A Tool to Integrate Electrophysiological Mapping for Cardiac Radioablation of Ventricular Tachycardia
Purpose: Cardiac radioablation is an emerging therapy for recurrent ventricular tachycardia. Electrophysiology (EP) data, including electroanatomic maps (EAM) and electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI), provide crucial information for defining the arrhythmogenic target volume. The absence of standardized workflows and software tools to integrate the EP maps into a radiation planning system limits their use. This study developed a comprehensive software tool to enable efficient utilization of the mapping for cardiac radioablation treatment planning. Methods and Materials: The tool, HeaRTmap, is a Python-scripted plug-in module on the open-source 3D Slicer software platform. HeaRTmap is able to import EAM and ECGI data and visualize the maps in 3D Slicer. The EAM is translated into a 3D space by registration with cardiac magnetic resonance images (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). After the scar area is outlined on the mapping surface, the tool extracts and extends the annotated patch into a closed surface and converts it into a structure set associated with the anatomic images. The tool then exports the structure set and the images as The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine Standard in Radiotherapy for a radiation treatment planning system to import. Overlapping the scar structure on simulation CT, a transmural target volume is delineated for treatment planning. Results: The tool has been used to transfer Ensite NavX EAM data into the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system in radioablation on 2 patients with ventricular tachycardia. The ECGI data from CardioInsight was retrospectively evaluated using the tool to derive the target volume for a patient with left ventricular assist device, showing volumetric matching with the clinically used target with a Dice coefficient of 0.71. Conclusions: HeaRTmap smoothly fuses EP information from different mapping systems with simulation CT for accurate definition of radiation target volume. The efficient integration of EP data into treatment planning potentially facilitates the study and adoption of the technique.
A Prospective Evaluation of Infant Cerebellar-Cerebral Functional Connectivity in Relation to Behavioral Development in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed based on social impairment, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviors. Contemporary theories posit that cerebellar pathology contributes causally to ASD by disrupting error-based learning (EBL) during infancy. The present study represents the first test of this theory in a prospective infant sample, with potential implications for ASD detection.
Method(s): Data from the Infant Brain Imaging Study (n = 94, 68 male) were used to examine 6-month cerebellar functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging in relation to later (12/24-month) ASD-associated behaviors and outcomes. Hypothesis-driven univariate analyses and machine learning-based predictive tests examined cerebellar-frontoparietal network (FPN; subserves error signaling in support of EBL) and cerebellar-default mode network (DMN; broadly implicated in ASD) connections. Cerebellar-FPN functional connectivity was used as a proxy for EBL, and cerebellar-DMN functional connectivity provided a comparative foil. Data-driven functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging enrichment examined brain-wide behavioral associations, with post hoc tests of cerebellar connections.
Result(s): Cerebellar-FPN and cerebellar-DMN connections did not demonstrate associations with ASD. Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging enrichment identified 6-month correlates of later ASD-associated behaviors in networks of a priori interest (FPN, DMN), as well as in cingulo-opercular (also implicated in error signaling) and medial visual networks. Post hoc tests did not suggest a role for cerebellar connections.
Conclusion(s): We failed to identify cerebellar functional connectivity-based contributions to ASD. However, we observed prospective correlates of ASD-associated behaviors in networks that support EBL. Future studies may replicate and extend network-level positive results, and tests of the cerebellum may investigate brain-behavior associations at different developmental stages and/or using different neuroimaging modalities.
A Tool to Integrate Electrophysiological Mapping for Cardiac Radioablation of Ventricular Tachycardia
PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:Cardiac radioablation is an emerging therapy for recurrent ventricular tachycardia. Electrophysiology (EP) data, including electroanatomic maps (EAM) and electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI), provide crucial information for defining the arrhythmogenic target volume. The absence of standardized workflows and software tools to integrate the EP maps into a radiation planning system limits their use. This study developed a comprehensive software tool to enable efficient utilization of the mapping for cardiac radioablation treatment planning. METHODS AND MATERIALS/UNASSIGNED:After the scar area is outlined on the mapping surface, the tool extracts and extends the annotated patch into a closed surface and converts it into a structure set associated with the anatomic images. The tool then exports the structure set and the images as The Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine Standard in Radiotherapy for a radiation treatment planning system to import. Overlapping the scar structure on simulation CT, a transmural target volume is delineated for treatment planning. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:The tool has been used to transfer Ensite NavX EAM data into the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system in radioablation on 2 patients with ventricular tachycardia. The ECGI data from CardioInsight was retrospectively evaluated using the tool to derive the target volume for a patient with left ventricular assist device, showing volumetric matching with the clinically used target with a Dice coefficient of 0.71. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:HeaRTmap smoothly fuses EP information from different mapping systems with simulation CT for accurate definition of radiation target volume. The efficient integration of EP data into treatment planning potentially facilitates the study and adoption of the technique.
Stereotactic body radiation therapy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer in men with underlying inflammatory bowel disease
BACKGROUND:Historically, IBD has been thought to increase the underlying risk of radiation related toxicity in the treatment of prostate cancer. In the modern era, contemporary radiation planning and delivery may mitigate radiation-related toxicity in this theoretically high-risk cohort. This is the first manuscript to report clinical outcomes for men diagnosed with prostate cancer and underlying IBD curatively treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). METHODS:A large institutional database of patients (nâ€‰=â€‰4245) treated with SBRT for adenocarcinoma of the prostate was interrogated to identify patients who were diagnosed with underlying IBD prior to treatment. All patients were treated with SBRT over five treatment fractions using a robotic radiosurgical platform and fiducial tracking. Baseline IBD characteristics including IBD subtype, pre-SBRT IBD medications, and EPIC bowel questionnaires were reviewed for the IBD cohort. Acute and late toxicity was evaluated using the CTCAE version 5.0. RESULTS:A total of 31 patients were identified who had underlying IBD prior to SBRT for the curative treatment of prostate cancer. The majority (nâ€‰=â€‰18) were diagnosed with ulcerative colitis and were being treatedÂ with local steroid suppositories for IBD. No biochemical relapses were observed in the IBD cohort with early follow up. High-grade acute and late toxicities were rare (nâ€‰=â€‰1, grade 3 proctitis) with a median time to any GI toxicity of 22Â months. Hemorrhoidal flare was the most common low-grade toxicity observed (nâ€‰=â€‰3). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:To date, this is one of the largest groups of patients with IBD treated safely and effectively with radiation for prostate cancer and the only review of patients treated with SBRT. Caution is warranted when delivering therapeutic radiation to patients with IBD, however modern radiation techniques appear to have mitigated the risk of GI side effects.
The 2019 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Grading of Prostatic Carcinoma
Five years after the last prostatic carcinoma grading consensus conference of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP), accrual of new data and modification of clinical practice require an update of current pathologic grading guidelines. This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the ISUP consensus meeting for grading of prostatic carcinoma held in September 2019, in Nice, France. Topics brought to consensus included the following: (1) approaches to reporting of Gleason patterns 4 and 5 quantities, and minor/tertiary patterns, (2) an agreement to report the presence of invasive cribriform carcinoma, (3) an agreement to incorporate intraductal carcinoma into grading, and (4) individual versus aggregate grading of systematic and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging-targeted biopsies. Finally, developments in the field of artificial intelligence in the grading of prostatic carcinoma and future research perspectives were discussed.
Changes in expression of hormone-regulated and proliferation-associated genes across the menstrual cycle in oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer [Meeting Abstract]
Introduction: Differences in the expression of estrogen-regulated genes (ERG), and proliferation-associated genes (PAG) have been shown in ER+ tumours as a result of the major changes in hormone levels during the menstrual cycle. Here, we extend that observation in a prospective study.
Aim(s): To determine if there are changes in the expression of ERGs, PAGs and progesterone-regulated genes (PRG) in ER+ breast cancer during the menstrual cycle.
Method(s): Paired tumour samples from 96 patients in two independent prospective studies were used. Tumours were assigned to one of three pre-defined menstrual cycle windows: W1 (days 27-35 and 1-6; low E2 and low progesterone), W2 (days 7-16; high E2 and low progesterone) and W3 (days 17-26; intermediate E2 and high progesterone) based on plasma hormone measurements. RNA expression of 50 genes, including 27 ERGs, 11 PRGs and seven PAGs was measured.
Result(s): The AvERG, a composite measure of ERG expression, showed significant changes between the individual windows (Kruskal- Wallis (KW) P = 0.0002), increasing between W1 and W2 (fold change (FC) 2.2) and decreasing between W2 and W3 (FC 0.62) and between W3 and W1 (FC 0.58). PAG expression also changed significantly (KW P = 0.012), but to a lesser extent. Significant changes in the expression of eight individual ERGs, including GREB1, PGR and TFF1, and two PAGs were observed between W1 and either W2 or W3 with all genes showing higher levels in W2 or W3 (FC 1.3-2.4; FDR 0.016-0.05). Mean protein levels of PgR increased between W1 and W2 or W3 (+18.3%; FDR 0.024). The AvProg, a composite measure of PRG expression, increased significantly (FC 1.5, Spearman P = 0.026) in W3 compared to W1 or W2.
Conclusion(s): Significant changes in ERG, PRG and PAG expression in ER+ breast tumours occur during the menstrual cycle that may affect the assessment and interpretation of prominent biomarkers
Dataset for the reporting of carcinoma of renal tubular origin: recommendations from the International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR)
AIMS/OBJECTIVE:The International Collaboration on Cancer Reporting (ICCR) has provided detailed datasets based upon the published reporting protocols of the Royal College of Pathologists, The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia and the College of American Pathologists. METHODS AND RESULTS/RESULTS:The dataset for carcinomas of renal tubular origin treated by nephrectomy was developed to provide a minimum structured reporting template suitable for international use and incorporated recommendations from the 2012 Vancouver Consensus Conference of the International Society of Urological Pathology and the fourth edition of the World Health Organization Bluebook on tumours of the urinary and male genital systems published in 2016. Reporting elements were divided into those, which are Required and Recommended components of the report. Required elements are; specimen laterality, operative procedure, attached structures, tumour focality, tumour dimension, tumour type, WHO/ISUP grade, sarcomatoid/rhabdoid morphology, tumour necrosis, extent of invasion, lymph node status, surgical margin status, AJCC TNM staging and co-existing pathology. Recommended reporting elements are; pre-operative treatment, details of tissue removed for experimental purposes prior to submission, site of tumour(s) block identification key, extent of sarcomatoid and/or rhabdoid component, extent of necrosis, presence of tumour in renal vein wall, lymphovascular invasion and lymph node status (size of largest focus and extranodal extension). CONCLUSIONS:It is anticipated that the implementation of this dataset in routine clinical practise will inform patient treatment as well as provide standardized information relating to outcome prediction. The harmonisation of data reporting should also facilitate international research collaborations.
Statin use and time to progression in men on active surveillance for prostate cancer
PURPOSE:Recent evidence suggests that statins may improve prostate cancer outcomes; however, their role in active surveillance (AS) is poorly characterized. We aimed to evaluate the association between statin use at diagnosis and time to progression on AS. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Data were obtained from a prospectively maintained cohort of men undergoing AS between 1995 and 2016 at our institution. All men satisfied the low-risk criteria: Gleason score <7, <4 positive cores, <50% involvement of any core, and prostate-specific antigen level <10.0â€‰ng/dL. Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable Cox proportional hazards were used to assess statin exposure at diagnosis and at time to pathological progression (failing to meet the low-risk criteria at biopsy) and therapeutic progression (first of pathological progression or initiation of definitive therapy). Reclassification at confirmatory biopsy (first postdiagnostic biopsy) and progression beyond confirmatory biopsy were evaluated independently. RESULTS:Low-risk criteria were met by 797 men. Reclassification at the confirmatory biopsy occurred in 194 (24%) men, 51 (26%) of whom were statin users. Statin use was not associated with reclassification at confirmatory biopsy (odds ratio (OR): 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.77-1.99). Among the remaining 603 men (median age: 63 years; follow-up: 60 months; 23% statin users), 149 (24%) had pathologic progression, while 200 (33%) had therapeutic progression. Statin exposure was not associated with pathological (multivariable hazard ratio (HR) 0.79, 95% CI: 0.51-1.23) or therapeutic (multivariable-HR 0.81, 95% CI: 0.55-1.19) progression beyond the confirmatory biopsy. Sensitivity analyses did not alter conclusions. CONCLUSIONS:In our study, statin use at diagnosis was not significantly protective against pathological or therapeutic progression in men undergoing AS for localized, low-risk prostate cancer.
Integrated Phenotypic/Genotypic Analysis of Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Subtypes: Identification of Prognostic Markers, Cancer-related Pathways, and Implications for Therapy
BACKGROUND:Two histologic subtypes are recognized for papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC). Studies have shown that the subtypes differ in characteristic genetic alterations and clinical behavior. Clinically, the subtypes are managed similarly. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To analyze the biological differences between the two PRCC histological subtypes, in order to further guide their clinical management. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:PRCC cohort consisting of 317 patients from the Cancer Genome Atlas database and our institution. Patients were stratified according to histologic criteria as type 1, type 2, or not otherwise specified (NOS). Gene and miRNA expression data for the cohort were examined via unsupervised and supervised clustering. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS/UNASSIGNED:Significant molecular signatures for each subtype were used to unravel the implicated molecular pathways via bioinformatics analysis. Survival was compared between the subtypes. Newly discovered biomarkers were used to further stratify survival of patients in the NOS category. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:Tumor genotyping revealed two distinct PRCC subtypes. The top molecular pathways enriched in PRCC1 were WNT, Hedgehog, and Notch signaling (p=0.001-0.01); highlighting an embryonic developmental theme to the pathogenesis of this subtype. PRCC2 showed enrichment in the mTOR, VEGF (p=7.49E-09) and HIF (p=7.63E-05) signaling pathways. Overall survival and disease-free survival significantly differed between the types. ABCC2 expression was identified as a significant prognostic biomarker for the NOS group in univariate (log rank p<0.0001; hazard ratio [HR] >11.63) and multivariate analysis (p=0.003; HR >2.12). ABCC2 expression and its effect on survival should be further validated at the protein level. CONCLUSIONS:The classical PRCC types 1 and 2 have two distinct genotypes. We unraveled pathways that indicate that the two types could potentially respond differently to current therapies. We also identified biomarkers that stratify tumors within the PRCC NOS category into prognostic subgroups. Our findings highlight the need for molecular markers to accurately subtype PRCC and guide clinical management. PATIENT SUMMARY/UNASSIGNED:The two types of papillary renal cancer are treated similarly. We show that the two types have a different genetic makeup, and hence they should be considered two different tumors. There is a different biology underlying each tumor type that can potentially affect the way they respond to treatment. We uncovered genes that can be tested for to guide therapy in some problematic cases for which it hard to define the tumor type.
Utility of Pathology Imagebase for standardisation of prostate cancer grading
AIMS/OBJECTIVE:Despite efforts to standardise grading of prostate cancer, even among experts there is still a considerable variation in grading practices. In this study we describe the use of Pathology Imagebase, a novel reference image library, for setting an international standard in prostate cancer grading. METHODS AND RESULTS/RESULTS:The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) recently launched a reference image database supervised by experts. A panel of 24 international experts in prostate pathology reviewed independently microphotographs of 90 cases of prostate needle biopsies with cancer. A linear weighted kappa of 0.67 (95% confidence interval = 0.62-0.72) and consensus was reached in 50 cases. The interobserver weighted kappa varied from 0.48 to 0.89. The highest level of agreement was seen for Gleason score (GS) 3 + 3 = 6 (ISUP grade 1), while higher grades and particularly GS 4 + 3 = 7 (ISUP grade 3) showed considerable disagreement. Once a two-thirds majority was reached, images were moved automatically into a public database available for all ISUP members at www.isupweb.org. Non-members are able to access a limited number of cases. CONCLUSIONS:It is anticipated that the database will assist pathologists to calibrate their grading and, hence, decrease interobserver variability. It will also help to identify instances where definitions of grades need to be clarified.