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New era of colorectal cancer screening

El Zoghbi, Maysaa; Cummings, Linda C
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 2(nd) most common cancer in women and 3(rd) most common cancer in men worldwide. Most CRCs develop from adenomatous polyps arising from glandular epithelium. Tumor growth is initiated by mutation of the tumor suppressor gene APC and involves other genetic mutations in a stepwise process over years. Both hereditary and environmental factors contribute to the development of CRC. Screening has been proven to reduce the incidence of CRC. Screening has also contributed to the decrease in CRC mortality in the United States. However, CRC incidence and/or mortality remain on the rise in some parts of the world (Eastern Europe, Asia, and South America), likely due to factors including westernized diet, lifestyle, and lack of healthcare infrastructure. Multiple screening options are available, ranging from direct radiologic or endoscopic visualization tests that primarily detect premalignant or malignant lesions such as flexible sigmoidoscopy, optical colonoscopy, colon capsule endoscopy, computed tomographic colonography, and double contrast barium enema - to stool based tests which primarily detect cancers, including fecal DNA, fecal immunochemical test, and fecal occult blood test. The availability of some of these tests is limited to areas with high economic resources. This article will discuss CRC epidemiology, pathogenesis, risk factors, and screening modalities with a particular focus on new technologies.
PMID: 26981176
ISSN: 1948-5190
CID: 5430052

TIPS as a Rescue Therapy for Budd-Chiari Syndrome in a Patient with Vascular Webs Who Failed Angioplasty and Stenting [Meeting Abstract]

El Zoghbi, Maysaa; Post, Anthony; Gholam, Pierre; Cohen, Stanley M.
ISSN: 0002-9270
CID: 5430172

Proton pump inhibitors impact on post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis [Letter]

Abdelfatah, Mohamed M; Nayfe, Rabih; El Zoghbi, Maysaa; Gallegos, Patrick; Shill, Martin; Kandil, Hossam
PMID: 25872136
ISSN: 1536-4828
CID: 5430042

Low vitamin D level and impact on severity and recurrence of Clostridium difficile infections

Abdelfatah, Mohamed; Nayfe, Rabih; Moftakhar, Bahar; Nijim, Ala; El Zoghbi, Maysaa; Donskey, Curtis J; Kandil, Hossam; Watkins, Richard R
BACKGROUND:Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has recently markedly increased, incurring greater health care-associated costs and hospitalizations especially in vitamin D deficient patients. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between low vitamin D levels and the severity and recurrence of CDI. METHODS:A retrospective case-control study evaluated patients hospitalized between 2007 and 2013 with CDI and a positive C. difficile toxin assay. Severe complicated CDI was defined based on (1) laboratory or radiological criteria correlated clinically and (2) sepsis requiring intensive care unit admission. Recurrent CDI (RCDI) was defined as a new episode of diarrhea occurring within 90 days of resolution of the initial episode for at least 10 days after discontinuing therapy and confirmed by positive stool C. difficile toxin assay or polymerase chain reaction. Patients were divided into 4 groups based on vitamin D level (ng/mL): severely deficient (<10), insufficient (10-19.9), predeficient (20-29.9), and control group (≥30). RESULTS:Two hundred seventy-one patients were diagnosed with CDI, of which 48 had RCDI distributed as 5 (12.5%), 15 (16.1%), 10 (15.6%), and 13 (17.5%) patients in each of the aforementioned groups, respectively (P=0.55). Severe complicated CDI was identified in 7 (17.5%), 17 (18.2%), 9 (14%), and 3 (4%) patients, respectively (P=0.04). Thirty-day mortality was 1 of 40, 1 of 93, 2 of 64, and 2 of 74 patients, respectively (P=0.43). CONCLUSIONS:Normal vitamin D level has a protective effect against severe CDI, and low vitamin D is associated with greater severity of CDI but not with an increased risk of RCDI or 30-day mortality.
PMID: 25479065
ISSN: 1708-8267
CID: 5430032

Temporal Trends in Using Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) vs Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) Under Medicare [Meeting Abstract]

El Zoghbi, Maysaa; Kou, Tzuyung D.; Cooper, Gregory S.
ISSN: 0016-5085
CID: 5430152

Intravenous Antibiotics Impact on Post-ERCP Pancreatitis [Meeting Abstract]

Abdelfatah, Mohamed; Enriquez, Kathleen; El Zoghbi, Maysaa; Shill, Martin; Kandil, Hossam
ISSN: 0002-9270
CID: 5430092

Socioeconomic (SE) and Seasonal Sifferences (SD) as a Risk of C. difficile Infection (CDI) [Meeting Abstract]

Abdelfatah, Mohamed; El Zoghbi, Maysaa; Enriquez, Kathleen; Nayfe, Rabih; Nijim, Ala; Watkins, Richard; Kandil, Hossam
ISSN: 0002-9270
CID: 5430102

Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease [Meeting Abstract]

Abdelfatah, Mohamed; Nijim, Ala; Nayfe, Rabih; Enriquez, Kathleen; Khouri, Jamil; El Zoghbi, Maysaa; Watkins, Richard; Kandil, Hossam
ISSN: 0002-9270
CID: 5430112

The Effect of Statins on the Risk of Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection [Meeting Abstract]

Abdelfatah, Mohamed; Nayfe, Rabih; Enriquez, Kathleen; Nijim, Ala; El Zoghbi, Maysaa; Watkins, Richard
ISSN: 0002-9270
CID: 5430122

Antidepressant Medications and Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection [Meeting Abstract]

Abdelfatah, Mohamed; Nayfe, Rabih; Enriquez, Kathleen; Nijim, Ala; El Zoghbi, Maysaa; Watkins, Richard
ISSN: 0002-9270
CID: 5430132