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Antibiotic use and inflammatory bowel disease: number needed to harm? Authors' reply [Letter]

Faye, Adam S; Jess, Tine
PMID: 37226847
ISSN: 1468-3288
CID: 5543812

Atherosclerosis as a Risk Factor of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

Faye, Adam S; Axelrad, Jordan E; Sun, Jiangwei; Halfvarson, Jonas; Söderling, Jonas; Olén, Ola; Ludvigsson, Jonas F
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Data suggest atherosclerotic-related inflammation may play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but large-scale studies are missing. METHODS:In this nationwide case-control study, we used the Swedish Patient Register and the Epidemiology Strengthened by histoPathology Reports in Sweden cohort to identify adult cases of incident IBD between 2002 and 2021, with each case matched to up to 10 general population controls. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (OR) for exposure to an atherosclerotic-related condition (myocardial infarction, thromboembolic stroke, or atherosclerosis itself) before being diagnosed with IBD. RESULTS:There were a total of 56,212 individuals with IBD and 531,014 controls. Of them, 2,334 (4.2%) cases and 18,222 (3.4%) controls had a prior diagnosis of an atherosclerotic-related condition, corresponding to an OR of 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24-1.37). Results were statistically significant for both Crohn's disease (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.26-1.48) and ulcerative colitis (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.20-1.35) and for individuals who developed IBD at 40-59 years of age and 60 years or older. In addition, associations persisted when adjusting for underlying comorbidities, including the presence of immune-mediated diseases and prior aspirin and/or statin use. The highest odds of an atherosclerotic-related condition were seen in the 6-12 months before IBD diagnosis, though odds were increased even ≥5 years before. A higher magnitude of odds was also observed when having 2 or more atherosclerotic-related conditions when compared with having only 1 condition. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:A history of an atherosclerotic-related condition is associated with increased odds of developing IBD, particularly among older adults. Future studies should investigate whether drugs targeting atherosclerotic-related inflammation may prevent IBD in higher-risk individuals.
PMID: 37721310
ISSN: 1572-0241
CID: 5632982

Preoperative Risk Factors for Adverse Events in Adults Undergoing Bowel Resection for Inflammatory Bowel Disease: 15-Year Assessment of ACS-NSQIP

Fernandez, Cristina; Gajic, Zoran; Esen, Eren; Remzi, Feza; Hudesman, David; Adhikari, Samrachana; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara; Segev, Dorry L; Chodosh, Joshua; Dodson, John; Shaukat, Aasma; Faye, Adam S
IntroductionOlder adults with IBD are at higher risk for postoperative complications as compared to their younger counterparts, however factors contributing to this are unknown. We assessed risk factors associated with adverse IBD-related surgical outcomes, evaluated trends in emergency surgery, and explored differential risks by age.MethodsUsing the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database, we identified adults ≥18 years of age who underwent an IBD-related intestinal resection from 2005-2019. Our primary outcome included a 30-day composite of mortality, readmission, reoperation, and/or major postoperative complication.ResultsOverall, 49,746 intestinal resections were performed with 9,390 (18.8%) occurring among older adults with IBD. Nearly 37% of older adults experienced an adverse outcome as compared to 28.1% among younger adults with IBD (p<0.01). Among all adults with IBD, the presence of preoperative sepsis (aOR, 2.08; 95%CI 1.94-2.24), malnutrition (aOR, 1.22; 95%CI 1.14-1.31), dependent functional status (aOR, 6.92; 95%CI 4.36-11.57), and requiring emergency surgery (aOR, 1.50; 95%CI 1.38-1.64) increased the odds of an adverse postoperative outcome, with similar results observed when stratifying by age. Further, 8.8% of surgeries among older adults were emergent, with no change observed over time (p=0.16).DiscussionPreoperative factors contributing to the risk of an adverse surgical outcome are similar between younger and older individuals with IBD, and include elements such as malnutrition and functional status. Incorporating these measures into surgical decision-making can reduce surgical delays in older individuals at low-risk and help target interventions in those at high risk, transforming care for thousands of older adults with IBD.
PMID: 37410929
ISSN: 1572-0241
CID: 5539322

Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Risk of Colorectal Polyps: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study From Sweden

Axelrad, Jordan E; Olén, Ola; Söderling, Jonas; Roelstraete, Bjorn; Khalili, Hamed; Song, Mingyang; Faye, Adam; Eberhardson, Michael; Halfvarson, Jonas; Ludvigsson, Jonas F
BACKGROUND:Inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] has been linked to an increased risk of colorectal neoplasia. However, the types and risks of specific polyp types in IBD are less clear. METHODS:We identified 41 880 individuals with IBD (Crohn's disease [CD: n = 12 850]; ulcerative colitis [UC]: n = 29 030]) from Sweden matched with 41 880 reference individuals. Using Cox regression, we calculated adjusted hazard ratios [aHRs] for neoplastic colorectal polyps [tubular, serrated/sessile, advanced and villous] defined by histopathology codes. RESULTS:During follow-up, 1648 [3.9%] IBD patients and 1143 [2.7%] reference individuals had an incident neoplastic colorectal polyp, corresponding to an incidence rate of 46.1 and 34.2 per 10 000 person-years, respectively. This correlated to an aHR of 1.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.35) with the highest HRs seen for sessile serrated polyps [8.50, 95% CI 1.10-65.90] and traditional serrated adenomas [1.72, 95% CI 1.02-2.91]. aHRs for colorectal polyps were particularly elevated in those diagnosed with IBD at a young age and at 10 years after diagnosis. Both absolute and relative risks of colorectal polyps were higher in UC than in CD [aHRs 1.31 vs 1.06, respectively], with a 20-year cumulative risk difference of 4.4% in UC and 1.5% in CD, corresponding to one extra polyp in 23 patients with UC and one in 67 CD patients during the first 20 years after IBD diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS:In this nationwide population-based study, there was an increased risk of neoplastic colorectal polyps in IBD patients. Colonoscopic surveillance in IBD appears important, especially in UC and after 10 years of disease.
PMID: 36994851
ISSN: 1876-4479
CID: 5613902

Management Considerations for the Older Adult With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Axenfeld, Ellen; Katz, Seymour; Faye, Adam S.
As the prevalence of older adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rising, understanding the unique challenges in both diagnosis and management is becoming increasingly important. Knowledge of phenotypic differences as well as overlapping symptoms with other medical conditions is critical to obtaining a timely diagnosis of IBD in older adults. Although older adults with IBD are at higher risk for adverse events compared with younger adults with IBD, recent data have suggested that ongoing disease activity may be a significant driver of adverse clinical outcomes rather than use of current treatment modalities. Ultimately, earlier and effective treatments can improve outcomes and quality of life for older adults with IBD. However, to help improve medical decision-making, clinicians must move away from the use of chronological age alone and begin to integrate measures of biological age, such as frailty and sarcopenia, into risk stratification tools. This article reviews the management considerations for older adults with IBD and provides the rationale for incorporating measures of biological age into current practice.
ISSN: 1554-7914
CID: 5630682

Early Ileocecal Resection for Crohn's Disease Is Associated With Improved Long-term Outcomes Compared With Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy: A Population-Based Cohort Study

Agrawal, Manasi; Ebert, Anthony C; Poulsen, Gry; Ungaro, Ryan C; Faye, Adam S; Jess, Tine; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Allin, Kristine H
BACKGROUND & AIMS:Early Crohn's disease (CD) treatment involves anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents, whereas ileocecal resection (ICR) is reserved for complicated CD or treatment failure. We compared long-term outcomes of primary ICR and anti-TNF therapy for ileocecal CD. METHODS:Using cross-linked nationwide registers, we identified all individuals diagnosed with ileal or ileocecal CD between 2003 and 2018 and treated with ICR or anti-TNF agents within 1 year of diagnosis. The primary outcome was a composite of ≥1 of the following: CD-related hospitalization, systemic corticosteroid exposure, CD-related surgery, and perianal CD. We conducted adjusted Cox's proportional hazards regression analyses and determined the cumulative risk of different treatments after primary ICR or anti-TNF therapy. RESULTS:Of 16,443 individuals diagnosed with CD, 1279 individuals fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 45.4% underwent ICR and 54.6% received anti-TNF. The composite outcome occurred in 273 individuals (incidence rate, 110/1000 person-years) in the ICR group and in 318 individuals (incidence rate, 202/1000 person-years) in the anti-TNF group. The risk of the composite outcome was 33% lower with ICR compared with anti-TNF (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.83). ICR was associated with reduced risk of systemic corticosteroid exposure and CD-related surgery, but not other secondary outcomes. The proportion of individuals on immunomodulator, anti-TNF, who underwent subsequent resection, or were on no therapy 5 years post-ICR was 46.3%, 16.8%, 1.8%, and 49.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION:These data suggest that ICR may have a role as first-line therapy in CD management and challenge the current paradigm of reserving surgery for complicated CD refractory or intolerant to medications. Yet, given inherent biases associated with observational data, our findings should be interpreted and applied cautiously in clinical decision making.
PMID: 37321356
ISSN: 1528-0012
CID: 5631672

Managing the older adult with inflammatory bowel disease: is age just a number?

Bermudez, Helen; Faye, Adam S; Kochar, Bharati
PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This review summarizes the most recent literature on older adults with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Additionally, we review geriatric syndromes that may be pertinent to the management of older adults with IBD. RECENT FINDINGS:Traditionally chronological age has been used to risk stratify older adults with IBD, however physiologic status, including comorbidities, frailty, and sarcopenia, are more closely associated with clinical outcomes for older adults. Delaying care for and undertreating older adults with IBD based upon advanced chronologic age alone is associated with worse outcomes, including increased mortality. Treatment decisions should be made considering physiologic status, with an understanding of the differential risks associated with both ongoing disease and treatment. As such, there is an increasing recognition of the impact geriatric syndromes have on older adults with IBD, which need to be further explored. SUMMARY:Older adults with IBD are less likely to receive advanced therapies and timely surgery. They are also more likely to have adverse outcomes despite having similar disease courses to younger adults with IBD. Focusing on biological age as opposed to chronological age can shift this trajectory and improve quality of care for this growing population of patients with IBD.
PMID: 37265181
ISSN: 1531-7056
CID: 5540902

Colorectal Cancer Screening and Surveillance in the Geriatric Population

Cheong, Janice; Faye, Adam; Shaukat, Aasma
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:Our national guidelines regarding screening and surveillance for colorectal cancer recommend individualized discussions with patients 75-85 years of age. This review explores the complex decision-making that surrounds these discussions. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Despite updated guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and surveillance, the guidance for patients 75 years of age or older remains unchanged. Studies exploring the risks to colonoscopy in this population, patient preferences, life expectancy calculators and additional studies in the subpopulation of inflammatory bowel disease patients provide points of consideration to aid in individualized discussions. The benefit-risk discussion for colorectal cancer screening in patients over 75 years old warrants further guidance to develop best practice. To craft more comprehensive recommendations, additional research with inclusion of such patients is needed.
PMID: 37219764
ISSN: 1534-312x
CID: 5536572

Antibiotic use as a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease across the ages: a population-based cohort study

Faye, Adam S; Allin, Kristine Højgaard; Iversen, Aske T; Agrawal, Manasi; Faith, Jeremiah; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Jess, Tine
BACKGROUND:There is an increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) for which environmental factors are suspected. Antibiotics have been associated with development of IBD in earlier generations, but their influence on IBD risk in adults is uncertain. OBJECTIVE:To assess the impact of antibiotic exposure, including dose-response, timing and antibiotic class, on the risk of IBD in all individuals aged ≥10 years. DESIGN:Using Denmark nationwide registries, a population-based cohort of residents aged ≥10 years was established between 2000 and 2018. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for IBD following antibiotic exposure were calculated using Poisson regression. RESULTS:There were a total of 6 104 245 individuals, resulting in 87 112 328 person-years of follow-up, and 52 898 new cases of IBD. Antibiotic exposure was associated with an increased risk of IBD as compared with no antibiotic exposure for all age groups, although was greatest among individuals aged 40-60 years and ≥60 years (age 10-40 years, IRR 1.28, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.32; age 40-60 years, IRR 1.48, 95% CI 1.43 to 1.54; age ≥60 years, IRR 1.47, 95% CI 1.42 to 1.53). For all age groups a positive dose-response was observed, with similar results seen for both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The highest risk of developing IBD was seen 1-2 years after antibiotic exposure, and after use of antibiotic classes often prescribed to treat gastrointestinal pathogens. CONCLUSION:Antibiotic exposure is associated with an increased risk of IBD, and was highest among individuals aged 40 years and older. This risk increased with cumulative antibiotic exposure, with antibiotics targeting gastrointestinal pathogens and within 1-2 years after antibiotic exposure.
PMID: 36623926
ISSN: 1468-3288
CID: 5447862

Risk factors for incomplete telehealth appointments among patients with inflammatory bowel disease

Stone, Katherine L; Kulekofsky, Emma; Hudesman, David; Kozloff, Samuel; Remzi, Feza; Axelrad, Jordan E; Katz, Seymour; Hong, Simon J; Holmer, Ariela; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A; Segev, Dorry L; Dodson, John; Shaukat, Aasma; Faye, Adam S
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:The COVID-19 pandemic led to the urgent implementation of telehealth visits in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) care; however, data assessing feasibility remain limited. OBJECTIVES/UNASSIGNED:We looked to determine the completion rate of telehealth appointments for adults with IBD, as well as to evaluate demographic, clinical, and social predictors of incomplete appointments. DESIGN/UNASSIGNED:We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients with IBD who had at least one scheduled telehealth visit at the NYU IBD Center between 1 March 2020 and 31 August 2021, with only the first scheduled telehealth appointment considered. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Medical records were parsed for relevant covariables, and multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted association between demographic factors and an incomplete telehealth appointment. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED: = 0.22). After adjustment, patients with CD had higher odds of an incomplete appointment as compared to patients with UC [adjusted odds ratio (adjOR): 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.69], as did females (adjOR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.04-1.54), and patients who had a non-first-degree relative listed as an emergency contact (adjOR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.16-2.44). While age ⩾60 years was not associated with appointment completion status, we did find that age >80 years was an independent predictor of missed telehealth appointments (adjOR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.12-7.63) when compared to individuals aged 60-70 years. CONCLUSION/UNASSIGNED:telehealth, particularly those aged 60-80 years, may therefore provide an additional venue to complement in-person care.
PMID: 37124374
ISSN: 1756-283x
CID: 5544752