Changes in white matter microstructure predict lithium response in adolescents with bipolar disorder
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether response to lithium treatment in pediatric bipolar disorder can be predicted by changes in white matter microstructure in key cortico-limbic tracts involved in emotion regulation. METHODS: Eighteen clinically referred lithium-naive patients (mean age 15.5 years) were administered clinical rating scales and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) examinations at baseline and following 4 weeks of lithium treatment. Clinical ratings were repeated following 8 weeks of treatment. Patients with Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) ratings of 1 ("very much improved") or 2 ("much improved") were classified as responders. Ten healthy volunteers received baseline and follow-up DTI examinations. Using the ENIGMA pipeline, we investigated the relationship between changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) in the cingulum hippocampus (CGH) and clinical response to lithium. RESULTS: Patients demonstrated significantly lower FA compared to healthy volunteers in the left and right CGH white matter at baseline. Following 4 weeks of lithium treatment, FA in the left CGH increased in patients, but no significant changes in FA were observed among the untreated healthy volunteers. Lithium responders had a significantly greater increase in FA compared to non-responders. Moreover, baseline (pre-treatment) FA in the left CGH white matter significantly predicted week 8 overall CGI severity score, with post hoc analyses indicating that these effects were evident for both severity of depression and mania. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that response to lithium treatment in pediatric bipolar disorder is associated with normalization of white matter microstructure in regions associated with emotion processing.
Diffusion tensor imaging atlas-based analyses in major depression after mild traumatic brain injury
There are currently no known early neuroanatomical markers predictive of the development of major depression or depressive symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). The authors conducted a 1-year longitudinal pilot study to determine whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures collected within 1 month of mTBI could predict incident depression. Of the 14 subjects who met study inclusion criteria, 4 (28.6%) developed major depression over the follow-up period. Compared with the nondepressed group, those who developed depression had white-matter abnormalities in the fronto-temporal regions measured by DTI. These preliminary results highlight the need for additional studies, including studies using a larger sample and appropriate controls.
Genome-wide association and linkage identify modifier loci of lung disease severity in cystic fibrosis at 11p13 and 20q13.2
A combined genome-wide association and linkage study was used to identify loci causing variation in cystic fibrosis lung disease severity. We identified a significant association (P = 3.34 x 10(-8)) near EHF and APIP (chr11p13) in p.Phe508del homozygotes (n = 1,978). The association replicated in p.Phe508del homozygotes (P = 0.006) from a separate family based study (n = 557), with P = 1.49 x 10(-9) for the three-study joint meta-analysis. Linkage analysis of 486 sibling pairs from the family based study identified a significant quantitative trait locus on chromosome 20q13.2 (log(10) odds = 5.03). Our findings provide insight into the causes of variation in lung disease severity in cystic fibrosis and suggest new therapeutic targets for this life-limiting disorder.
GENETIC MODIFIERS OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS [Meeting Abstract]
Genetic modifiers of nutritional status in cystic fibrosis
BACKGROUND: Improved nutrition early in life is associated with better pulmonary function for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, nutritional status is poorly correlated with the CFTR genotype. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the extent to which modifier genes influence nutrition in children with CF. DESIGN: BMI data were longitudinally collected from the CF Twin-Sibling Study and Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry for twins and siblings from 2000 to 2010. A nutritional phenotype was derived for 1124 subjects by calculating the average BMI z score from 5-10 y of age (BMI-z(5to10)). The genetic contribution to the variation in BMI-z(5to10) (ie, heritability) was estimated by comparing the similarity of the phenotype in monozygous twins to that in dizygous twins and siblings. Linkage analysis identified potential modifier-gene loci. RESULTS: The median BMI-z(5to10) was -0.07 (range: -3.89 to 2.30), which corresponded to the 47th CDC percentile. BMI-z(5to10) was negatively correlated with pancreatic insufficiency, history of meconium ileus, and female sex but positively correlated with later birth cohorts and lung function. Monozygous twins showed greater concordance for BMI-z(5to10) than did dizygous twins and siblings; heritability estimates from same-sex twin-only analyses ranged from 0.54 to 0.82. For 1010 subjects with pancreatic insufficiency, genome-wide significant linkage was identified on chromosomes 1p36.1 [log of odds (LOD): 5.3] and 5q14 (LOD: 5.1). These loci explained >/=16% and >/=15%, respectively, of the BMI variance. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis of twins and siblings with CF indicates a prominent role for genes other than CFTR to BMI variation. Specifically, regions on chromosomes 1 and 5 appear to harbor genetic modifiers of substantial effect.
Multiple apical plasma membrane constituents are associated with susceptibility to meconium ileus in individuals with cystic fibrosis
Variants associated with meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis were identified in 3,763 affected individuals by genome-wide association study (GWAS). Five SNPs at two loci near SLC6A14 at Xq23-24 (minimum P = 1.28 x 10(-12) at rs3788766) and SLC26A9 at 1q32.1 (minimum P = 9.88 x 10(-9) at rs4077468) accounted for ~5% of phenotypic variability and were replicated in an independent sample of affected individuals (n = 2,372; P = 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively). By incorporating the knowledge that disease-causing mutations in CFTR alter electrolyte and fluid flux across surface epithelium into a hypothesis-driven GWAS (GWAS-HD), we identified associations with the same SNPs in SLC6A14 and SLC26A9 and established evidence for the involvement of SNPs in a third solute carrier gene, SLC9A3. In addition, GWAS-HD provided evidence of association between meconium ileus and multiple genes encoding constituents of the apical plasma membrane where CFTR resides (P = 0.0002; testing of 155 apical membrane genes jointly and in replication, P = 0.022). These findings suggest that modulating activities of apical membrane constituents could complement current therapeutic paradigms for cystic fibrosis.
Variation in MSRA modifies risk of neonatal intestinal obstruction in cystic fibrosis
Meconium ileus (MI), a life-threatening intestinal obstruction due to meconium with abnormal protein content, occurs in approximately 15 percent of neonates with cystic fibrosis (CF). Analysis of twins with CF demonstrates that MI is a highly heritable trait, indicating that genetic modifiers are largely responsible for this complication. Here, we performed regional family-based association analysis of a locus that had previously been linked to MI and found that SNP haplotypes 5' to and within the MSRA gene were associated with MI (P = 1.99 x 10(-5) to 1.08 x 10(-6); Bonferroni P = 0.057 to 3.1 x 10(-3)). The haplotype with the lowest P value showed association with MI in an independent sample of 1,335 unrelated CF patients (OR = 0.72, 95% CI [0.53-0.98], P = 0.04). Intestinal obstruction at the time of weaning was decreased in CF mice with Msra null alleles compared to those with wild-type Msra resulting in significant improvement in survival (P = 1.2 x 10(-4)). Similar levels of goblet cell hyperplasia were observed in the ilea of the Cftr(-/-) and Cftr(-/-)Msra(-/-) mice. Modulation of MSRA, an antioxidant shown to preserve the activity of enzymes, may influence proteolysis in the developing intestine of the CF fetus, thereby altering the incidence of obstruction in the newborn period. Identification of MSRA as a modifier of MI provides new insight into the biologic mechanism of neonatal intestinal obstruction caused by loss of CFTR function.
HERITABILITY OF RESPIRATORY INFECTION WITH PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS [Meeting Abstract]
A HAPLOTYPE IN THE MSRA GENE APPEARS TO CONFER DECREASED RISK OF MECONIUM ILEUS IN CF [Meeting Abstract]
GENOME-WIDE LINKAGE FOR LUNG FUNCTION MEASURES IN CYSTIC FIBROSIS [Meeting Abstract]