Lead aVL on electrocardiogram: emerging as important lead in early diagnosis of myocardial infarction?
Although a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) that mandates emergency reperfusion therapy requires ST-segment elevation greater than 1 mm in at least 2 contiguous leads, some of the early electrocardiogram (ECG) changes of AMI can be subtle. Any ST-segment depression or T-wave inversion in lead aVL may be implicated in left anterior descending artery lesion or early reciprocal changes of inferior wall myocardial infarction, particularly when the clinical context suggests ischemia. Early recognition of reciprocal changes and serial ECG help initiate early appropriate intervention. Heightened awareness of ST segment and T-wave changes in lead aVL is of paramount importance to quickly identifying life-threatening condition.
The neglected lead on electrocardiogram: T wave inversion in lead aVL, nonspecific finding or a sign for left anterior descending artery lesion?
BACKGROUND: The electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most important diagnostic tool for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). T wave inversion (TWI) in lead aVL has not been emphasized or well recognized. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationship between the presence of TWI before the event and mid-segment left anterior descending (MLAD) artery lesion in patients with AMI. METHODS: Retrospective charts of patients with acute coronary syndrome between the months of January 2009 and December 2011 were reviewed. All patients with MLAD lesion were identified and their ECG reviewed for TWI in lead aVL. RESULTS: Coronary angiography was done on 431 patients. Of these, 125 (29%) had an MLAD lesion. One hundred and six patients (84.8%) had a lesion > 50% and 19 patients (15.2%) had a lesion < 50%. Of the 106 patients who had a MLAD lesion > 50%, 90 patients (84.9%) had TWI in lead aVL and one additional lead. Of the 19 patients who had an MLAD lesion < 50%, 8 patients (42.1%) had TWI in lead aVL and one additional lead. Isolated TWI in lead aVL had an overall sensitivity of 76.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-0.86), a specificity of 71.4% (95% CI 0.45-0.88), a positive predictive value of 92%, a negative predictive value of 41.7%, a positive likelihood ratio of 2.7 (95% CI 1.16-6.22), and negative likelihood ratio of 0.32 (95% CI 0.19-0.58) for predicting a MLAD lesion of > 50% (p = 0.0011). CONCLUSIONS: TWI in lead aVL might signify a mid-segment LAD lesion. Recognition of this finding and early appropriate referral to a cardiologist might be beneficial. Additional studies are needed to validate this finding.
MASP-2 activation is involved in ischemia-related necrotic myocardial injury in humans
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Insufficient blood supply to the heart results in ischemic injury manifested clinically as myocardial infarction (MI). Following ischemia, inflammation is provoked and related to the clinical outcomes. A recent basic science study indicates that complement factor MASP-2 plays an important role in animal models of ischemia/reperfusion injury. We investigated the role of MASP-2 in human acute myocardial ischemia in two clinical settings: (1) Acute MI, and (2) Open heart surgery. METHODS: A total of 187 human subjects were enrolled in this study, including 50 healthy individuals, 27 patients who were diagnosed of coronary artery disease (CAD) but without acute MI, 29 patients with acute MI referred for coronary angiography, and 81 cardiac surgery patients with surgically-induced global heart ischemia. Circulating MASP-2 levels were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: MASP-2 levels in the peripheral circulation were significantly reduced in MI patients compared with those of healthy individuals or of CAD patients without acute MI. The hypothesis that MASP-2 was activated during acute myocardial ischemia was evaluated in cardiac patients undergoing surgically-induced global heart ischemia. MASP-2 was found to be significantly reduced in the coronary circulation of such patients, and the reduction of MASP-2 levels correlated independently with the increase of the myocardial necrosis marker, cardiac troponin I. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate an involvement of MASP-2 in ischemia-related necrotic myocardial injury in humans.
Validity of HAS-BLED Score in Prediction of Major Bleeding Risk in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Taking Warfarin and Dabigatran [Meeting Abstract]
MUST NON-IONIC CONTRAST MEDIA BE REMOVED IMMEDIATELY AFTER A RADIOGRAPHIC PROCEDURE IN IN-PATIENTS WITH END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE? [Meeting Abstract]
Significant arrhythmias associated with interleukin-2 therapy. [Meeting Abstract]