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Does Bone Morphogenetic Protein Use Reduce Pseudarthrosis Rates in Single-Level Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgeries?

Zhong, Jack; Tareen, Jarid; Ashayeri, Kimberly; Leon, Carlos; Balouch, Eaman; O'Malley, Nicholas; Stickley, Carolyn; Maglaras, Constance; O"™Connell, Brooke; Ayres, Ethan; Fischer, Charla; Kim, Yong; Protopsaltis, Themistocles; Buckland, Aaron J.
Background: Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2, or BMP for short) is a popular biological product used in spine surgeries to promote fusion and avoid the morbidity associated with iliac crest autograft. BMP"™s effect on pseudarthrosis in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) remains unknown. Objective: To assess the rates of pseudarthrosis in single-level TLIF with and without concurrent use of BMP. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted at a single academic institution. Adults undergoing primary single-level TLIF with a minimum of 1 year of clinical and radiographic follow-up were included. BMP use was determined by operative notes at index surgery. Non-BMP cases with iliac crest bone graft were excluded. Pseudarthrosis was determined using radiographic and clinical evaluation. Bivariate differences between groups were assessed by independent t test and χ2 analyses, and perioperative characteristics were analyzed by multiple logistic regression. Results: One hundred forty-eight single-level TLIF patients were included. The mean age was 59.3 years, and 52.0% were women. There were no demographic differences between patients who received BMP and those who did not. Pseudarthrosis rates in patients treated with BMP were 6.2% vs 7.5% in the no BMP group (P = 0.756). There was no difference in reoperation for pseudarthrosis between patients who received BMP (3.7%) vs those who did not receive BMP (7.5%, P = 0.314). Patients who underwent revision surgery for pseudarthrosis more commonly had diabetes with end-organ damage (revised 37.5% vs not revised 1.4%, P < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis demonstrated no reduction in reoperation for pseudarthrosis related to BMP use (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1"“3.7, P = 0.269). Diabetes with end-organ damage (OR 112.6,95% CI 5.7"“2225.8, P = 0.002) increased the risk of reoperation for pseudarthrosis. Conclusions: BMP use did not reduce the rate of pseudarthrosis or the number of reoperations for pseudarthrosis in single-level TLIFs. Diabetes with end-organ damage was a significant risk factor for pseudarthrosis. Clinical Relevance: BMP is frequently used "off-label" in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion; however, little data exists to demonstrate its safety and efficacy in this procedure.
ISSN: 2211-4599
CID: 5660032

Resolution of Radiculopathy Following Indirect Versus Direct Decompression in Single Level Lumbar Fusion

Walia, Arnaav; Ani, Fares; Maglaras, Constance; Raman, Tina; Fischer, Charla
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective analysis. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate resolution of radiculopathy in one-level lumbar fusion with indirect or direct decompression techniques. METHODS:< .05. RESULTS:116 patients were included: 58 direct decompression (DD) (mean 53.9y, 67.2% female) and 58 indirect decompression (ID) (mean 54.6y, 61.4% female). DD patients experienced greater blood loss than ID. Additionally, DD patients were 4.7 times more likely than ID patients to experience full resolution of radiculopathy at 3 months post-op. By 6 months, DD patients demonstrated larger reductions in VAS score. With regard to motor function, DD patients had improved motor score associated with the L5 dermatome at 6 months relative to ID patients. CONCLUSIONS:Direct decompression was associated with greater resolution of radiculopathy in the near post-operative term, with no differences at long term follow-up when compared with indirect decompression. In particularly debilitated patients, these findings may influence surgeons to perform a direct decompression to achieve more rapid resolution of radiculopathy symptoms.
PMID: 38315111
ISSN: 2192-5682
CID: 5632722

Reoperation Rates Due to Adjacent Segment Disease Following Primary 1 to 2-Level Minimally Invasive Versus Open Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

Galetta, Matthew S; Lorentz, Nathan A; Lan, Rae; Chan, Calvin; Zabat, Michelle A; Raman, Tina; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Fischer, Charla R
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of the approach of the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion [TLIF; open vs . minimally invasive (MIS)] on reoperation rates due to ASD at 2 to 4-year follow-up. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:Adjacent segment degeneration is a complication of lumbar fusion surgery, which may progress to adjacent segment disease (ASD) and cause debilitating postoperative pain potentially requiring additional operative management for relief. MIS TLIF surgery has been introduced to minimize this complication but the impact on ASD incidence is unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:For a cohort of patients undergoing 1 or 2-level primary TLIF between 2013 and 2019, patient demographics and follow-up outcomes were collected and compared among patients who underwent open versus MIS TLIF using the Mann-Whitney U test, Fischer exact test, and binary logistic regression. RESULTS:Two hundred thirty-eight patients met the inclusion criteria. There was a significant difference in revision rates due to ASD between MIS and open TLIFs at 2 (5.8% vs . 15.4%, P =0.021) and 3 (8% vs . 23.2%, P =0.03) year follow-up, with open TLIFs demonstrating significantly higher revision rates. The surgical approach was the only independent predictor of reoperation rates at both 2 and 3-year follow-ups (2 yr, P =0.009; 3 yr, P =0.011). CONCLUSIONS:Open TLIF was found to have a significantly higher rate of reoperation due to ASD compared with the MIS approach. In addition, the surgical approach (MIS vs . open) seems to be an independent predictor of reoperation rates.
PMID: 36972142
ISSN: 1528-1159
CID: 5606732

Multidisciplinary conference for complex surgery leads to improved quality and safety

Norris, Zoe A; Zabat, Michelle A; Patel, Hershil; Mottole, Nicole A; Ashayeri, Kimberly; Balouch, Eaman; Maglaras, Constance; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Buckland, Aaron J; Fischer, Charla R
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Complex surgery for adult spinal deformity has high rates of complications, reoperations, and readmissions. Preoperative discussions of high-risk operative spine patients at a multidisciplinary conference may contribute to decreased rates of these adverse outcomes through appropriate patient selection and surgical plan optimization. With this goal, we implemented a high-risk case conference involving orthopedic and neurosurgery spine, anesthesia, intraoperative monitoring neurology, and neurological intensive care. METHODS:Included in this retrospective review were patients ≥ 18 years old meeting one of the following high-risk criteria: 8 + levels fused, osteoporosis with 4 + levels fused, three column osteotomy, anterior revision of the same lumbar level, or planned significant correction for severe myelopathy, scoliosis (> 75˚), or kyphosis (> 75˚). Patients were categorized as Before Conference (BC): surgery before 2/19/2019 or After Conference (AC): surgery after 2/19/2019. Outcome measures include intraoperative and postoperative complications, readmissions, and reoperations. RESULTS:263 patients were included (96 AC, 167 BC). AC was older than BC (60.0 vs 54.6, p = 0.025) and had lower BMI (27.1 vs 28.9, p = 0.047), but had similar CCI (3.2 vs 2.9 p = 0.312), and ASA Classification (2.5 vs 2.5, p = 0.790). Surgical characteristics, including levels fused (10.6 vs 10.7, p = 0.839), levels decompressed (1.29 vs 1.25, p = 0.863), 3 column osteotomies (10.4% vs 18.6%, p = 0.080), anterior column release (9.4% vs 12.6%, p = 0.432), and revision cases (53.1% vs 52.4%, p = 0.911) were similar between AC and BC. AC had lower EBL (1.1 vs 1.9L, p < 0.001) and fewer total intraoperative complications (16.7% vs 34.1%, p = 0.002), including fewer dural tears (4.2% vs 12.6%, p = 0.025), delayed extubations (8.3% vs 22.8%%, p = 0.003), and massive blood loss (4.2% vs 13.2%, p = 0.018). Length of stay (LOS) was similar between groups (7.2 vs 8.2 days, 0.251). AC had a lower incidence of deep surgical site infections (SSI, 1.0% vs 6.6%, p = 0.038), but a higher rate of hypotension requiring vasopressor therapy (18.8% vs 4.8%, p < 0.001). Other postoperative complications were similar between groups. AC had lower rates of reoperation at 30 (2.1% vs 8.4%, p = 0.040) and 90 days (3.1 vs 12.0%, p = 0.014) and lower readmission rates at 30 (3.1% vs 10.2%, p = 0.038) and 90 days (6.3 vs 15.0%, p = 0.035). On logistic regression, AC patients had higher odds of hypotension requiring vasopressor therapy and lower odds of delayed extubation, intraoperative RBC, and intraoperative salvage blood. CONCLUSIONS:Following implementation of a multidisciplinary high-risk case conference, 30- and 90-day reoperation and readmission rates, intraoperative complications, and postoperative deep SSIs decreased. Hypotensive events requiring vasopressors increased, but did not result in longer LOS or greater readmissions. These associations suggest a multidisciplinary conference may help improve quality and safety for high-risk spine patients. particularly through minimizing complications and optimizing outcomes in complex spine surgery.
PMID: 36813882
ISSN: 2212-1358
CID: 5432302

Post-Operative Physical Therapy Following Cervical Spine Surgery: Analysis of Patient-Reported Outcomes

Lorentz, Nathan A; Galetta, Matthew S; Zabat, Michelle A; Raman, Tina; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Fischer, Charla
Introduction Post-operative physical therapy (PT) following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) surgery is often performed to improve a patient's functional ability and reduce neck pain. However, current literature evaluating the benefits of post-operative PT using patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is limited and remains inconclusive. Here we compare post-operative improvement between patients who did and did not undergo formal PT after ACDF using Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) scores. Methods A retrospective observational study examining patients who underwent one- or two-level primary ACDF or cervical disc replacement (CDR) at an academic orthopedic hospital and who had PROMIS scores recorded pre-operatively and through two-year follow-up. Patients were stratified according to whether or not they attended formal postoperative PT. PROMIS scores and patient demographics were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher's exact test, chi-square test of independence, and Student's t-test within and between cohorts. Results Two hundred and twenty patients were identified. Demographic differences between PT and no PT groups include age (PT 54.1 vs. no PT 49.5, p=0.005) and BMI (PT 28.1 vs. no PT 29.8, p=0.028). The only significant difference in post-operative PROMIS scores was in physical health scores at three months post-operatively (no PT 43.9 vs. PT 39.1, p=0.008). Physical health scores improved from baseline to one-year follow-up in both cohorts (PT +3.5, p=0.025; no PT +6.6, p=0.008). There were no significant differences when comparing improvements in physical health scores between groups at six months and one year. Conclusion In conclusion, there was no significance to support the benefits of post-operative PT as measured by PROMIS scores. No significant differences in PROMIS were observed between groups from pre-operative baseline scores to six-month and one-year follow-ups.
PMID: 37465791
ISSN: 2168-8184
CID: 5535722

Evaluation of Health-related Quality of Life Improvement in Patients Undergoing Cervical Versus Shoulder Surgery

Zabat, Michelle A; Elboghdady, Islam; Mottole, Nicole A; Mojica, Edward; Maglaras, Constance; Jazrawi, Laith M; Virk, Mandeep S; Campbell, Kirk A; Buckland, Aaron J; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Fischer, Charla R
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective analysis of outcomes in cervical spine and shoulder arthroscopy patients. OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study is to assess differential improvements in health-related quality of life for cervical spine surgery compared with shoulder surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:An understanding of outcome differences between different types of orthopedic surgeries is helpful in counseling patients about expected postoperative recovery. This study compares outcomes in patients undergoing cervical spine surgery with arthroscopic shoulder surgery using computer-adaptive Patient-reported Outcome Information System scores. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Patients undergoing cervical spine surgery (1-level or 2-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, cervical disc replacement) or arthroscopic shoulder surgery (rotator cuff repair±biceps tenodesis) were grouped. Patient-reported Outcome Information System scores of physical function, pain interference, and pain intensity at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months were compared using paired t tests. RESULTS:Cervical spine (n=127) and shoulder (n=91) groups were similar in sex (25.8% vs. 41.8% female, P=0.731) but differed in age (51.6±11.6 vs. 58.60±11.2, P<0.05), operative time (148.3±68.6 vs. 75.9±26.9 min, P<0.05), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASAs) (2.3±0.6 vs. 2.0±0.5, P=0.001), smoking status (15.7% vs. 4.4%, P=0.008), and length of stay (1.1±1.0 vs. 0.3±0.1, P=0.000). Spine patients had worse physical function (36.9 ±12.6 vs. 49.4±8.6, P<0.05) and greater pain interference (67.0±13.6 vs. 61.7±4.8, P=0.001) at baseline. Significant improvements were seen in all domains by 3 months for both groups, except for physical function after shoulder surgery. Spine patients had greater physical function improvements at all timepoints (3.33 vs. -0.43, P=0.003; 4.81 vs. 0.08, P=0.001; 6.5 vs. -5.24, P=<0.05). Conversely, shoulder surgery patients showed better 6-month improvement in pain intensity over spine patients (-8.86 vs. -4.46, P=0.001), but this difference resolved by 12 months. CONCLUSIONS:Cervical spine patients had greater relative early improvement in physical function compared with shoulder patients, whereas pain interference and intensity did not significantly differ between the 2 groups after surgery. This will help in counseling patients about relative difference in recovery and improvement between the 2 surgery types. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:III.
PMID: 35969677
ISSN: 2380-0194
CID: 5299792

The Temporality of Deep Surgical Site Infection Rates Following Spinal Laminectomy and Fusion

Kreinces, Jason B; Roof, Mackenzie A; Friedlander, Scott; Huang, Shengnan; Bosco, Joseph A; Fischer, Charla
BACKGROUND:Deep surgical site infections (dSSI) following spinal laminectomy and fusion are serious complications associated with poor patient outcomes. The objective of this study is to investigate the monthly and seasonal variability of dSSI rates following common spinal surgeries to investigate the "July effect," which refers to the alleged increase in adverse health outcomes due to new hospital trainees at the beginning of the academic year. METHODS:We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who had a dSSI following laminectomy (without fusion) or spinal fusion (with or without laminectomy) at a single large urban academic medical center between January 2009 and August 2018. The change in dSSI rate over the entire study period was calculated. The monthly and seasonal variability of dSSI were assessed using a Poisson regression model to assess for the presence of the July effect. RESULTS:= 0.04 ). With July as the reference month, there was a significantly higher dSSI rate in April following spinal fusions. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The overall decrease in dSSI rate over the study period is consistent with previous reports. The monthly analysis revealed no significant differences in either procedure, calling into question the July effect. CLINICAL RELEVANCE/CONCLUSIONS:This study is relevant to practicing spinal surgeons and can inform surgeons about seasonal data regarding dSSIs. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3/METHODS/:
PMID: 36113953
ISSN: 2211-4599
CID: 5336542

76. Two-year outcomes and radiculopathy resolution following direct vs indirect decompression in single-level lumbar fusion [Meeting Abstract]

Walia, A; Perrier, G; Ani, F; Bono, J; Burapachaisri, A; Patel, H; Kim, N S; O'Connell, B K; Maglaras, C; Protopsaltis, T S; Fischer, C R; Raman, T
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Indirect decompression technique may be limited in that it does not include direct removal of the offending intervertebral disc or osteophyte protruding into the canal. PURPOSE: This study evaluates resolution of radiculopathy and perioperative complications in lumbar fusion with indirect or direct decompression techniques. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Retrospective analysis of large single center academic institution. PATIENT SAMPLE: This study included 116 single-level lumbar fusion patients with preoperative radiculopathy from 2012 to 2021. OUTCOME MEASURES: Resolution of radiculopathy, visual analog scores (VAS), perioperative complications, motor scores.
METHOD(S): Patients 18 years of age diagnosed with preoperative radiculopathy undergoing single-level lumbar fusion with up to two-year follow-up were grouped by indirect and direct decompression. Direct decompression group included TLIF with or without direct decompression procedure as well as ALIF and LLIF with direct decompression procedure. Indirect decompression group included ALIF and LLIF without direct decompression procedure. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to control for differences in age between groups. Outcome measures were compared between groups using means comparison tests. Logistic regression analysis was used to correlate decompression type with symptom resolution over time.
RESULT(S): A total of 116 patients were included in this analysis: 58 direct decompression (mean 53.9y, 67.2% female) and 58 indirect decompression (mean 54.6y, 61.4% female). Direct decompression patients experienced greater blood loss relative to indirect decompression patients (242.4 +/- 128.5 vs 171.79 +/- 143.9 mL, p=0.007). Additionally, direct decompressionpatients experienced full resolution of radiculopathy at 3 months postop at a greater rate than those in the indirect decompression group (OR: 4.742, [1.97-11.41]; 53.1% vs 13.73%, p=0.002). At 6 months, direct decompression patients demonstrated a significantly larger reduction in VAS score 6 months postop (-2.889 +/- 2.3 vs -0.897 +/- 4.3, p=0.044). With regard to motor function, direct decompression patients had improved motor score with respect to the L5 dermatome at 6 months compared to indirect decompression patients (DELTAmotor score from baseline: 0.1714 +/- 0.453 vs -0.024 +/- 0.154, p=0.019).
CONCLUSION(S): Patients who underwent direct decompression experienced significantly greater resolution of preoperative lower extremity radiculopathy at 3 months compared with those who underwent ID alone. At 6 and 12 months, no differences were noted between the two groups. There were no differences in complication rates. At 6 months postop, direct decompression patients had greater improvement in preoperative motor deficit than ID patients. In particularly debilitated patients, these findings may influence surgeons to perform a direct decompression to achieve more rapid resolution of radiculopathy symptoms. FDA DEVICE/DRUG STATUS: This abstract does not discuss or include any applicable devices or drugs.
ISSN: 1878-1632
CID: 5510422

Characterizing the Effect of Perioperative Narcotic Consumption and Narcotic Prescription Dosing at Discharge on Satisfaction With Pain Control for Patients Undergoing Single-level Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion

Owusu-Sarpong, Stephane; Iweala, Uchechi; Bloom, David; Buckland, Aaron J; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Fischer, Charla R
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:A single-center, retrospective review of prospectively collected data on patients who underwent single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusions (ACDFs) between October 2014 and October 2019. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of perioperative narcotic consumption and amount of narcotic prescribed at discharge on patient satisfaction with pain control after single-level ACDF. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:Prior research has demonstrated that opioid prescription habits may be related to physician desire to produce superior patient satisfaction with pain control. METHODS:Patients with complete Press-Ganey Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey information were analyzed. Inpatient opioid prescriptions were recorded and converted to milligram morphine equivalents (MME) and tablets of 5 mg oxycodone. HCAHPS scores were converted to a Likert-type 5-point scale. RESULTS:A total of 47 patients met inclusion criteria for this study. Average age was 48.1±10.9 y. Average inpatient opioids prescribed was 102±106 MME. Average opioids prescribed at discharge was 437±342 MME. No statistically significant correlation was found between satisfaction with pain control and opioid consumption while in the hospital [r=-0.106, P=0.483]. Similarly, there was no statistically significant correlation between satisfaction with pain control and opioids prescribed upon discharge [r=-0.185, P=0.219]. No statistically significant correlation was found between date of surgery and inpatient MME consumption [r=-0.113, P=0.450]. Interestingly, more opioids were prescribed at discharge the earlier the date of surgery [r=-0.426, P=0.003]. For every additional month further along in the study period, the odds of a patient reporting a top box score for satisfaction with pain control increased by 5.5% [P=0.025]. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our study found no correlation between patient satisfaction with pain control and inpatient opioid dosage or outpatient prescription dosage after single-level ACDF. Moreover, satisfaction with pain control increased over time despite a decrease in MME prescribed at discharge. This suggests that factors other than narcotic consumption play a more important role in patient satisfaction with pain control. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III.
PMID: 34907928
ISSN: 2380-0194
CID: 5079962

Comparative Analysis of Inpatient Opioid Consumption Between Different Surgical Approaches Following Single Level Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery

Zabat, Michelle A; Mottole, Nicole A; Ashayeri, Kimberly; Norris, Zoe A; Patel, Hershil; Sissman, Ethan; Balouch, Eaman; Maglaras, Constance; Protopsaltis, Themistocles S; Buckland, Aaron J; Fischer, Charla R
STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Single-center retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To evaluate inpatient MME administration associated with different lumbar spinal fusion surgeries. METHODS:< .05. RESULTS:= .009). There were no significant differences in MME/hour and incidence of ileus between all groups. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients undergoing MIS TLIF had lower inpatient opioid intake compared to TP and SP ALIF/LLIF, as well as shorter LOS compared to all groups except SP ALIF/LLIF. Thus, it appears that the advantages of minimally invasive surgery are seen in minimally invasive TLIFs.
PMID: 35379014
ISSN: 2192-5682
CID: 5219582