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Regional anesthesia for nonunion surgery with iliac crest bone grafting results in an increase in same day discharge

Littlefield, Connor P; Parola, Rown; Furgiuele, David; Konda, Sanjit; Egol, Kenneth A
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of fracture nonunion repair with autogenous iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) under regional anesthesia alone or in combination with other techniques compared to other anesthesia techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Overall, 137 patients were identified who underwent ICBG as part of a repair of a long bone fracture nonunion between January 1, 2013 and October 1, 2020. Surgical and anesthetic records were reviewed to classify patients by anesthesia type. General, spinal, and regional anesthetics were used as either the primary anesthetic or as a combination of regional nerve block with general or spinal anesthesia. RESULTS:Administration of regional anesthesia alone or in combination with general or spinal anesthesia (RA) and general or spinal anesthesia only (GS) groups differed in nonunion site distribution (p < 0.001). RA patients were discharged the same day more often than GS patients (30.9% vs 10.0%, p = 0.009) and experienced fewer postoperative complications (p = 0.021). The RA group achieved union sooner than the GS group (by 5.3 ± 3.2 months vs. by 6.8 ± 3.2 months, p = 0.006). Mean morphine equivalent dose was similar between groups (p = 0.23). Regional anesthesia use increased from 2013 to 2020, and same day discharge surgeries simultaneously increased over the same time period. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Regional anesthesia use increased in nonunion repair surgery with ICBG from 2013 to 2020. This was associated with an increase in same day discharge, sooner time to union, and decreased postoperative complications. There was not a need for increased opioid prescription in patients that underwent regional anesthesia.
PMID: 34410505
ISSN: 1633-8065
CID: 4995592

The role of patients' overall expectations of health on outcomes following proximal humerus fracture repair

Belayneh, Rebekah; Lott, Ariana; Haglin, Jack; Zuckerman, Joseph; Egol, Kenneth
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between patients' own health expectations and treatment outcomes following surgical repair of proximal humerus fractures. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVE:Patients' health expectations will correlate with treatment outcomes following surgical repair of proximal humerus fractures. MATERIAL AND METHODS/METHODS:Over a 14-year period, 247 patients with a displaced proximal humerus fracture who underwent ORIF with locking compression plates were prospectively followed at one academic institution. Minimum follow-up period was 12 months. Patient-reported functional outcome data for the latest follow up visit (12 months and greater) was obtained from Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaires. Survey responses regarding health expectations were recorded at 3-month follow-up and converted to dichotomous variables. Two groups were identified: the high expectations and the low expectations groups. Statistical analysis comparing the two groups and their functional and clinical outcomes was performed using the independent t-test, using p<0.05 for significance. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated to further statistically characterize the relationship between health expectations at 3 months and long-term outcomes. RESULTS:One hundred and eighty-five (75.0%) patients available for analysis with a mean follow-up length of 24.8 months. The cohort included 124 (67%) females and 61 (33%) males and the average age at time of injury was 59.5 years. Eighty-six (46.5%) patients had low expectations for their overall health and 99 (53.5%) patients had high expectations for their health. No significant differences were seen between groups in regards to age, gender, follow-up length, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), smoking and tobacco use, fracture pattern (OTA and Neer classifications), early complications (p>0.05), fracture healing, and avascular necrosis. The mean DASH score at the latest follow up for patients with low expectations was 31.42±22.8 whereas the mean for those with high expectations was 16.76±20.2 (p<0.0005). The mean forward flexion of the shoulder for patients with low expectations was 137.8±31.5 degrees as compared to 148.5±26.3 degrees (p<0.05). The positive predictive value of good expectations correlating with good outcomes was 71.7%. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients with high expectations for their health early following injury had better outcomes in the long term. These high expectations also appeared to have an optimal influence on range of shoulder motion. This data suggests attitudinal and psychological factors that affect patient health expectations early on in the course of treatment may also influence patients' functional and clinical outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:II; Retrospective Study.
PMID: 34389496
ISSN: 1877-0568
CID: 5010912

Outcomes of Patients with Nonunion following Open Tibial Shaft Fractures with or without Soft Tissue Coverage Procedures

Egol, Kenneth A; Littlefield, Connor P; Walden, Timothy; Leucht, Philipp; Levine, Jaime; Konda, Sanjit
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the outcomes of patients who underwent soft tissue flap coverage during treatment of a tibia fracture nonunion. DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective analysis on prospectively collected data. SETTING/METHODS:Academic medical center. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:157 patients were treated for a fracture nonunion following a tibia fracture over a 15-year period. Sixty-six had sustained an open tibial fracture initially and 25 of these patients underwent soft tissue flaps for their open tibia fracture nonunion. INTERVENTION/METHODS:Manipulation of soft tissue flaps, either placement or elevation for graft placement in ununited previously open tibial fractures. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS/METHODS:Bony healing, time to union, ultimate soft tissue status, postoperative complications, and functional outcome scores using the Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA). This group was compared to a group of open tibial fracture nonunions that did not undergo soft tissue transfer. RESULTS:Bony healing was achieved in 24/25 patients (96.0%) who received flaps at a mean time to union of 8.7 ± 3.3 months compared to 39/41 patients (95.1%) at a mean 7.5 ± 3.2 months (p > 0.05) in the non-coverage group. Healing rate and time to union did not differ between groups. At latest follow-up, the flap coverage group reported a mean SMFA index of 17.1 compared to an SMFA index of 27.7 for the non-coverage group (p = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS:Utilization of soft tissue flaps in the setting of open tibia shaft nonunion repair surgery are associated with a high union rate (>90%). Coverage with or manipulation of soft tissue flaps did not result in improved bony healing rate or time to union compared to those who did not require flaps. However, soft tissue flap coverage was associated with higher functional scores at long-term follow-up. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMID: 33252441
ISSN: 1531-2291
CID: 4693862

Shoulder Hemiarthroplasty for Proximal Humerus Fracture

Schultz, Blake J; Lowe, Dylan T; Egol, Kenneth A; Zuckerman, Joseph D
SUMMARY:There are a variety of treatment options available for proximal humerus fractures, including nonoperative management, open reduction internal fixation with screws, locking plates, intramedullary nailing, or suture fixation, and arthroplasty, including hemiarthroplasty and total shoulder replacements. Fracture characteristics, including the number of fracture parts and involvement of the humeral head and glenoid and the patient's functional status and postoperative goals help dictate the optimal choice. Although the indications for hemiarthroplasty as treatment for severe proximal humerus fractures have narrowed, the authors believe that there is a still a place for this technique in practice.
PMID: 34227587
ISSN: 1531-2291
CID: 4965152

Repair of Humeral Shaft Nonunion With Plate and Screw Fixation and Iliac Crest Bone Graft [Case Report]

Stevens, Nicole M; Schultz, Blake J; Lowe, Dylan T; Egol, Kenneth A
SUMMARY:A 58-year-old woman with a proximal 1/3 humeral shaft nonunion presented 2 years after initial injury. We present a technique for nonunion repair, including nonunion site preparation, direct compression of the fracture site using plate osteosynthesis, and iliac crest bone graft harvest and utilization. The purpose of this video is to review humeral shaft nonunion literature and describe our management technique.
PMID: 34227589
ISSN: 1531-2291
CID: 4965162

Treatment of a Chronic Elbow Dislocation With an Internal Fixator

Schultz, Blake J; Lowe, Dylan T; Pean, Christian A; Egol, Kenneth A
SUMMARY:There are a variety of ways to treat chronic elbow dislocations, including repeat closed reduction and immobilization, transarticular pinning, temporary bridge plating, hinged or rigid external fixation, and internal fixator application. Although each have distinct advantages and disadvantages, avoiding recurrent instability is critical. The internal-fixator is a relatively new option to maintain a stable, concentric reduction and facilitate early range of motion. This article and accompanying video describe the surgical technique of using an internal joint stabilizer for treatment of a chronically unstable ulnohumeral joint.
PMID: 34227592
ISSN: 1531-2291
CID: 4965172

Acute Distal Triceps Tendon Rupture Repair: Case Presentation and Surgical Technique [Case Report]

Luthringer, Tyler A; Lowe, Dylan T; Egol, Kenneth A
This case presentation and surgical technique demonstrates a complete distal triceps tendon rupture repair with single-row suture anchor fixation through a posterior midline approach to the elbow in a 17-year-old male rugby player. Key procedure points include complete triceps mobilization for adequate excursion to facilitate repair, identification of the ulnar nerve, isolation and sharp debridement of torn tissue to healthy tendon, thorough debridement of the olecranon reattachment site, suture construct, and order of fixation to optimize tendon-bone apposition.
PMID: 34227595
ISSN: 1531-2291
CID: 4965182

Staged Reconstruction of a Moore Type 4 Fracture Dislocation, Parts 1 and 2

Schultz, Blake J; Lowe, Dylan T; Pean, Christian A; Alaia, Michael J; Egol, Kenneth A
SUMMARY:High-energy tibial plateau fractures are associated with knee fracture dislocations and concomitant ligamentous injury. Both bony and ligamentous injuries can require surgical fixation, often requiring a multidisciplinary team and staged treatment. This article and accompanying video describe the workup and treatment of a Moore type 4 tibial plateau rim compression fracture with posterolateral corner and anterior cruciate ligament rupture that underwent open reduction internal fixation of the tibial plateau with posterolateral corner reconstruction and then staged anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with quad tendon autograft.
PMID: 34227606
ISSN: 1531-2291
CID: 5003752

Repair of proximal humerus fracture nonunions using a standardized treatment algorithm: a case series

Carlock, Kurtis D; Konda, Sanjit R; Bianco, Isabella R; Zuckerman, Joseph D; Egol, Kenneth A
BACKGROUND:Nonunion of fractures about the proximal humerus represents a rare and complex problem. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and functional outcomes following proximal humerus fracture (PHF) nonunion repair using a plate and screw construct with a direct comparison to those experienced following operative fixation of acute PHF using a plate and screw construct. METHODS:Two separate patient cohorts were included in this study. The first consisted of 16 patients diagnosed with a non-united PHF who underwent operative nonunion repair treated with a standard algorithmic approach. The comparison group consisted of 173 patients who achieved union following initial open reduction and internal fixation of an acute PHF treated with a proximal humerus locking plate construct. All patients had at least 12 months of postoperative follow-up. Outcomes were assessed for both groups using American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores, and postoperative shoulder range of motion (ROM). Statistical analyses were used to compare these outcome measures between the two cohorts. RESULTS:The nonunion repair cohort consisted of eleven surgical neck nonunions and five nonunions of both the surgical neck and greater tuberosity. Ten patients had undergone surgical treatment for their original fracture, while six were initially treated non-operatively. All patients had Boileau type 3 sequelae of their proximal humerus fracture. Union was achieved in all patients at a mean of 5.4 months following nonunion repair. Complications included hardware failure requiring revision in two patients (12.5%) and avascular necrosis requiring conversion to anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty following union in one patient (6.3%). The nonunion repair and acute fracture cohorts did not differ with respect to mean ASES scores, VAS pain scores, or active shoulder ROM at any postoperative time point. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Surgical repair of PHF nonunion is a viable treatment strategy that can lead to consistent bony healing with outcomes comparable to those of patients who achieve fracture union following initial surgical repair of an acute proximal humerus fracture. Surgeons should be cognizant of mechanical considerations that may lead to early failure.
PMID: 33417051
ISSN: 1633-8065
CID: 4771342

The Efficacy and Safety of Tranexamic Acid Treatment in Orthopaedic Trauma Surgery

Perskin, Cody R; Littlefield, Connor P; Wang, Charles; Umeh, Uchenna; Egol, Kenneth A
»:Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a drug used to control hemorrhage by preventing the breakdown of fibrin. »:TXA is a cost-effective treatment for trauma patients across a variety of economic settings. »:Concerns of TXA causing thromboembolic events (TEEs) in orthopaedic trauma patients are not supported by evidence. »:TXA has been shown to reduce blood loss in hip fracture surgery.
PMID: 34270510
ISSN: 2329-9185
CID: 5003872