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Management of Discharge Instructions for Children With Medical Complexity: A Systematic Review

Glick, Alexander F; Farkas, Jonathan S; Magro, Juliana; Shah, Aashish V; Taye, Mahdi; Zavodovsky, Volmir; Rodriguez, Rachel Hughes; Modi, Avani C; Dreyer, Benard P; Famiglietti, Hannah; Yin, H Shonna
CONTEXT/BACKGROUND:Children with medical complexity (CMC) are at risk for adverse outcomes after discharge. Difficulties with comprehension of and adherence to discharge instructions contribute to these errors. Comprehensive reviews of patient-, caregiver-, provider-, and system-level characteristics and interventions associated with discharge instruction comprehension and adherence for CMC are lacking. OBJECTIVE:To systematically review the literature related to factors associated with comprehension of and adherence to discharge instructions for CMC. DATA SOURCES/METHODS:PubMed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycInfo, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science (database initiation until March 2023), and OAIster (gray literature) were searched. STUDY SELECTION/METHODS:Original studies examining caregiver comprehension of and adherence to discharge instructions for CMC (Patient Medical Complexity Algorithm) were evaluated. DATA EXTRACTION/METHODS:Two authors independently screened titles/abstracts and reviewed full-text articles. Two authors extracted data related to study characteristics, methodology, subjects, and results. RESULTS:Fifty-one studies were included. More than half were qualitative or mixed methods studies. Few interventional studies examined objective outcomes. More than half of studies examined instructions for equipment (eg, tracheostomies). Common issues related to access, care coordination, and stress/anxiety. Facilitators included accounting for family context and using health literacy-informed strategies. LIMITATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:No randomized trials met inclusion criteria. Several groups (eg, oncologic diagnoses, NICU patients) were not examined in this review. CONCLUSIONS:Multiple factors affect comprehension of and adherence to discharge instructions for CMC. Several areas (eg, appointments, feeding tubes) were understudied. Future work should focus on design of interventions to optimize transitions.
PMID: 37846504
ISSN: 1098-4275
CID: 5605632

Creating Culturally Adapted Multilingual Materials for Research

Coffin, Alyssa; Elder, Brynn; Luercio, Marcella; Ahuja, Namrata; Barber, Rebecca; DeCamp, Lisa Ross; Encalada, Karen; Fan, Angela L; Farkas, Jonathan S; Jain, Pia; Johnson, Tyler M; Mallick, Nandini; Wilder, Jayme L; Yang, Tracy J; Yin, H Shonna; Lion, K Casey; Khan, Alisa
Patients who speak languages other than English are frequently excluded from research. This exclusion exacerbates inequities, biases results, and may violate federal regulations and research ethics. Language justice is the right to communicate in an individual's preferred language to address power imbalances and promote equity. To promote language justice in research, we propose a method to translate and culturally-adapt multifaceted research materials into multiple languages simultaneously. Our method involves a multistep approach, including professional translation, review by bilingual expert panels to refine and reach consensus, and piloting or cognitive interviews with patients and families. Key differences from other translation approaches (eg, the World Health Organization) include omitting back-translation, given its limited utility in identifying translation challenges, and limiting expert panelist and piloting-participant numbers for feasibility. We detail a step-by-step approach to operationalizing this method and outline key considerations learned after utilizing this method to translate materials into 8 languages other than English for an ongoing multicenter pediatric research study on family safety-reporting. Materials included family brochures, surveys, and intervention materials. This approach took ∼6 months overall at a cost of <$2000 per language (not including study personnel costs). Key themes across the project included (1) tailor scope to timeline, budget, and resources, (2) thoughtfully design English source materials, (3) identify and apply guiding principles throughout the translation and editing process, and (4) carefully review content and formatting to account for nuances across multiple languages. This method balances feasibility and rigor in translating participant-facing materials into multiple languages simultaneously, advancing language justice in research.
PMID: 38860305
ISSN: 1098-4275
CID: 5668922

Outcomes of Maternal-Newborn Dyads After Maternal SARS-CoV-2

Verma, Sourabh; Bradshaw, Chanda; Auyeung, N S Freda; Lumba, Rishi; Farkas, Jonathan S; Sweeney, Nicole B; Wachtel, Elena V; Bailey, Sean M; Noor, Asif; Kunjumon, Bgee; Cicalese, Erin; Hate, Rahul; Lighter, Jennifer L; Alessi, Samantha; Schweizer, William E; Hanna, Nazeeh; Roman, Ashley S; Dreyer, Benard; Mally, Pradeep V
PMID: 32737153
ISSN: 1098-4275
CID: 4553402

Pediatrician perspectives on barriers and facilitators to discharge instruction comprehension and adherence for parents of children with medical complexity

Glick, Alexander F; Yin, H Shonna; Silva, Benjamin; Modi, Avani C; Huynh, Vincent; Goodwin, Emily J; Farkas, Jonathan S; Turock, Julia S; Famiglietti, Hannah S; Dickson, Victoria V
BACKGROUND:High rates of posthospitalization errors are observed in children with medical complexity (CMC). Poor parent comprehension of and adherence to complex discharge instructions can contribute to errors. Pediatrician views on common barriers and facilitators to parent comprehension and adherence are understudied. OBJECTIVE:To examine pediatrician perspectives on barriers and facilitators experienced by parents in comprehension of and adherence to inpatient discharge instructions for CMC. DESIGN, SETTINGS, AND PARTICIPANTS/METHODS:We conducted a qualitative, descriptive study of attending pediatricians (n = 20) caring for CMC in inpatient settings (United States and Canada) and belonging to listservs for pediatric hospitalists/complex care providers. We used purposive/maximum variation sampling to ensure heterogeneity (e.g., hospital, region). MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES/METHODS:A multidisciplinary team designed and piloted a semistructured interview guide with pediatricians who care for CMC. Team members conducted semistructured interviews via phone or video call. Interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed. We analyzed transcripts using content analysis; codes were derived a priori from a conceptual framework (based on the Pediatric Self-Management Model) and a preliminary transcript analysis. We applied codes and identified emerging themes. RESULTS:Pediatricians identified three themes as barriers and facilitators to discharge instruction comprehension and adherence: (1) regimen complexity, (2) access to the healthcare team (e.g., inpatient team, outpatient pediatrician, home nursing) and resources (e.g., medications, medical equipment), and (3) need for a family centered and health literacy-informed approach to discharge planning and education. Next steps include the assessment of parent perspectives on barriers and facilitators to discharge instruction comprehension and adherence for prents of CMC and the development of intervention strategies.
PMID: 38445808
ISSN: 1553-5606
CID: 5670152

COVID-19 Reinfection and Disease Severity in the New York City Health + Hospitals System [Case Report]

Smolen, Jennyn R; Filardo, Thomas D; George, A; Bhuiyan, S; Kalava, S; Shahin, N; Farkas, J; Mantis, J; Saliaj, M; Mukherjee, V; Salama, C; Eckhardt, B; Cohen, G
ISSN: 2328-8957
CID: 5670162

Implementing a Family-Centered Rounds Intervention Using Novel Mentor-Trios

Khan, Alisa; Patel, Shilpa J; Anderson, Michele; Baird, Jennifer D; Johnson, Tyler M; Liss, Isabella; Graham, Dionne A; Calaman, Sharon; Fegley, April E; Goldstein, Jenna; O'Toole, Jennifer K; Rosenbluth, Glenn; Alminde, Claire; Bass, Ellen J; Bismilla, Zia; Caruth, Monique; Coghlan-McDonald, Sally; Cray, Sharon; Destino, Lauren A; Dreyer, Benard P; Everhart, Jennifer L; Good, Brian P; Guiot, Amy B; Haskell, Helen; Hepps, Jennifer H; Knighton, Andrew J; Kocolas, Irene; Kuzma, Nicholas C; Lewis, Kheyandra; Litterer, Katherine P; Kruvand, Elizabeth; Markle, Peggy; Micalizzi, Dale A; Patel, Aarti; Rogers, Jayne E; Subramony, Anupama; Vara, Tiffany; Yin, H Shonna; Sectish, Theodore C; Srivastava, Rajendu; Starmer, Amy J; West, Daniel C; Spector, Nancy D; Landrigan, Christopher P; ,
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Patient and Family Centered I-PASS (PFC I-PASS) emphasizes family and nurse engagement, health literacy, and structured communication on family-centered rounds organized around the I-PASS framework (Illness severity-Patient summary-Action items-Situational awareness-Synthesis by receiver). We assessed adherence, safety, and experience after implementing PFC I-PASS using a novel "Mentor-Trio" implementation approach with multidisciplinary parent-nurse-physician teams coaching sites. METHODS:Hybrid Type II effectiveness-implementation study from 2/29/19-3/13/22 with ≥3 months of baseline and 12 months of postimplementation data collection/site across 21 US community and tertiary pediatric teaching hospitals. We conducted rounds observations and surveyed nurses, physicians, and Arabic/Chinese/English/Spanish-speaking patients/parents. RESULTS:We conducted 4557 rounds observations and received 2285 patient/family, 1240 resident, 819 nurse, and 378 attending surveys. Adherence to all I-PASS components, bedside rounding, written rounds summaries, family and nurse engagement, and plain language improved post-implementation (13.0%-60.8% absolute increase by item), all P < .05. Except for written summary, improvements sustained 12 months post-implementation. Resident-reported harms/1000-resident-days were unchanged overall but decreased in larger hospitals (116.9 to 86.3 to 72.3 pre versus early- versus late-implementation, P = .006), hospitals with greater nurse engagement on rounds (110.6 to 73.3 to 65.3, P < .001), and greater adherence to I-PASS structure (95.3 to 73.6 to 72.3, P < .05). Twelve of 12 measures of staff safety climate improved (eg, "excellent"/"very good" safety grade improved from 80.4% to 86.3% to 88.0%), all P < .05. Patient/family experience and teaching were unchanged. CONCLUSIONS:Hospitals successfully used Mentor-Trios to implement PFC I-PASS. Family/nurse engagement, safety climate, and harms improved in larger hospitals and hospitals with better nurse engagement and intervention adherence. Patient/family experience and teaching were not affected.
PMID: 38164122
ISSN: 1098-4275
CID: 5627932

Pediatric Resident Communication of Hospital Discharge Instructions

Glick, Alexander F; Farkas, Jonathan S; Gadhavi, Jasmine; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Schulick, Nicole; Yin, H Shonna
OBJECTIVE:Suboptimal provider-parent communication contributes to poor parent comprehension of pediatric discharge instructions, which can lead to adverse outcomes. Residency is a critical window to acquire and learn to utilize key communication skills, potentially supported by formal training programs or visual reminders. Few studies have examined resident counseling practices or predictors of counseling quality. Our objectives were to (1) examine pediatric resident counseling practices and (2) determine how formal training and presence of discharge templates with domain-specific prompts are associated with counseling. METHODS:). Predictor variables were (1) formal discharge-related training (e.g., lectures) and (2) hospital discharge instruction template with space for individual domains. Logistic regression analyses, utilizing generalized estimating equations when appropriate to account for multiple domains (adjusting for resident gender, postgraduate year), were performed. KEY RESULTS/RESULTS:= 317) (13.9%) reported formal training. Over 25% of residents infrequently counsel on side effects, diagnosis, and restrictions. Resident reported use of communication strategies was infrequent: drawing pictures (24.1%), demonstration (15.8%), Teach Back (36.8%), Show Back (11.4%). Designated spaces in instruction templates for individual domains were associated with frequent domain-specific counseling (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.1 [95% confidence interval: 3.5-4.8]). Formal training was associated with frequent Teach Back (aOR 2.6 [1.4-5.1]) and Show Back (aOR 2.7 [1.2-6.2]). CONCLUSIONS:
PMID: 37812910
ISSN: 2474-8307
CID: 5605612

Characteristics of Cardiac Abnormalities in Pediatric Patients With Acute COVID-19

Pasternack, Daniel; Singh, Rakesh K; Minocha, Prashant K; Farkas, Jon S; Ramaswamy, Prema; Better, Donna; Verma, Sourabh; Phoon, Colin K
Introduction Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known to cause cardiac abnormalities in adults. Cardiac abnormalities are well-described in multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, but effects in children with acute COVID-19 are less understood. In this multicenter study, we assessed the cardiac effects of acute COVID-19 among hospitalized children (<21 years) admitted to three large healthcare systems in New York City. Methods We performed a retrospective observational study. We examined electrocardiograms, echocardiograms, troponin, or B-type natriuretic peptides. Results Of 317 admitted patients, 131 (41%) underwent cardiac testing with 56 (43%) demonstrating cardiac abnormalities. Electrocardiogram abnormalities were the most common (46/117 patients (39%)), including repolarization abnormalities and QT prolongation. Elevated troponin occurred in 14/77 (18%) patients and B-type natriuretic peptide in 8/39 (21%) patients. Ventricular dysfunction was identified in 5/27 (19%) patients with an echocardiogram, all of whom had elevated troponin. Ventricular dysfunction resolved by first outpatient follow-up. Conclusion Electrocardiogram and troponin can assist clinicians in identifying children at risk for cardiac injury in acute COVID-19.
PMID: 37065296
ISSN: 2168-8184
CID: 5459202

Brief Resolved Unexplained Event: Not Just a New Name for Apparent Life-Threatening Event

Gerber, Nicole L; Fawcett, Kelsey J; Weber, Emily G; Patel, Roshni; Glick, Alexander F; Farkas, Jonathan S; Mojica, Michael A
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to evaluate patients who presented to the pediatric emergency department with an apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) to (1) determine if these patients would meet the criteria for brief resolved unexplained event (BRUE), a new term coined by the American Academy of Pediatrics in May, 2016; (2) risk stratify these patients to determine if they meet the BRUE low-risk criteria; and (3) evaluate outcomes of patients meeting the criteria for BRUE. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients who presented to a large urban academic center pediatric emergency department with an ALTE from January 2013 to May 2015 (before the publication of the BRUE guideline). Children ≤12 months of age were identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth/Tenth Revision. Two physician reviews were performed to determine if patients met the ALTE diagnostic criteria. Data were then extracted from these charts to complete objectives. RESULTS:Seventy-eight patients met the diagnostic criteria for ALTE. Only 1 of those patients met the diagnostic criteria for BRUE, but not for low-risk BRUE. This patient underwent an extensive inpatient evaluation and was eventually discharged after monitoring with a benign diagnosis. Most patients did not meet the criteria for BRUE because the event was not unexplained. CONCLUSIONS:Only 1 patient who presented to the ED with ALTE met the criteria for BRUE, and this patient did not meet the low-risk criteria. This study corroborates previous research on BRUE and continues to highlight the importance of conducting a thorough history and physical examination on all patients presenting to the ED with concerning events.
PMID: 32472924
ISSN: 1535-1815
CID: 4458172

Winter is coming: care of the febrile children in the time of COVID-19

Gerber, Nicole; Farkas, Jonathan S; Ratner, Adam J
PMID: 33175345
ISSN: 1867-0687
CID: 4675952