Superolateral pedicle for breast surgery: an operation for all reasons
BACKGROUND:The evolution of procedures for reduction of breast volume and improvement of breast shape has been ongoing, based on the rich blood supply that has allowed a plethora of pedicle types. With particular consideration of the primary pattern of sensory innervation to the nipple-areola complex previously described, the authors have used the superolateral dermoparenchymal pedicle as a basis for surgery on a variety of presenting breast shapes. METHODS:This has been proven to be a versatile and effective technique for a wide array of breast morphologies with differing patterns of skin excision. The operative technique involves superior rotation of a superolaterally based dermoparenchymal pedicle, resulting in a "periwinkle" effect that provides desirable superior pole fullness and increased projection to the breast. RESULTS:More than 1500 breast procedures have been performed by the senior author (Strauch) during the past 15 years using the superolateral pedicle. Experience has demonstrated that the operation is safe, with total nipple-areola complex loss observed in only four cases. Long-term follow-up to 15 years has shown that the results are maintained well with time. CONCLUSIONS:The superolateral dermoparenchymal pedicle has fulfilled the goals of successful breast surgery. It is a safe and effective technique that has provided long-lasting results for patients. The design of the procedure can be adapted to a variety of skin excision patterns and breast morphologies.
National plastic surgery survey: brow lifting techniques and complications
The purpose of this survey was to assess trends in brow lifting philosophy, techniques, and complications. This is the second of a three-part survey; the first part reported on complications with face lift techniques, and the final report will address practice management issues, including facility and ancillary procedures. Surveys were sent to 3800 members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons; the response rate was 15 percent. This survey represents data on 6951 brow lifts, of which approximately 50 percent were performed endoscopically and 50 percent with a coronal incision. Several conclusions about the practice of the respondents were reached: (1) Both brow lift techniques were considered to be effective. (2) Surgeons considered coronal brow lifting to be more effective for the three basic goals of brow lifting: brow elevation, reduction of transverse lines, and reduction of glabellar lines. (3) Reported complication rates for both techniques were low, and the most frequent complication was alopecia (varying from 2.9 percent to 4 percent). (4) Patient satisfaction varied from 98.2 percent to 99.2 percent. (5) Major complications were rarely reported.
National plastic surgery survey: face lift techniques and complications
The purpose of this study was to assess trends in technique and philosophy of face lifting, associated procedures, and the incidence and management of complications. Surveys were sent to 3800 members of the American Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons (ASPRS); 570 surveys (15 percent) were returned. Numerous very specific technique and philosophy questions were asked. Details of demographics, techniques, incidence of complications, management of complications, and basic philosophy are presented. Three basic conclusions can be gleaned from this study: (1) Surgeons perform more tried and true methods of aesthetic surgery, rather than the many new methods that seem to get the most attention in the media and at the meetings. (2) It seems that less-experienced surgeons tend to be generally more conservative in their approach to aesthetic surgery. (3) Complication rates reported by the plastic surgery community at large coincide with previous complication rates, as outlined in other nonsurvey studies. The authors expect to report additional data from the survey--on brow surgery (part II) and facility and ancillary procedures (part III)--in forthcoming publications.