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Perspectives and institutional policies on patient safety and image quality regarding the use of knee-spanning external fixators in MRI: A survey study of the Society of Skeletal Radiology

Marcel, Aaron J; Alaia, Erin F; Alaia, Michael J; Katz, Lee D; Medvecky, Michael J; Porrino, Jack
OBJECTIVE:Concerns regarding patient safety and image quality have made the use of knee-spanning external fixators in MRI a challenging clinical scenario. The purpose of our study was to poll practicing musculoskeletal radiologists on their personal experiences regarding the use of knee-spanning external fixators in MRI in an effort to consolidate practice trends for the radiologists' benefit. METHODS:A 27-item survey was created to address the institutional use, safety, adverse events, quality, and perspectives of the radiologist related to MRI of an externally fixated knee. The survey was distributed to 1739 members of the Society of Skeletal Radiology. RESULTS:A total of 72 members of the Society of Skeletal Radiology completed the survey. Most notably, 40 of 72 (55.56%) respondents are permitted to place a knee-spanning external fixator inside the MR bore at their institution, while19 of 72 (26.39%) respondents are not permitted to do so. Fourteen of 32 (43.75%) respondents have institutional guidelines for safely performing an MRI of an externally fixated knee. Twenty-five of 32 (78.13%) respondents are comfortable permitting an MRI of an externally fixated knee. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We found a general lack of consensus regarding the decision to scan a patient with a knee-spanning external fixator in MRI. Many institutions lack safety guidelines, and providers rely upon a heterogeneous breadth of resources for safety information. A re-examination of the FDA device labeling nomenclature and expectations of the individual manufacturers may be needed to bridge this gap and help direct management decisions placed upon the provider.
PMID: 37695343
ISSN: 1432-2161
CID: 5593642

Genicular Artery Embolization for Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: Interim Analysis of a Prospective Pilot Trial Including Effect on Serum Osteoarthritis-Associated Biomarkers

Taslakian, Bedros; Swilling, David; Attur, Mukundan; Alaia, Erin F; Kijowski, Richard; Samuels, Jonathan; Macaulay, William; Ramos, Danibel; Liu, Shu; Morris, Elizabeth M; Hickey, Ryan
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:To characterize the safety, efficacy, and potential role of genicular artery embolization (GAE) as a disease-modifying treatment for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:This is an interim analysis of a prospective, single-arm clinical trial of patients with symptomatic knee OA who failed conservative therapy for greater than 3 months. Sixteen patients who underwent GAE using 250-μm microspheres and had at least 1 month of follow-up were included. Six patients completed the 12-month follow-up, and 10 patients remain enrolled. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) was evaluated at baseline and at 1, 3, and 12 months. Serum and plasma samples were collected for biomarker analysis. The primary end point was the percentage of patients who achieved the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for WOMAC pain score at 12 months. Baseline and follow-up outcomes were analyzed using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. RESULTS:Technical success of the procedure was 100%, with no major adverse events. The MCID was achieved in 5 of the 6 (83%) patients at 12 months. The mean WOMAC pain score decreased from 8.6 ± 2.7 at baseline to 4.9 ± 2.7 (P = .001), 4.4 ± 2.8 (P < .001), and 4.7 ± 2.7 (P = .094) at 1, 3, and 12 months, respectively. There was a statistically significant decrease in nerve growth factor (NGF) levels at 12 months. The remaining 8 biomarkers showed no significant change at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS:GAE is a safe and efficacious treatment for symptomatic knee OA. Decreased NGF levels after GAE may contribute to pain reduction and slowing of cartilage degeneration.
PMID: 37640104
ISSN: 1535-7732
CID: 5611392

Patient Safety in MRI with the Use of a Joint-Spanning External Fixator for Knee Dislocation: A Critical Analysis Review

Marcel, Aaron J; Green, Joshua S; Alaia, Erin F; Alaia, Michael J; Katz, Lee D; Medvecky, Michael J
» Universal safety guidelines for the use of a knee-spanning external fixator in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are unlikely to be established considering the high variability in device construct configurations.» Per the US Food and Drug Administration, manufacturers are to provide parameters for safe MRI scanning for "MR Conditional" devices; however, such labeling may be limited in detail. Physicians should reference manufacturer labels as a starting point while making an educated clinical decision.» Scanning of a knee-spanning external fixator inside the MR bore has been safely demonstrated in previous studies, although with small sample sizes.» When considering MRI in a patient treated with a knee-spanning external fixator, physicians should use all available resources and coordinate with their medical team to make a clinically reasonable decision contrasting patient benefit vs. potential harm.
PMID: 37535762
ISSN: 2329-9185
CID: 5594792

Deep Learning Diagnosis and Classification of Rotator Cuff Tears on Shoulder MRI

Lin, Dana J; Schwier, Michael; Geiger, Bernhard; Raithel, Esther; von Busch, Heinrich; Fritz, Jan; Kline, Mitchell; Brooks, Michael; Dunham, Kevin; Shukla, Mehool; Alaia, Erin F; Samim, Mohammad; Joshi, Vivek; Walter, William R; Ellermann, Jutta M; Ilaslan, Hakan; Rubin, David; Winalski, Carl S; Recht, Michael P
BACKGROUND:Detection of rotator cuff tears, a common cause of shoulder disability, can be time-consuming and subject to reader variability. Deep learning (DL) has the potential to increase radiologist accuracy and consistency. PURPOSE:The aim of this study was to develop a prototype DL model for detection and classification of rotator cuff tears on shoulder magnetic resonance imaging into no tear, partial-thickness tear, or full-thickness tear. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, institutional review board-approved study included a total of 11,925 noncontrast shoulder magnetic resonance imaging scans from 2 institutions, with 11,405 for development and 520 dedicated for final testing. A DL ensemble algorithm was developed that used 4 series as input from each examination: fluid-sensitive sequences in 3 planes and a sagittal oblique T1-weighted sequence. Radiology reports served as ground truth for training with categories of no tear, partial tear, or full-thickness tear. A multireader study was conducted for the test set ground truth, which was determined by the majority vote of 3 readers per case. The ensemble comprised 4 parallel 3D ResNet50 convolutional neural network architectures trained via transfer learning and then adapted to the targeted domain. The final tear-type prediction was determined as the class with the highest probability, after averaging the class probabilities of the 4 individual models. RESULTS:The AUC overall for supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis tendon tears was 0.93, 0.89, and 0.90, respectively. The model performed best for full-thickness supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis tears with AUCs of 0.98, 0.99, and 0.95, respectively. Multisequence input demonstrated higher AUCs than single-sequence input for infraspinatus and subscapularis tendon tears, whereas coronal oblique fluid-sensitive and multisequence input showed similar AUCs for supraspinatus tendon tears. Model accuracy for tear types and overall accuracy were similar to that of the clinical readers. CONCLUSIONS:Deep learning diagnosis of rotator cuff tears is feasible with excellent diagnostic performance, particularly for full-thickness tears, with model accuracy similar to subspecialty-trained musculoskeletal radiologists.
PMID: 36728041
ISSN: 1536-0210
CID: 5502202

Genicular artery embolization for treatment of knee osteoarthritis pain: Systematic review and meta-analysis

Taslakian, Bedros; Miller, Larry E.; Mabud, Tarub S.; Macaulay, William; Samuels, Jonathan; Attur, Mukundan; Alaia, Erin F.; Kijowski, Richard; Hickey, Ryan; Sista, Akhilesh K.
Objective: Genicular artery embolization (GAE) is a novel, minimally invasive procedure for treatment of knee osteoarthritis (OA). This meta-analysis investigated the safety and effectiveness of this procedure. Design: Outcomes of this systematic review with meta-analysis were technical success, knee pain visual analog scale (VAS; 0"“100 scale), WOMAC Total Score (0"“100 scale), retreatment rate, and adverse events. Continuous outcomes were calculated as the weighted mean difference (WMD) versus baseline. Minimal clinically important difference (MCID) and substantial clinical benefit (SCB) rates were estimated in Monte Carlo simulations. Rates of total knee replacement and repeat GAE were calculated using life-table methods. Results: In 10 groups (9 studies; 270 patients; 339 knees), GAE technical success was 99.7%. Over 12 months, the WMD ranged from −34 to −39 at each follow-up for VAS score and −28 to −34 for WOMAC Total score (all p "‹< "‹0.001). At 12 months, 78% met the MCID for VAS score; 92% met the MCID for WOMAC Total score, and 78% met the SCB for WOMAC Total score. Higher baseline knee pain severity was associated with greater improvements in knee pain. Over 2 years, 5.2% of patients underwent total knee replacement and 8.3% received repeat GAE. Adverse events were minor, with transient skin discoloration as the most common (11.6%). Conclusions: Limited evidence suggests that GAE is a safe procedure that confers improvement in knee OA symptoms at established MCID thresholds. Patients with greater knee pain severity may be more responsive to GAE.
ISSN: 2665-9131
CID: 5549022

Deep Learning Reconstruction Enables Prospectively Accelerated Clinical Knee MRI

Johnson, Patricia M; Lin, Dana J; Zbontar, Jure; Zitnick, C Lawrence; Sriram, Anuroop; Muckley, Matthew; Babb, James S; Kline, Mitchell; Ciavarra, Gina; Alaia, Erin; Samim, Mohammad; Walter, William R; Calderon, Liz; Pock, Thomas; Sodickson, Daniel K; Recht, Michael P; Knoll, Florian
Background MRI is a powerful diagnostic tool with a long acquisition time. Recently, deep learning (DL) methods have provided accelerated high-quality image reconstructions from undersampled data, but it is unclear if DL image reconstruction can be reliably translated to everyday clinical practice. Purpose To determine the diagnostic equivalence of prospectively accelerated DL-reconstructed knee MRI compared with conventional accelerated MRI for evaluating internal derangement of the knee in a clinical setting. Materials and Methods A DL reconstruction model was trained with images from 298 clinical 3-T knee examinations. In a prospective analysis, patients clinically referred for knee MRI underwent a conventional accelerated knee MRI protocol at 3 T followed by an accelerated DL protocol between January 2020 and February 2021. The equivalence of the DL reconstruction of the images relative to the conventional images for the detection of an abnormality was assessed in terms of interchangeability. Each examination was reviewed by six musculoskeletal radiologists. Analyses pertaining to the detection of meniscal or ligament tears and bone marrow or cartilage abnormalities were based on four-point ordinal scores for the likelihood of an abnormality. Additionally, the protocols were compared with use of four-point ordinal scores for each aspect of image quality: overall image quality, presence of artifacts, sharpness, and signal-to-noise ratio. Results A total of 170 participants (mean age ± SD, 45 years ± 16; 76 men) were evaluated. The DL-reconstructed images were determined to be of diagnostic equivalence with the conventional images for detection of abnormalities. The overall image quality score, averaged over six readers, was significantly better (P < .001) for the DL than for the conventional images. Conclusion In a clinical setting, deep learning reconstruction enabled a nearly twofold reduction in scan time for a knee MRI and was diagnostically equivalent with the conventional protocol. © RSNA, 2023 Supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Roemer in this issue.
PMID: 36648347
ISSN: 1527-1315
CID: 5462122

Common treatment strategies for calcium hydroxyapatite deposition disease: a cost-effectiveness analysis

Alaia, Erin F.; Subhas, Naveen; Da Silva Cardoso, Madalena; Li, Zachary I.; Shah, Mehul R.; Alaia, Michael J.; Gyftopoulos, Soterios
Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of rotator cuff hydroxyapatite deposition disease (HADD) treatments. Method: A 1-year time horizon decision analytic model was created from the US healthcare system perspective for a 52-year-old female with shoulder HADD failing conservative management. The model evaluated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and net monetary benefit (NMB) of standard strategies, including conservative management, ultrasound-guided barbotage (UGB), high- and low-energy extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ECSW), and surgery. The primary effectiveness outcome was quality-adjusted life years (QALY). Costs were estimated in 2022 US dollars. The willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold was $100,000. Results: For the base case, UGB was the preferred strategy (0.9725 QALY, total cost, $2199.35, NMB, $95,048.45, and ICER, $33,992.99), with conservative management (0.9670 QALY, NMB $94,688.83) a reasonable alternative. High-energy ECSW (0.9837 QALY, NMB $94,805.72), though most effective, had an ICER of $121, 558.90, surpassing the WTP threshold. Surgery (0.9532 QALY, NMB $92,092.46) and low-energy ECSW (0.9287 QALY, NMB $87,881.20) were each dominated. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that high-energy ECSW would become the favored strategy when its cost was < $2905.66, and conservative management was favored when the cost was < $990.34. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis supported the base case results, with UGB preferred in 43% of simulations, high-energy ECSW in 36%, conservative management in 20%, and low-energy ECSW and surgery in < 1%. Conclusion: UGB appears to be the most cost-effective strategy for patients with HADD, while surgery and low-energy ECSW are the least cost-effective. Conservative management may be considered a reasonable alternative treatment strategy in the appropriate clinical setting.
ISSN: 0364-2348
CID: 5568602

Poorer functional Outcomes in Patients with Multi-Ligamentous Knee Injury with Concomitant Patellar Tendon Ruptures at 5 years Follow-Up

Mojica, Edward S; Bi, Andrew S; Vasavada, Kinjal; Moran, Jay; Buzin, Scott; Kahan, Joseph; Alaia, Erin F; Jazrawi, Laith M; Medvecky, Michael J; Alaia, Michael J
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Multi-ligamentous knee injuries (MLKIs) are high-energy injuries that may infrequently present with concomitant patellar tendon rupture. There is limited information in the literature regarding these rare presentations, with even less information regarding clinical outcomes. Using propensity-score matching, the purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of MLKIs with and without patellar tendon ruptures and to investigate the overall predictors of these outcomes. METHODS:Twelve patients who underwent surgical repair for combined MLKI and patellar tendon rupture from 2011 to 2020 with minimum 1-year follow-up data were identified from two separate institutions. Patients were propensity-score matched with a 1:1 ratio with controls based on age, body mass index (BMI), gender, and time from surgery. Patient-reported outcomes included International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Form, Lysholm and Tegner scores. RESULTS:Twelve MLKIs with concomitant patellar tendon injuries were identified out of a multicenter cohort of 237 (5%) patients sustaining MLKI and were case matched 1:1 with 12 MLKIs without extensor mechanism injuries. The average follow-up was 5.5 ± 2.6 years. There were no differences in Schenck Classification injury patterns. There were significant differences found across IKDC (Patellar Tendon mean: 53.1 ± 24.3, MLKI mean 79.3 ± 19.6, P < 0.001) and Lysholm scores (Patellar Tendon mean: 63.6 ± 22.3, MLKI mean 86.3 ± 10.7, P < 0.001) between the two, illustrating poorer outcomes for patients with concomitant patellar tendon ruptures. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In the setting of MLKI, patients who have a concomitant patellar tendon rupture have worse functional outcomes compared to those without. This information will be important for patient counseling and might be considered to be added to Schenck classification, reflecting its prognostic value. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level IV.
PMID: 36048200
ISSN: 1433-7347
CID: 5337792

Variability of MRI reporting in proximal hamstring avulsion injuries: Are musculoskeletal radiologists and orthopedic surgeons utilizing similar landmarks?

Bloom, David A; Gyftopoulos, Soterios; Alaia, Michael J; Youm, Thomas; Campbell, Kirk A; Alaia, Erin F
BACKGROUND:Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an integral component of the treatment algorithm for proximal hamstring avulsion injuries. OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to survey orthopedic surgeons and musculoskeletal radiologists on the reporting and analysis of proximal hamstring avulsions on MRI. METHODS:Two online surveys were developed to evaluate musculoskeletal radiologists' and orthopedic surgeons' perceptions of MRI-reporting for proximal hamstring avulsion injuries. Each survey was designed to provide information on physicians' best practices with respect to four primary questions (1) ischial tuberosity landmark determination (2) difficulties associated with measuring tendon retraction, (3) important ancillary findings, and (4) perceived clinical impact of measured retraction. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all categorical variables, which were reported as frequencies with percentages. Chi-squared test was utilized to compare rates of responses between surgeons and radiologists. Statistically significant differences were analyzed with post-hoc Fisher's exact tests; p < 0.05 considered statistically significant. RESULTS:218-Musculoskeletal radiologists and 33-orthopedic surgeons responded to their respective surveys. There were statistically significant differences with responses to two of the questions asked in both surveys; (1) in cases of complete hamstring avulsion (avulsion of both the semimembranosus and conjoint tendon), which arrow represents the tendon gap measurement used for planning surgery? p = 0.028; (2) in cases of avulsion of only the conjoint tendon, which arrow represents the tendon gap measurement used for planning surgery? p = 0.013. Post-hoc testing demonstrated that for either partial or complete hamstring avulsions, more surgeons use the conjoint tendon origin to measure tendon retraction than radiologists (p < 0.05 for both). Significantly more radiologists use the semimembranosus origin to measure hamstring retraction for partial or complete hamstring tears (p < 0.05 for both). However, for each of these questions, both radiologists and surgeons most frequently stated that the conjoint tendon landmark should be used for surgical planning. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Musculoskeletal radiologists and orthopedists frequently utilize the conjoint tendon origin as an anatomic landmark for measuring complete and partial proximal hamstring avulsion injuries; though, orthopedists are more likely to utilize this landmark. Additionally, the broad surface area of the ischial tuberosity may lead to variability in measurement. CLINICAL IMPACT/CONCLUSIONS:Standard landmarks at the ischial tuberosity and/or detailed descriptions of tendon retractions would improve communication between radiologists and surgeons for proximal hamstring avulsions.
PMID: 36375363
ISSN: 1873-4499
CID: 5365882

Relationship Between Peroneal Nerve and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Involvement in Multiligamentous Knee Injury: A Multicenter Study

Markus, Danielle H; Mojica, Edward S; Bi, Andrew; Kahan, Joseph B; Moran, Jay; Mannino, Brian J; Alaia, Erin F; Jazrawi, Laith M; Medvecky, Michael J; Alaia, Michael J
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Peroneal nerve injuries are rare injuries and usually associated with multiligamentous knee injuries (MLKIs) involving one or both cruciate ligaments. The purpose of our study was to perform a multicenter retrospective cohort analysis to examine the rates of peroneal nerve injuries and to see whether a peroneal nerve injury was suggestive of a particular injury pattern. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was conducted in patients who were diagnosed with MLKI at two level I trauma centers from January 2001 to March 2021. MLKIs were defined as complete injuries to two or more knee ligaments that required surgical reconstruction or repair. Peroneal nerve injury was clinically diagnosed in these patients by the attending orthopaedic surgeon. Radiographs, advanced imaging, and surgical characteristics were obtained through a chart review. RESULTS:Overall, 221 patients were included in this study. The mean age was 35.9 years, and 72.9% of the population was male. Overall, the incidence of clinical peroneal nerve injury was 19.5% (43 patients). One hundred percent of the patients with peroneal nerve injury had a posterolateral corner injury. Among patients with peroneal nerve injury, 95.3% had a complete anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture as compared with 4.7% of the patients who presented with an intact ACL. There was 4.4 times of greater relative risk of peroneal nerve injury in the MLKI with ACL tear group compared with the MLKI without an ACL tear group. No statistical difference was observed in age, sex, or body mass index between patients experiencing peroneal nerve injuries and those who did not. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The rate of ACL involvement in patients presenting with a traumatic peroneal nerve palsy is exceptionally high, whereas the chance of having a spared ACL is exceptionally low. More than 90% of the patients presenting with a nerve palsy will have sustained, at the least, an ACL and posterolateral corner injury. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:IV, Case Series.
PMID: 36326829
ISSN: 1940-5480
CID: 5356822