implantation.
PMID: 31225670
ISSN: 1540-8167
CID: 5412222

Subclinical atrial fibrillation detection with a floating atrial sensing dipole in single lead implantable cardioverter-defibrillator systems: Results of the SENSE trial

Thomas, George; Choi, Daniel Y; Doppalapudi, Harish; Richards, Mark; Iwai, Sei; Daoud, Emile G; Houmsse, Mahmoud; Kanagasundram, Arvindh N; Mainigi, Sumeet K; Lubitz, Steven A; Cheung, Jim W
INTRODUCTION:Subclinical atrial fibrillation (AF), in the form of cardiac implantable device-detected atrial high rate episodes (AHREs), has been associated with increased thromboembolism. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) lead with a floating atrial dipole may permit a single lead (DX) ICD system to detect AHREs. We sought to assess the utility of the DX ICD system for subclinical AF detection in patients, with a prospective multicenter, cohort-controlled trial. METHODS AND RESULTS:One hundred fifty patients without prior history of AF (age 59 ± 13 years; 108 [72%] male) were enrolled into the DX cohort and implanted with a Biotronik DX ICD system at eight centers. Age-, sex-, and left ventricular ejection fraction-matched single- and dual-chamber ICD cohorts were derived from a Cornell database and from the IMPACT trial, respectively. The primary endpoint were AHRE detection at 12 months. During median 12 months follow-up, AHREs were detected in 19 (13%) patients in the DX, 8 (5.3%) in the single-chamber, and 19 (13%) in the dual-chamber cohorts. The rate of AHRE detection was significantly higher in the DX cohort compared to the single-chamber cohort (P = .026), but not significantly different compared to the dual-chamber cohort. There were no inappropriate ICD therapies in the DX cohort. At 12 months, only 3.0% of patients in the DX cohort had sensed atrial amplitudes less than 1.0 mV. CONCLUSION:Use of a DX ICD lead allows subclinical AF detection with a single lead DX system that is superior to that of a conventional single-chamber ICD system.
PMID: 31328298
ISSN: 1540-8167
CID: 5412232

Impact of Mitral Regurgitation Severity and Cause on Effort Tolerance-Integrated Stress Myocardial Perfusion Imaging and Echocardiographic Assessment of Patients With Known or Suspected Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Exercise Treadmill Testing

Kampaktsis, Polydoros N; Albert, Benjamin J; Kim, Jiwon; Xie, Lola X; Brouwer, Lillian R; Tehrani, Nathan H; Villanueva, Michael; Choi, Daniel Y; Szulc, Massimiliano; Ratcliffe, Mark B; Levine, Robert A; Devereux, Richard B; Weinsaft, Jonathan W
Background Mitral regurgitation ( MR ) has the potential to impede exercise capacity; it is uncertain whether this is because of regurgitation itself or the underlying cause of valvular insufficiency. Methods and Results The population comprised 3267 patients who underwent exercise treadmill myocardial perfusion imaging and transthoracic echocardiography within 6±8 days. MR was present in 28%, including 176 patients (5%) with moderate or greater MR . Left ventricular systolic function significantly decreased and chamber size increased in relation to MR , paralleling increments in stress and rest myocardial perfusion deficits (all P<0.001). Exercise tolerance (metabolic equivalents of task) decreased stepwise in relation to graded MR severity ( P<0.05). Workload was significantly lower with mild versus no MR (mean±SD, 9.8±3.0 versus 10.1±3.0; P=0.02); magnitude of workload reduction significantly increased among patients with advanced versus those with mild MR (mean±SD, 8.6±3.0 versus 9.8±3.0; P<0.001). MR -associated exercise impairment was accompanied by lower heart rate and blood pressure augmentation and greater dyspnea (all P<0.05). Both functional and nonfunctional MR subgroups demonstrated significantly decreased effort tolerance in relation to MR severity ( P≤0.01); impairment was greater with functional MR ( P=0.04) corresponding to more advanced left ventricular dysfunction and dilation (both P<0.001). Functional MR predicted reduced metabolic equivalent of task-based effort (B=-0.39 [95% CI, -0.62 to -0.17]; P=0.001) independent of MR severity. Among the overall cohort, advanced (moderate or greater) MR was associated with reduced effort tolerance (B=-1.36 [95% CI, -1.80 to -0.93]; P<0.001) and remained significant ( P=0.01) after controlling for age, clinical indexes, stress perfusion defects, and left ventricular dysfunction. Conclusions MR impairs exercise tolerance independent of left ventricular ischemia, dysfunction, and clinical indexes. Magnitude of exercise impairment parallels severity of MR .
PMID: 30808228
ISSN: 2047-9980
CID: 5412212

Improving implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation discussions in admitted patients made DNR and comfort care

Choi, Daniel Y; Wagner, Michael P; Yum, Brian; Jannat-Khah, Deanna Pereira; Mazique, Derek C; Crossman, Daniel J; Lee, Jennifer I
BACKGROUND:Unintended shocks from implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are often distressing to patients and family members, particularly at the end of life. Unfortunately, a large proportion of ICDs remain active at the time of death among do not resuscitate (DNR) and comfort care patients. METHODS:We designed standardised teaching sessions for providers and implemented a novel decision tool in the electronic medical record (EMR) to improve the frequency of discussions surrounding ICD deactivation over a 6-month period. The intended population was patients on inpatient medicine and cardiology services made DNR and/or comfort care. These rates were compared with retrospective data from 6 months prior to our interventions. RESULTS:After our interventions, the rates of discussions regarding deactivation of ICDs improved from 50% to 93% in comfort care patients and from 32% to 70% in DNR patients. The rates of deactivated ICDs improved from 45% to 73% in comfort care patients and from 29% to 40% in DNR patients. CONCLUSION:Standardised education of healthcare providers and decision support tools and reminders in the EMR system are effective ways to increase awareness, discussion and deactivation of ICDs in comfort care and DNR patients.
PMID: 31922034
ISSN: 2399-6641
CID: 5412252