Antibiotic use as a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease across the ages: a population-based cohort study
Faye, Adam S; Allin, Kristine Højgaard; Iversen, Aske T; Agrawal, Manasi; Faith, Jeremiah; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Jess, Tine
BACKGROUND:There is an increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) for which environmental factors are suspected. Antibiotics have been associated with development of IBD in earlier generations, but their influence on IBD risk in adults is uncertain. OBJECTIVE:To assess the impact of antibiotic exposure, including dose-response, timing and antibiotic class, on the risk of IBD in all individuals aged ≥10 years. DESIGN:Using Denmark nationwide registries, a population-based cohort of residents aged ≥10 years was established between 2000 and 2018. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for IBD following antibiotic exposure were calculated using Poisson regression. RESULTS:There were a total of 6 104 245 individuals, resulting in 87 112 328 person-years of follow-up, and 52 898 new cases of IBD. Antibiotic exposure was associated with an increased risk of IBD as compared with no antibiotic exposure for all age groups, although was greatest among individuals aged 40-60 years and ≥60 years (age 10-40 years, IRR 1.28, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.32; age 40-60 years, IRR 1.48, 95% CI 1.43 to 1.54; age ≥60 years, IRR 1.47, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.53). For all age groups a positive dose-response was observed, with similar results seen for both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The highest risk of developing IBD was seen 1-2 years after antibiotic exposure, and after use of antibiotic classes often prescribed to treat gastrointestinal pathogens. CONCLUSION:Antibiotic exposure is associated with an increased risk of IBD, and was highest among individuals aged 40 years and older. This risk increased with cumulative antibiotic exposure, with antibiotics targeting gastrointestinal pathogens and within 1-2 years after antibiotic exposure.
Antibiotic use and inflammatory bowel disease: Number needed to harm? Authors' reply
Faye, Adam S.; Jess, Tine
Sarcopenia as a Risk Prediction Tool in Inflammatory Bowel Disease [Comment]
Faye, Adam S; Dodson, John A; Shaukat, Aasma
Perioperative Management of Ulcerative Colitis: A Systematic Review
Lee, Kate E; Faye, Adam S; Vermeire, SÃ©verine; Shen, Bo
BACKGROUND:Patients with ulcerative colitis may require colectomy for severe disease unresponsive or refractory to pharmacological therapy. Managing ulcerative colitis is complicated as there are many factors at play, including patient optimization and treatment; the guidance varies on the ideal perioperative use of corticosteroids, immunomodulators, biologics, and small molecule agents. OBJECTIVE:A systematic literature review was performed to describe the current status of perioperative management of ulcerative colitis. DATA SOURCES/METHODS:PubMed and Cochrane databases were used. STUDY SELECTION/METHODS:Studies between January 2000 and January 2022, in any language, were included. Articles regarding pediatric or endoscopic management were excluded. INTERVENTIONS/METHODS:Perioperative management of ulcerative colitis was included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES/METHODS:Successful management, including reducing surgical complication rates, was measured. RESULTS:A total of 121 studies were included in this review, including 23 meta-analyses or systematic reviews, 25 reviews, and 51 cohort studies. LIMITATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:Qualitative review including all study types. The varied nature of study types precludes quantitative comparison. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Indications for colectomy in UC include severe disease unresponsive to medical treatment and colitis-associated neoplasia. Urgent colectomy has a higher mortality rate than elective colectomy. Corticosteroids are associated with postsurgical infectious complications and should be stopped or weaned before surgery. Biologics are not associated with adverse postoperative effects and do not necessarily need to be stopped preoperatively. Additionally, the clinician must assess individuals' comorbidities, nutrition status, and risk of venous thromboembolism. Nutritional imbalance should be corrected, ideally at preoperative period. Postoperatively, corticosteroids can be tapered based on the length of preoperative corticosteroid use.
Endoscopic Balloon Dilation Is Cost-Effective for Crohn's Disease Strictures
Lee, Kate E; Lim, Francesca; Faye, Adam S; Shen, Bo; Hur, Chin
BACKGROUND:Endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) has emerged as an alternative intervention to manage Crohn's disease (CD) strictures. We determined the cost-effectiveness of EBD versus resection surgery for patients with short (<â€‰4-5Â cm) primary or secondary/anastomotic small or large bowel strictures. METHODS:A microsimulation state-transition model analyzed the benefits and risks of EBD and resection surgery for patients with primary or anastomotic CD strictures. Our primary outcome was quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) over ten years, and strategies were compared using a willingness to pay of $100,000/QALY from a societal perspective. Costs (2021 $US) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated. Deterministic 1-way and probabilistic analyses assessed model uncertainty. RESULTS:The EBD strategy cost $19,822 and resulted in 6.18 QALYs while the surgery strategy cost $41,358 and resulted in 6.37 QALYs. Surgery had an ICER of $113,332 per QALY, making EBD a cost-effective strategy. The median number of EBDs was 5 in the EBD strategy and 0 in the surgery strategy. The median number of surgeries was 2 in the surgery strategy and 1 in the EBD strategy. Of individuals who initially received EBD, 50.4% underwent subsequent surgery. One-way sensitivity analyses showed that the probabilities of requiring repeated interventions, surgery mortality (<â€‰0.7%), and quality of life after interventions were the most influential model parameters. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses favored EBD in 50.9% of iterations. CONCLUSIONS:EBD is a cost-effective strategy for managing CD strictures. Differences in patient risk and quality of life after intervention impact cost-effectiveness. Intervention decisions should consider cost-effectiveness, patient risks, and quality of life.
Letter: fighting the battle but losing the war-inflammatory bowel disease and venous thromboembolism. Authors' reply [Letter]
Lee, Kate E; Faye, Adam S
Increasing rates of venous thromboembolism among hospitalised patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a nationwide analysis
Faye, Adam S; Lee, Kate E; Dodson, John; Chodosh, Joshua; Hudesman, David; Remzi, Feza; Wright, Jason D; Friedman, Alexander M; Shaukat, Aasma; Wen, Timothy
BACKGROUND:Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, data on national trends remain limited. AIMS/OBJECTIVE:To assess national trends in VTE-associated hospitalisations among patients with IBD as well as risk factors for, and mortality associated with, these events METHODS: Using the U.S. Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2000-2018, temporal trends in VTE were assessed using the National Cancer Institute's Joinpoint Regression Program with estimates presented as the average annual percent change (AAPC) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS:Between 2000 and 2018, there were 4,859,728 hospitalisations among patients with IBD, with 128,236 (2.6%) having a VTE, and 6352 associated deaths. The rate of VTE among hospitalised patients with IBD increased from 192 to 295 cases per 10,000 hospitalisations (AAPC 2.4%, 95%CI 1.4%, 3.4%, pâ€‰<â€‰0.001), and remained significant when stratified by ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease as well as by deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. On multivariable analysis, increasing age, male sex, UC (aOR: 1.30, 95%CI 1.26, 1.33), identifying as non-Hispanic Black, and chronic corticosteroid use (aOR: 1.22, 95%CI 1.16, 1.29) were associated with an increased risk of a VTE-associated hospitalisation. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Rates of VTE-associated hospitalisations are increasing among patients with IBD. Continued efforts need to be placed on education and risk reduction.
Editorial: rising rates of venous thromboembolism among hospitalised patients with inflammatory bowel disease in the USA-authors' reply [Editorial]
Lee, Kate E; Faye, Adam S
Risk of Postpartum Flare Hospitalizations in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Persists After Six Months
Wen, Timothy; Faye, Adam S; Lee, Kate E; Friedman, Alexander M; Wright, Jason D; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Colombel, Jean-Frederic
BACKGROUND:Although patients with IBD are at higher risk for flares during the postpartum period, little is known about the risk factors, timeline, and healthcare-associated costs of a readmission flare. AIMS/OBJECTIVE:To ascertain the timeline in which patients are hospitalized for postpartum inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) flares, and the associated risk factors. METHODS:This is a nationwide retrospective cohort study of 7054 patients with IBD who delivered between 2010-2014 obtained from the National Readmissions Database. The presence of IBD was defined using previously validated International Classification of Diseases codes, and univariable and multivariable regression models were performed to assess risk factors associated with a postpartum flare hospitalization over the nine-month observation period. RESULTS:A total of 353 (5.0%) patients were hospitalized for a postpartum IBD flare, with approximately one-third (30.0%) readmitted after 6Â months. On multivariable analysis, having Crohn's disease (aRR 1.47, 95%CI 1.16-1.88), Medicare insurance (aRR 3.30, 95%CI 2.16-5.02), andâ€‰â‰¥â€‰2 comorbidities (aRR 1.34, 95%CI 1.03-1.74) were independently associated with a higher risk of an IBD flare hospitalization. Compared to patients aged 25-29, those 20-24 were at higher risk for an IBD flare readmission (aRR 1.58, 95%CI 1.17-2.13), whereas patients aged 35-39Â years were at lower risk (aRR 0.63, 95%CI 0.43-0.92). CONCLUSIONS:Among patients with IBD, Crohn's disease, Medicare insurance, multiple comorbidities, and younger age were independent risk factors for a postpartum IBD flare hospitalization. As approximately one-third of these readmissions occurred after 6Â months, it is imperative to ensure adequate follow-up and treatment for postpartum IBD patients, particularly in the extended postpartum period.
Cancer in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Faye, Adam S; Holmer, Ariela K; Axelrad, Jordan E
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. Individuals with IBD are at increased risk for several malignancies originating in the intestine, such as colorectal cancer, small bowel adenocarcinoma, intestinal lymphoma, and anal cancer. There are also several extraintestinal malignancies associated with IBD and IBD therapies, including cholangiocarcinoma, skin cancer, hematologic malignancies, genitourinary cancer, cervical cancer, and prostate cancer. The authors summarize the risk of cancer in patients with IBD, diagnosis and management of colorectal neoplasia in IBD, and management of patients with IBD and active or recent cancer.