Anesthesia teams managing pacemakers and ICDs for the perioperative period: enhanced patient safety and improved workflows
PURPOSE OF REVIEW/OBJECTIVE:There have been both technological and philosophical advances over the last decade regarding pacemakers and implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). Collectively, these devices are currently referred to as cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). Technological advances include the introduction of leadless pacemakers, subcutaneous defibrillators and cardiac event recorders, enhancements regarding compatibility of CIEDs for MRI scanning, the ability to interrogate devices remotely, and improved programming modes that preserve battery life. Philosophical advances have been mainly in the area of perioperative management of CIED patients. RECENT FINDINGS/RESULTS:Current practice recommendations now acknowledge that not every patient requires a formal interrogation of their CIED before and after surgery (as was previously recommended). The response to magnet application is standardized across manufacturer's platforms, and it is known that sources of electromagnetic interference remote from the CIED and its leads do not usually cause any interference with device function. SUMMARY/CONCLUSIONS:Educated anesthesia teams can independently manage the vast majority of CIED patients perioperatively with magnet application alone. Furthermore, this portends enhanced patient safety and improved workflows in the perioperative period.
Removal of foley catheters in live donor kidney transplant recipients on postoperative day 1 does not increase the incidence of urine leaks
Catheterization of the urinary bladder during kidney transplantation is essential. The optimal time to remove the Foley catheter postoperatively is not universally defined. It is our practice to remove the Foley catheter on postoperative day 1 in live donor kidney transplant recipients who meet our standardized protocol criteria. We believe that early removal of Foley catheters increases patient comfort and mobility, decreases the risk of catheter associated urinary tract infections, and allows for decreased hospital length of stay. The hypothetical risk of early removal of Foley catheters would be the increased risk of urine leak. We reviewed 120 consecutive live donor kidney transplant recipients and found that there was not an increased incidence of urine leaks in patients whose Foley catheters were removed on postoperative day 1.