Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of the prostate: An intraindividual assessment of the effect of temporal resolution on qualitative detection and quantitative analysis of histopathologically proven prostate cancer
PURPOSE: To assess the effects of temporal resolution (RT ) in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) on qualitative tumor detection and quantitative pharmacokinetic parameters in prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved study included 58 men (64 +/- 7 years). They underwent 3T prostate MRI showing dominant peripheral zone (PZ) tumors (24 with Gleason >/= 4 + 3), prior to prostatectomy. Continuously acquired DCE utilizing GRASP (Golden-angle RAdial Sparse Parallel) was retrospectively reconstructed at RT of 1.4 sec, 3.7 sec, 6.0 sec, 9.7 sec, and 14.9 sec. A reader placed volumes-of-interest on dominant tumors and benign PZ, generating quantitative pharmacokinetic parameters (ktrans , ve ) at each RT . Two blinded readers assessed each RT for lesion presence, location, conspicuity, and reader confidence on a 5-point scale. Data were assessed by mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA), generalized estimating equation (GEE), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. RESULTS: RT did not affect sensitivity (R1all : 69.0%-72.4%, all Padj = 1.000; R1GS>/=4 + 3 : 83.3-91.7%, all Padj = 1.000; R2all : 60.3-69.0%, all Padj = 1.000; R2GS>/=4 + 3 : 58.3%-79.2%, all Padj = 1.000). R1 reported greater conspicuity of GS >/= 4 + 3 tumors at RT of 1.4 sec vs. 14.9 sec (4.29 +/- 1.23 vs. 3.46 +/- 1.44; Padj = 0.029). No other tumor conspicuity pairwise comparison reached significance (R1all : 2.98-3.43, all Padj >/= 0.205; R2all : 2.57-3.19, all Padj >/= 0.059; R1GS>/=4 + 3 : 3.46-4.29, all other Padj >/= 0.156; R2GS>/=4 + 3 : 2.92-3.71, all Padj >/= 0.439). There was no effect of RT on reader confidence (R1all : 3.17-3.34, all Padj = 1.000; R2all : 2.83-3.19, all Padj >/= 0.801; R1GS>/=4 + 3 : 3.79-4.21, all Padj = 1.000; R2GS>/=4 + 3 : 3.13-3.79, all Padj = 1.000). ktrans and ve of tumor and benign tissue did not differ across RT (all adjusted P values [Padj ] = 1.000). RT did not significantly affect area under the curve (AUC) of Ktrans or ve for differentiating tumor from benign (all Padj = 1.000). CONCLUSION: Current PI-RADS recommendations for RT of 10 seconds may be sufficient, with further reduction to the stated PI-RADS preference of RT = 7 seconds offering no benefit in tumor detection or quantitative analysis. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016.
Retrospective Assessment of Histogram-Based Diffusion Metrics for Differentiating Benign and Malignant Endometrial Lesions
OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the utility of volumetric histogram-based diffusion metrics in differentiating benign from malignant endometrial abnormalities. METHODS: A total of 54 patients underwent pelvic magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging before endometrial tissue diagnosis. Two radiologists placed volumes of interest on the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map encompassing the entire endometrium and focal endometrial lesions. The mean ADC, percentile ADC values, kurtosis, skewness, and entropy of ADC were compared between benign and malignant abnormalities. RESULTS: In premenopausal patients, significant independent predictors of malignancy were whole-endometrium analysis for R1, 10th to 25th ADC percentile (P = 0.012); whole-endometrium analysis for R2, mean ADC (P = 0.001) and skewness (P = 0.004); focal lesion analysis for R1, skewness (P = 0.045); focal lesion analysis for R2, 10th to 25th ADC percentile (P = 0.0001). The area under the curve for malignancy was 90.0% to 97.3% and 76.1% to 77.3% for the more and less experienced radiologists, respectively. In postmenopausal patients, the only significant difference was kurtosis using whole-endometrium analysis for R1 (P = 0.042). CONCLUSIONS: Volumetric ADC histogram metrics may help radiologists assess the risk of malignancy in endometrial abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging in premenopausal patients.
Utility of diffusion-weighted MRI for differentiating acute from chronic cholecystitis
PURPOSE: To assess the use of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for differentiating acute from chronic cholecystitis, in comparison with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Liver MRI including DWI (b-values 0/500/1000s/mm2 ) was performed at 1.5T =30 days before cholecystectomy in 83 patients with abdominal pain. Two radiologists assessed cases for conventional (gallstones, wall thickening, pericholecystic fluid, pericholecystic fat changes, gallbladder distension, pericholecystic liver enhancement, mural T2 -hyperintensity, mural hyperenhancement, mural striations, abscess, intraluminal membranes, and mural defect) and DWI (increased mural signal on high b-value images, visually low apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC], and ADC values) features. RESULTS: Acute cholecystitis was present in 43%; chronic cholecystitis was present in 57%. Nine of 12 conventional features were more frequent in acute cholecystitis for both readers (P = 0.003). Increased mural signal on high b-value images was more frequent (P < 0.001) in acute than chronic cholecystitis for R1 (92% vs. 32%) and R2 (83% vs. 30%). Sensitivity and specificity of increased signal on high b-value images were: R1, 92%/68%; R2, 83%/70%. Visually low ADC was more frequent in acute cholecystitis for R2 (P < 0.001) but not R1 (P = 0.406); ADC values were not different between groups for either reader (P = 0.104-0.139). Among conventional and DWI features, only increased signal on high b-value DWI was independently associated with acute cholecystitis for both readers (P = 0.006-0.012). CONCLUSION: Visually increased mural signal on high b-value DWI was highly sensitive and moderately specific for acute cholecystitis, being an independent predictor relative to conventional features for both readers. Although requiring larger studies, DWI (particularly the high b-value images) may have additive value relative to conventional MRI-suspected acute cholecystitis. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015.
Comparison of MRI features of pathologically proven hepatocellular carcinoma between patients with hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection
PURPOSE: To compare MRI features of pathologically-proven hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) between patients with hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) infection. METHODS: Two radiologists assessed 51 confirmed HCCs on MRI in HBV (n=18) or HCV (n=33) patients; a third, more experienced, radiologist resolved discrepancies. RESULTS: Arterial hyperenhancement occurred more frequently in HCV (90.9% vs. 66.7%; P=.032), DWI/T2WI hyperintensity more frequently in HBV [(DWI: 78.6% vs. 45.8%, T2WI: 77.8% vs. 48.5%; P=.073-0.088)]. Tumors were larger in HBV (P=.016). Washout, pseudocapsule, homogeneity, circumscribed margins, lipid, iron, and visually low ADC were not different. CONCLUSION: Larger studies are required to confirm these preliminary findings.