COVID-19 Antibodies and Outcomes among Outpatient Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients
Background/UNASSIGNED:Patients on maintenance hemodialysis are particularly vulnerable to infection and hospitalization from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Due to immunocompromised patients and the clustering that occurs in outpatient dialysis units, the seroprevalence of COVID-19 antibodies in this population is unknown and has significant implications for public health. Also, little is known about their risk factors for hospitalization. Methods/UNASSIGNED:nasopharyngeal, real-time, reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR); SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositivity; hospitalization; and mortality. Results/UNASSIGNED:<0.001) compared with those who tested negative. Higher positivity rates were also observed among those who took taxis and ambulettes to and from dialysis, compared with those who used personal transportation. Antibodies were detected in all of the patients with a positive PCR result who underwent serologic testing. Of those that were seropositive, 32% were asymptomatic. The hospitalization rate on the basis of either antibody or PCR positivity was 35%, with a hospital mortality rate of 33%. Aside from COPD, no other variables were more prevalent in patients who were hospitalized. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:We observed significant differences in rates of COVID-19 infection within three outpatient dialysis units, with universal seroconversion. Among patients with ESKD, rates of asymptomatic infection appear to be high, as do hospitalization and mortality rates.
Identifying Different Causes of Hyponatremia With Fractional Excretion of Uric Acid [Case Report]
BACKGROUND:There is controversy over the prevalence of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and cerebral or renal salt wasting (RSW), 2 syndromes with identical common clinical and laboratory parameters but different therapies. The traditional approach to the hyponatremic patient relies on volume assessment, but there are limitations to this method. METHODS:We used an algorithm that relies on fractional excretion of urate (FEurate) to evaluate patients with hyponatremia and present 4 illustrative cases. RESULTS:Overall, 2 patients had increased FEurate [normal: 4-11%], as is seen in SIADH and RSW. A diagnosis of SIADH was made in 1 patient by correcting the hyponatremia with 1.5% saline and observing a characteristic normalization of an elevated FEurate that is characteristic of SIADH as compared to FEurate being persistently increased in RSW. A patient with T-cell lymphoma had symmetrical leg edema due to lymphomatous obstruction of the inferior vena cava, postural hypotension, pleural effusion, ascites, decreased cardiac output and urine sodium level of 10mmol/L. Saline-induced excretion of dilute urines and undetectable plasma antidiuretic hormone were consistent with RSW. Furosemide, given for presumed heart failure, induced a profound diuresis that required large volumes of fluid resuscitation. A normal FEurate identified a reset osmostat in a transplant patient with a slowly developing pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. A volume-depleted hyponatremic patient with Addison×³s disease had a low FEurate of 1.4%. CONCLUSIONS:These illustrative cases suggest that an approach to hyponatremia using FEurate may be a useful alternative to traditional volume-based approaches.
Fever of unknown origin (FUO) in a renal transplant recipient due to drug fever from sirolimus [Case Report]
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:A variety of medications may cause drug fever. Drug fevers may persist for days to weeks until diagnosis is considered. The diagnosis of drug fever is confirmed when there is resolution of fever within 3Â days after the medication is discontinued. Only rarely do undiagnosed drug fevers persist for over 3Â weeks to meet fever of unknown origin (FUO) criteria. FUOs due to drug fever are uncommon, and drug fevers due to immunosuppressive drugs are very rare. CASE REPORT/METHODS:This is a case of a 58-year-old female renal transplant recipient who presented with FUO that remained undiagnosed for over 8Â weeks. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:We believe this is the first reported case of an FUO due to drug fever from sirolimus in a renal transplant recipient.
Acute Tubular Necrosis in a Patient WithÂ Myeloma Treated With Carfilzomib
Reversible anuric acute kidney injury secondary to acute renal autoregulatory dysfunction [Case Report]
Autoregulation of glomerular capillary pressure via regulation of the resistances at the afferent and efferent arterioles plays a critical role in maintaining the glomerular filtration rate over a wide range of mean arterial pressure. Angiotensin II and prostaglandins are among the agents which contribute to autoregulation and drugs which interfere with these agents may have a substantial impact on afferent and efferent arteriolar resistance. We describe a patient who suffered an episode of anuric acute kidney injury following exposure to a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent while on two diuretics, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, and an angiotensin receptor blocker. The episode completely resolved and we review some of the mechanisms by which these events may have taken place and suggest the term "acute renal autoregulatory dysfunction" to describe this syndrome.
The effect of hemodialysis ultrafiltration on changes in whole blood viscosity
Increased whole blood viscosity (WBV) can be injurious to the vascular endothelium and increase the risk of atherothrombotic events. This study examined the effect of hemodialysis ultrafiltration (UF) on WBV, with a focus on high vs. low-volume UF patients. In stable hemodialysis patients, blood was drawn for hematocrit (Hct) and WBV at the start, midpoint, and at the end of dialysis. For analysis, patients were divided into high UF (â‰¥2700â€‰mL) or low UF (<2700â€‰mL) groups. A total of 59 patients completed the study. Mean Hct increased during dialysis in both groups. The intradialytic increase in Hct was significantly greater in the high vs. the low UF group (3.2% vs. 1.28%, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.01), with a significantly higher end-dialysis Hct in the high UF group (40.5% vs. 38%, Pâ€‰=â€‰0.02). At the end of dialysis, both high shear rate WBV (Pâ€‰<â€‰0.01) and low shear rate WBV (Pâ€‰<â€‰0.01) were significantly higher in the high UF compared with the low UF group. There was an approximately two-fold greater increase in high shear rate (Pâ€‰<â€‰0.01) and low shear rate (Pâ€‰=â€‰0.01) WBV during dialysis in high vs. low UF groups. The increase in high shear rate WBV during dialysis was significantly correlated with an increase in Hct (R(2) = 0.63, Pâ€‰<â€‰0.01). We found that hemodialysis UF causes a surge in WBV. The surge was of greater magnitude in high than in low UF patients.