Novel Modality for Neck Rejuvenation: A Prospective Multicenter Trial of Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of the Cervical Branch of the Facial Nerve
BACKGROUND:Neck rejuvenation offers few modalities of treatments limited to either invasive plastic surgery or temporary neuromodulation using botulinum toxin. OBJECTIVE:To access the efficacy, longevity, and safety of percutaneous monopolar radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the cervical branch of the facial nerve innervating the platysma for neck rejuvenation. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:This prospective, multicenter trial enrolled 19 adult patients with noticeable platysmal banding at 2 different centers. All patients underwent RF ablation on the cervical branch of the facial nerve. Response was assessed immediately after treatment and then at 1, 4, 12, and 24 weeks after the procedure using photography. Masked investigators compared baseline photography and follow-up intervals to evaluate the results. RESULTS:Seventeen of the 18 patients had improvement in the platysmal banding. One patient was disqualified after ablation. Long-term sequalae such as scarring, burns, ulceration, hypopigmentation, or hyperpigmentation were not reported. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The results of this multicenter study support that RF ablation of the cervical branch of the facial nerve is a novel technique that results in improvement of platysmal banding. This technique is an emerging alternative, nonsurgical option for neck rejuvenation that is relatively safe, with little downtime for the patient.
A review of common tanning methods
Tanning in the United States has become an increasingly popular activity in our culture. Tanning methods have evolved through the years to become more readily accessible and easier to use for all consumers, regardless of geographic location. With the rising incidence of skin cancer, the demand for safe and efficient tanning methods remains high. There are currently many different tanning methods being utilized, and still more are being researched. This article serves to summarize some of the most common tarining methods used in the United States today as well as some potential methods currently under study.
Overview of skin diseases linked to connexin gene mutations
Mutations in skin-expressed connexin genes, such as connexins 26, 30, 30.3, 31, and 43, have been linked to several human hereditary diseases with multiple organ involvement. Mutations in connexin 26 are linked to diseases including Vohwinkel syndrome, keratitis-ichthyosis deafness, and hystrix-like ichthyosis deafness syndromes, palmoplantar keratoderma with deafness, deafness with Clouston-like phenotype, and Bart-Pumphrey syndrome. Mutations in connexin 30 are correlated with Clouston syndrome. Connexin 30.3 and 31 mutations lead to erythrokeratoderma variabilis, and mutations in connexin 43 are correlated with oculodentodigital dysplasia. Provided is a review of these mutations and related skin disorders.
A review and update on melanocyte stimulating hormone therapy: afamelanotide
Afamelanotide ([Nle4-D-Phe7]-alpha-MSH) is an analog of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone given as a subcutaneous injection. Afamelanotide is currently undergoing phase II and III trials in Europe and the US for skin diseases including vitiligo, erythropoietic protoporphyria, polymorphic light eruption and prevention of actinic keratoses in organ transplant recipients. Unregulated analogs and chemicals are being sold online ahead of formal approval. A number of counterfeit chemicals, 'Melanotans' are being sold for tanning purposes. Currently, afamelanotide is already on the market in Italy and Switzerland for patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria. This paper will review the current literature on this promising compound.