Adenoviral Respiratory Infection-Associated Mortality in Children: A Retrospective Case Series
Viral respiratory infections are a leading cause of illness and hospitalization in young children worldwide. Case fatality rates in pediatric patients with adenoviral lower respiratory tract infection requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission have been reported between 7 and 22%. We investigated the demographics and clinical characteristics in pediatric mortalities associated with adenoviral respiratory infection at 12 academic children's hospitals in the United States. There were 107 mortality cases included in our study, 73% of which had a chronic medical condition. The most common chronic medical condition was immunocompromised state in 37 cases (35%). The incidences of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (78%) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (94%) were profound. Immunocompetent cases were more likely to receive mechanical ventilation within the first hour of ICU admission (60 vs. 14%, p â€‰<â€‰0.001) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (27 vs. 5%, p â€‰=â€‰0.009), and less likely to receive continuous renal replacement therapy (20 vs. 49%, p â€‰=â€‰0.002) or have renal dysfunction (54 vs. 78%, p â€‰=â€‰0.014) as compared with immunocompromised cases. Immunocompromised cases were more likely to have bacteremia (57 vs. 16%, p â€‰<â€‰0.001) and adenoviremia (51 vs. 17%, p â€‰<â€‰0.001) and be treated with antiviral medications (81 vs. 26%, p â€‰<â€‰0.001). We observed a high burden of nonrespiratory organ system dysfunction in a cohort of pediatric case fatalities with adenoviral respiratory infection. The majority of cases had a chronic medical condition associated with an increased risk of complications from viral respiratory illness, most notably immunocompromised state. Important treatment differences were noted between immunocompromised and immunocompetent cases.
Dexmedetomidine for Sedation During Pediatric Noninvasive Ventilation
BACKGROUND:Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) facilitates management of acute respiratory failure without intubation. Many pediatric patients cannot tolerate the discomfort associated with noninvasive support and require sedation with agents that may decrease respiratory drive. Dexmedetomidine does not decrease respiratory drive, and we hypothesized that its use would increase tolerance of noninvasive respiratory support without increasing risk for intubation. METHODS:A retrospective chart review was performed of all subjects at least 3 months of age with acute respiratory failure requiring NIV who were admitted to the pediatric ICU at a children's hospital for a 3-y period from 2015-2018. Subjects were stratified to those receiving continuous dexmedetomidine versus those not receiving sedation. Medical history was reviewed for developmental delay (DD) or intellectual disability (ID) as well as basic demographic information. To control the association between these variables with both dexmedetomidine use and intubation, augmented inverse probability weighting was utilized to establish equivalent baselines between the dexmedetomidine and no-sedation groups. Primary outcome was intubation rate within 6 h of initiation of dexmedetomidine infusion or NIV. RESULTS:Based on the strong association between age and dexmedetomidine use, a statistical model including subjects > age 5 was not able to be generated, and these subjects were excluded from final analysis. One-hundred eight subjects were included in the final statistical analysis, with 60 receiving dexmedetomidine and 48 receiving no sedation. Dexmedetomidine was effective at reducing agitation, with no difference noted in intubation rate at 6 h between subjects receiving dexmedetomidine versus no sedation (13.1 vs 12.4%). CONCLUSIONS:Dexmedetomidine may allow tolerance of NIV in acute respiratory failure without increasing risk for intubation, especially in preschool age patients and those with DD or ID. A larger study involving multiple centers would help support our conclusions.