Chemoembolization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Drug-Eluting Polyethylene Glycol Embolic Agents: Single-Center Retrospective Analysis in 302 Patients
PURPOSE:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transarterial chemoembolization with polyethylene glycol (PEG) drug-eluting embolic agents in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS:A single-center retrospective study of 302 patients (258 men; 85.4%) with HCC treated during a 20-month period was conducted. The mean patient age was 66 years Â± 10; 142 (47%) had Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A disease and 134 had (44.4%) stage B disease; 174 (57.6%) had a single HCC tumor, 65 (21.5%) had 2, and 62 (20.9%) had 3 or more. Mean index tumor size was 36.6 mm Â± 24.8. One-month follow-up computed tomography (CT) response per modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors and clinical and biochemical safety were analyzed. Progression-free and overall survival were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS:Median follow-up time was 11.9 months (95% confidence interval, 11.0-13.0 mo). One-month follow-up CT revealed complete response in 179 patients (63.2%), partial response in 63 (22.3%), stable disease in 16 (5.7%), and progressive disease in 25 (8.8%). The most frequent complications were postembolization syndrome in 18 patients (6%), liver abscess in 5 (1.7%), and puncture-site hematoma in 3 (1%). Biochemical toxicities occurred in 57 patients (11.6%). Survival analysis at 12 months showed a progression-free survival rate of 65.9% and overall survival rate of 93.5%. Patients who received transplants showed a 57.7% rate of complete pathologic response. CONCLUSIONS:Chemoembolization with PEG embolic agents for HCC is safe and effective, achieving an objective response rate of 85.5%.
Sports-related concussion: Anonymous survey of a collegiate cohort
Studies suggest that a lack of standardized knowledge may lead to underreporting and undertreatment of sports-related concussion. However, there has been little work done to establish how this knowledge may affect athletes' behaviors toward reporting their concussions and removing themselves from play. We conducted an anonymous online survey to assess athletes' knowledge of signs and symptoms of concussion, and also sought to estimate the potential frequency of underreporting in a collegiate athlete cohort. Among 262 athletes who responded to the survey, 43% of those with a history of concussion reported that they had knowingly hidden symptoms of a concussion to stay in a game, and 22% of athletes overall indicated that they would be unlikely or very unlikely to report concussion symptoms to a coach or athletic trainer in the future. These data suggest that there may be a substantial degree of underreporting of concussion among collegiate athletes, despite most acknowledging that they have been formally educated about the risks of concussion.