Clinical Course and Unique Features of Silent Corticotroph Adenomas
OBJECTIVE:Silent corticotroph adenomas (SCAs) behave more aggressively than other non-functioning adenomas (NFAs). This study aims to expand the body of knowledge of the behavior of SCAs. METHODS:Retrospective analysis of 196 non-corticotroph NFAs and 20 SCAs from 2012-2017 was completed. Demographics, clinical presentation, imaging and biochemical data were gathered. The primary endpoint was to identify features of SCAs vs. other NFAs that suggest aggressive disease, including pre-surgical comorbidities, postoperative complications, extent of tumor and recurrence. GRASP MRI images were obtained from a subset of SCAs and NFAs. Permeability data was obtained to compare signal-to-time curve variation between the two groups. RESULTS:With multivariate regression analysis, SCAs showed higher rates of hemorrhage on preoperative imaging than NFAs (p=0.017). SCAs presented more frequently with headache, vision changes and fatigue (p=0.012, p=0.041, p=0.028). SCAs exhibited greater extent of tumor burden with increased occurrence of stalk deviation, suprasellar invasion, optic chiasm compression and cavernous sinus invasion (p=0.008, p=0.021, p=0.022, p=0.015). On GRASP imaging, SCAs had significantly lower permeability of contrast than NFAs (p=0.001). 30% of SCAs were noted to recur with a 14% recurrence rate in other NFAs, though this difference was not of statistical significance (p=0.220). CONCLUSIONS:SCAs exhibit features of more aggressive disease. Interestingly, a significant increase in recurrence was not seen despite these features. The results of this study support the growing body of evidence that SCAs behave more aggressively than other NFPAs and was able to provide some insight into factors that may contribute to recurrence.
GNA11 Mutation in an Intracranial Melanocytoma with Orbital Involvement and Nevus of Ota
The prognostic value of mutations in G-protein genes GNAQ and GNA11 in patients with intracranial and orbital melanocytomas is unknown. The authors present a case of GNA11 mutation (GNA11Q209L) in a 32-year-old male suffering from a meningeal melanocytoma with orbital involvement and ipsilateral Nevus of Ota. The patient underwent gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery without biopsy and later partial transcranial resection of the melanocytic tumor that was subject to immunohistochemical and molecular analysis. A 50-gene next-generation sequencing panel revealed a 626A>T mutation in the GNA11 gene. One year later, intracranial extension of the melanocytoma necessitated a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and immunotherapy. Future work is needed to determine how GNA11 mutations in melanocytomas influence prognosis and monitoring strategies.
Clinical value of DNA methylation in practice: A prospective molecular neuropathology study [Meeting Abstract]
Clinical Validation of Stimulated Raman Histology for Rapid Intraoperative Diagnosis of CNS Tumors [Meeting Abstract]
Growth hormone secreting pituitary carcinomas: Case report and review of literature
OBJECTIVE:Pituitary carcinoma is a rare tumor, defined as a tumor of adenohypophyseal cells with systemic or craniospinal metastasis. We present a case of a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary carcinoma with a review of literature to better characterize this disease. DESIGN:Case report and literature review of 25 cases of GH-secreting pituitary carcinomas RESULTS: The age of diagnosis of GH-secreting carcinomas ranged 24-69Â years old with a mean age of 44.4 with 52% of cases present in females. Mean latency period between diagnosis of acromegaly and transition to pituitary carcinoma was 11.4Â years with mean survival being 3.4Â years. CONCLUSION:Growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary carcinomas are rare and hard to distinguish from aggressive pituitary adenomas. From review of literature, treatment options include debulking surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy with dismal outcomes. There are no diagnostic markers or features which can predict metastatic progression of these tumors. Future studies with genomic landscapes and relevant tumor markers are needed to identify pituitary tumors most likely to metastasize.
Phase 0 Clinical Trial of Everolimus in Patients with Vestibular Schwannoma or Meningioma
Inhibition of mTORC1 signaling has been shown to diminish growth of meningiomas and schwannomas in preclinical studies, and clinical data suggest that everolimus, an orally administered mTORC1 inhibitor, may slow tumor progression in a subset of NF2 patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS). To assess the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and potential mechanisms of treatment resistance, we performed a pre-surgical (phase 0) clinical trial of everolimus in patients undergoing elective surgery for VS or meningiomas. Eligible patients with meningioma or VS requiring tumor resection enrolled on study received everolimus 10 mg daily for 10 days immediately prior to surgery. Everolimus blood levels were determined immediately prior to and after surgery. Tumor samples were collected intraoperatively. Ten patients completed protocol therapy. Median pre- and post-operative blood levels of everolimus were found to be in a high therapeutic range (17.4 ng/ml and 9.4 ng/ml, respectively). Median tumor tissue drug concentration determined by mass spectrometry was 24.3 pg/mg (range 9.2-169.2). We observed only partial inhibition of phospho-S6 in the treated tumors, indicating incomplete target inhibition compared to control tissues from untreated patients (p=0.025). Everolimus led to incomplete inhibition of mTORC1 and downstream signaling. These data may explain the limited anti-tumor effect of everolimus observed in clinical studies for NF2 patients and will inform the design of future pre-clinical and clinical studies targeting mTORC1 in meningiomas and schwannomas.
Pediatric midline H3K27M-mutant tumor with disseminated leptomeningeal disease and glioneuronal features: case report and literature review
BACKGROUND:H3K27M-mutant midline lesions were recently reclassified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "diffuse midline glioma" (DMG) based entirely on their molecular signature. DMG is one of the most common and most lethal pediatric brain tumors; terminal progression is typically caused by local midbrain or brainstem progression, or secondary leptomeningeal dissemination. H3K27M mutations have also been infrequently associated with a histologically and prognostically diverse set of lesions, particularly spinal masses with early leptomeningeal spread. CASE PRESENTATION/METHODS:A 15-year-old girl after 1Â week of symptoms was found to have a T2/FLAIR-hyperintense and contrast-enhancing thalamic mass accompanied by leptomeningeal enhancement along the entire neuraxis. Initial infectious workup was negative, and intracranial biopsy was inconclusive. Spinal arachnoid biopsy revealed an H3K27M-mutant lesion with glioneuronal features, classified thereafter as DMG. She received craniospinal irradiation with a boost to the thalamic lesion. Imaging 1-month post-radiation demonstrated significant treatment response with residual enhancement at the conus. CONCLUSIONS:This case report describes the unique presentation of an H3K27M-mutant midline lesion with significant craniospinal leptomeningeal spread on admission and atypical glioneuronal histopathological markers. With such florid leptomeningeal disease, spinal dural biopsy should be considered earlier given its diagnostic yield in classifying the lesion as DMG. Consistent with similar prior reports, this lesion additionally demonstrated synaptophysin positivity-also potentially consistent with a diagnosis of diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor (DLGNT). In atypical DMG cases, particularly with leptomeningeal spread, further consideration of clinical and histopathological context is necessary for accurate diagnosis and prognostication.
Exposure to DMSO during infancy alters neurochemistry, social interactions, and brain morphology in long-evans rats
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a widely used solvent to dissolve hydrophobic substances for clinical uses and experimental in vivo purposes. While usually regarded safe, our prior studies suggest changes to behavior following DMSO exposure. We therefore evaluated the effects of a five-day, short-term exposure to DMSO on postnatal infant rats (P6-10). METHODS:DMSO was intraperitoneally injected for five days at 0.2, 2.0, and 4.0Â ml/kg body mass. One cohort of animals was sacrificed 24Â hr after DMSO exposure to analyze the neurometabolic changes in four brain regions (cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, and cerebellum) by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. A second cohort of animals was used to analyze chronic alterations to behavior and pathological changes to glia and neuronal cells later in life (P21-P40). RESULTS:164 metabolites, including key regulatory molecules (retinoic acid, orotic acid, adrenic acid, and hypotaurine), were found significantly altered by DMSO exposure in at least one of the brain regions at P11 (pÂ <Â .05). Behavioral tests showed significant hypoactive behavior and decreased social habits to the 2.0 and 4.0Â ml DMSO/kg groups (pÂ <Â .01). Significant increases in number of microglia and astrocytes at P40 were observed in the 4.0Â ml DMSO/kg group (at pÂ <Â .015.) CONCLUSIONS: Despite short-term exposure at low, putatively nontoxic concentrations, DMSO led to changes in behavior and social preferences, chronic alterations in glial cells, and changes in essential regulatory brain metabolites. The chronic neurological effects of DMSO exposure reported here raise concerns about its neurotoxicity and consequent safety in human medical applications and clinical trials.
The transcriptional landscape of Shh medulloblastoma
Sonic hedgehog medulloblastoma encompasses a clinically and molecularly diverse group of cancers of the developing central nervous system. Here, we use unbiased sequencing of the transcriptome across a large cohort of 250 tumors to reveal differences among molecular subtypes of the disease, and demonstrate the previously unappreciated importance of non-coding RNA transcripts. We identify alterations within the cAMP dependent pathway (GNAS, PRKAR1A) which converge on GLI2 activity and show that 18% of tumors have a genetic event that directly targets the abundance and/or stability of MYCN. Furthermore, we discover an extensive network of fusions in focally amplified regions encompassing GLI2, and several loss-of-function fusions in tumor suppressor genes PTCH1, SUFU and NCOR1. Molecular convergence on a subset of genes by nucleotide variants, copy number aberrations, and gene fusions highlight the key roles of specific pathways in the pathogenesis of Sonic hedgehog medulloblastoma and open up opportunities for therapeutic intervention.
Model-Based Patterns of Lymphedema Symptomatology: Phenotypic and Biomarker Characterization
Purpose of the Study/UNASSIGNED:More than 50% of breast cancer survivors without a diagnosis of lymphedema suffer daily from numerous and co-occurring lymphedema symptoms. This study aimed to identify lymphedema symptom patterns and the association of such patterns with phenotypic characteristics and biomarkers using latent class analysis (LCA). A prospective, descriptive, and repeated-measure design was used to enroll 140 women and collect data. Recent Findings/UNASSIGNED:LCA identified three distinct lymphedema symptom classes at 8 weeks and 12 months post-surgery: low, moderate, and severe symptom classes and associated phenotypic characteristics. Participants were more likely to be in the severe symptom classes at 12 months post-surgery if they had lower education level, cording, an axillary syndrome at 8 weeks post-surgery, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and radiation. Summary/UNASSIGNED:Pre-surgery level of IL1-a, IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF was associated with the severe symptom class at 8 weeks post-surgery, suggesting that such biomarkers may be used to predict risk for lymphedema symptoms.