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Harsh Physical Discipline: Prevalence and Associated Factors Among Primary Caregivers of Pre-school Children in Ethiopia

Desta, Menelik; Deyessa, Negussie; Hailu, Yohannes; Baye, Abenezer; Rodriguez, Nataly; Fish, Irving; Garland, Ann F.
Harsh parental discipline is ineffective and potentially harmful to children, yet it is still common, particularly in many African countries. Culturally responsive education programs are needed to shift parenting practices in African countries, but there is limited baseline research to inform such efforts. This study"™s objectives were to establish the baseline prevalence of harsh physical discipline practices among primary caregivers of pre-school children in Ethiopia and to identify associated factors to inform intervention efforts. The well-established Parent"“Child Conflict Tactics Scale section on physical assault was translated and administered to primary caregivers of 1139 pre-school children aged 4"“6 years sampled from four regions of Ethiopia. Trained interviewers also collected basic socio-demographic data. Based on caregiver report, 52.5% (n = 598) of the children had experienced harsh physical discipline and an additional 12.7% (n = 145) experienced moderate physical discipline in their lifetimes. After controlling for covariates, the factors significantly related to increased likelihood of harsh discipline were geographic region, female caregivers, lack of employment, at least moderate perceived social status, and non-Muslim religion. These data establish a baseline from which to evaluate the impact of future educational interventions designed to shift practices. Information about the correlates can be used to tailor such intervention efforts toward those most likely to use harsh discipline practices.
ISSN: 2524-5236
CID: 5550462

Epidemiological study of a developmentally and culturally sensitive preschool intervention to improve school readiness of children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Deyessa, Negussie; Webb, Simon; Duku, Eric; Garland, Ann; Fish, Irving; Janus, Magdalena; Desta, Menelik
BACKGROUND:Early childhood is a dynamic period of physical, psychosocial and cognitive development, where age appropriate intervention during the preschool years influences psychosocial, behavioural and academic achievement of children. This study evaluated the impact of a comprehensive preschool intervention on psychosocial, cognitive and behavioural school preparedness among children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS:Employing a cluster-sampling design, 150 preschool children who received the basic preschool curriculum (non-intervention) were compared with 100 randomly selected children who received a comprehensive preschool curriculum (intervention) using the Early Development Instrument (EDI) in five domains. Sample t-tests compared means of domain scores. Binary logistic regression analysed proportions of vulnerability in domains and overall. RESULT/RESULTS:There were no group differences in gender, age, special need status or child's first language. Intervention children had higher domain scores on social competence (mean difference 0.67 (SE=0.26)), emotional maturity (mean difference 0.77 (SE=0.29)), language and cognitive development (mean difference 0.67 (SE=0.40)), communication and general knowledge (mean difference 0.82 (SE=0.34)). Accounting for confounding variables, intervention children had a lower chance of overall vulnerability to domain problems (adjusted OR (AOR)=0.38; 95% CI 0.13 to 1.15), language and cognitive development (AOR=0.21; 95% CI 0.03 to 1.64), and social competence (AOR=0.20; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.45). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The comprehensive intervention was associated with better outcomes on early childhood development across four domains. It is recommended to extend this programme to other areas of Ethiopia, where children do not have appropriate school preparation, to reduce risk of school dropout, negative personal and societal outcomes.
PMID: 32132228
ISSN: 1470-2738
CID: 4340732

Use of the WHO's Perceived Well-Being Index (WHO-5) as an efficient and potentially valid screen for depression in a low income country

Garland, Ann F; Deyessa, Negussie; Desta, Menelik; Alem, Atalay; Zerihun, Tigist; Hall, Kristopher G; Goren, Nicole; Fish, Irving
Introduction: Depression is associated with negative social, economic, and family outcomes and the majority of individuals with depression in low and middle income countries (LMICs) are untreated. A critical first step in bridging the treatment gap is accurate, feasible, and culturally appropriate screening to identify those who need treatment. The WHO's Perceived Well-Being Index (WHO-5) well-being instrument can potentially meet the screening needs of LMICs in primary care and community-based settings. This study tested the feasibility and validity of this tool to identify depression among adult parents of young children in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Successful identification and treatment of depression in parents extends benefits to children and families. Method: The WHO-5 was translated to Amharic and administered to 849 adults and compared with simultaneous administration of the well-established PHQ-9 instrument. Feasibility was assessed and analyses evaluated frequency of positive screens for depression, internal consistency, sensitivity and specificity of the WHO-5, and sociodemographic correlates of depression. Results: The prevalence of probable depression was similar as assessed by the PHQ-9 (17.3%) and the WHO-5 (18.5%). The internal consistency of the WHO-5 was strong (Cronbach's alpha = .83). WHO-5 agreement with the PHQ-9 was moderate; sensitivity and specificity were strong. Correlates of depression included unemployment and financial status. Discussion: The study provides promising evidence to support use of the WHO-5 to identify depression in Ethiopia. Feasibility was good, and it was culturally and linguistically acceptable. The results suggest that minimally trained community health and education workers in countries like Ethiopia could use the WHO-5 effectively in primary health and education settings. (PsycINFO Database Record
PMID: 29902032
ISSN: 1939-0602
CID: 3162122

Empowering Preschool Teachers to Identify Mental Health Problems: A Task-Sharing Intervention in Ethiopia

Desta, Menelik; Deyessa, Negussie; Fish, Irving; Maxwell, Benjamin; Zerihun, Tigist; Levine, Saul; Fox, Claire; Giedd, Jay; Zelleke, Tesfaye G; Alem, Atalay; Garland, Ann F
In Ethiopia there is a severe shortage of child mental health professionals. Identification and intervention for young children's mental health problems is crucial to improve developmental trajectories and reduce the severity of emotional and behavioral disorders. Teachers can play an important role in early problem detection. This role is particularly impactful in developing countries with limited mental health care resources. However, teachers' knowledge about mental health varies dramatically. This study tested the influence of a training intervention to improve teachers' ability to accurately identify preschool children's emotional and behavioral problems in 24 schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Sensitivity and specificity of teacher identification, and overall agreement with an established measurement criterion (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) were examined 2years following training compared to preintervention baseline, and a nonintervention control group of 12 schools. Results indicate that the teacher training was significantly associated with more accurate identification of children's problems.
ISSN: 1751-228x
CID: 2529132

Asthma and epilepsy: are they related? A retrospective study

Castaneda GY; Heilbroner PL; Shah N; Forem S; Fish I
Numerous studies have suggested that epilepsy and asthma may be related conditions. There has, however, been little epidemiologic data published to support this association. We conducted a retrospective study to determine whether the prevalence of epilepsy is increased among children with asthma, and the prevalence of asthma is increased among children with epilepsy, in comparison with the general pediatric population. We reviewed the medical records, at a large city hospital, of two groups of pediatric outpatients: (1) 400 consecutive patients with asthma followed regularly at the asthma and allergy clinic; and (2) 201 consecutive patients with idiopathic epilepsy followed regularly at the pediatric neurology clinic. Patients with a history of birth prior to 36 weeks' gestational age were excluded. Among the 400 cases of asthma, there were three patients with idiopathic epilepsy (prevalence of 0.75%). The prevalence of epilepsy was similar in mild (0.79%) and moderate-to-severe (0.73%) asthma. Among the 201 cases of idiopathic epilepsy, there were 12 patients with asthma (prevalence of 5.97%). Similar percentages of epilepsy patients with and without asthma reported generalized tonic-clonic, complex partial, simple partial, and myoclonic seizures as their predominant type. The prevalence values in this study are consistent with the prevalence of epilepsy and asthma in the general pediatric population. Our findings therefore suggest that idiopathic epilepsy and asthma are not etiologically related or mutually predisposing conditions. Small samples, failure to exclude patients born prematurely, and the equation of electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities with epilepsy may account for the results of previous studies
PMID: 9660512
ISSN: 0883-0738
CID: 7526

Effect of magnesium sulfate on the development of cystic periventricular leukomalacia in preterm infants

FineSmith, R B; Roche, K; Yellin, P B; Walsh, K K; Shen, C; Zeglis, M; Kahn, A; Fish, I
To determine if magnesium sulfate has an effect on the development of cystic periventricular leukomalacia in preterm infants, this retrospective case control study was conducted. There were 23,382 infants born at three teaching hospitals in the metropolitan New York area from January 1992 to December 1994. Four hundred ninety-two infants met our entrance criteria. Criteria included a birth weight < 1750 g, survival to at least 7 days of life and at least one cranial ultrasound after 7 days of life. Infants exposed to magnesium sulfate in utero were less likely to develop periventricular leukomalacia. Two of 18 (11%) infants with periventricular leukomalacia were exposed to magnesium sulfate in-utero compared to 14 of 36 controls (39%) (p = 0.035) (OR = 0.196, 95% CI = 0.039-0.988). Pre-eclampsia as an independent factor was not associated with a reduced risk (p = 0.251) (OR = 0.294, 95% CI = 0.033-2.65). Preterm infants exposed to antenatal magnesium sulfate were found to have a reduced risk of developing cystic periventricular leukomalacia.
PMID: 9259949
ISSN: 0735-1631
CID: 690722

Analysis of variables associated with preterm birth and their predictive value in periventricular leukomalacia [Meeting Abstract]

FineSmith, R; Roche, K; Shah, N; Sirikonda, P; Walsh, K; Shen, C; Yellin, P; Fish, I
ISSN: 0364-5134
CID: 1570372

A case of 2-methyl, 3-hydroxy butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency [Meeting Abstract]

Sansaricq, C; Heilbroner, P; Snyderman, SE; Fish, I; Forem, S
ISSN: 0364-5134
CID: 2095442

Baclofen in the treatment of polymyoclonus and ataxia in a patient with homocystinuria [Case Report]

Awaad Y; Sansaricq C; Moroney J; Fish I; Kyriakakos A; Snyderman SE
A patient with homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency developed severe progressive polymyoclonus and ataxia. To our knowledge, this is the first time polymyoclonus and ataxia have been reported in association with homocystinuria. Although cerebrovascular thrombosis is usually thought to be responsible for neurologic dysfunction in homocystinuric patients, no infarctions were demonstrated on magnetic resonance imaging scans in our case. We have previously reported that baclofen dramatically improved the polymyoclonus and ataxia in a patient with Unvericht-Lundborg disease. Baclofen given to our patient reversed the polymyoclonus and the ataxia as well. This suggests that patients with polymyoclonus and ataxia, no matter what the etiology, may benefit from the use of baclofen
PMID: 7594264
ISSN: 0883-0738
CID: 6885

Baclofen in the treatment of polymyoclonus in a patient with Unverricht-Lundborg disease [Case Report]

Awaad Y; Fish I
PMID: 7769184
ISSN: 0883-0738
CID: 6571