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Children with ADHD treated with long-term methylphenidate and multimodal psychosocial treatment: impact on parental practices

Hechtman, Lily; Abikoff, Howard; Klein, Rachel G; Greenfield, Brian; Etcovitch, Joy; Cousins, Lorne; Fleiss, Karen; Weiss, Margaret; Pollack, Simcha
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that multimodal psychosocial intervention, which includes parent training, combined with methylphenidate significantly enhances the behavior of parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), compared with methylphenidate alone and compared with methylphenidate and nonspecific psychosocial treatment (attention control). METHOD: One hundred three children with ADHD (ages 7-9), free of conduct and learning disorders, who responded to short-term methylphenidate therapy were randomized for 2 years to receive either (1) methylphenidate treatment alone; (2) methylphenidate plus psychosocial treatment that included parent training and counseling, social skills training, academic assistance, and psychotherapy; or (3) methylphenidate plus attention control treatment. Parents rated their knowledge of parenting principles and negative and positive parenting behavior. Children rated their parents' behavior. RESULTS: Psychosocial treatment led to significantly better knowledge of parenting principles but did not enhance parenting practices, as rated by parents and children. Significant improvement in mothers' negative parenting occurred across all treatments and was maintained. CONCLUSIONS: In nonconduct-disordered, stimulant-treated children with ADHD, parent training does not improve self-rated parental behavior. The benefits of brief stimulant treatment for negative parental behavior are sustained with extended treatment
PMID: 15213584
ISSN: 0890-8567
CID: 43632

Social functioning in children with ADHD treated with long-term methylphenidate and multimodal psychosocial treatment

Abikoff, Howard; Hechtman, Lily; Klein, Rachel G; Gallagher, Richard; Fleiss, Karen; Etcovitch, Joy; Cousins, Lorne; Greenfield, Brian; Martin, Diane; Pollack, Simcha
OBJECTIVE: To test that methylphenidate combined with intensive multimodal psychosocial intervention, which includes social skills training, significantly enhances social functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with methylphenidate alone and methylphenidate plus nonspecific psychosocial treatment (attention control). METHOD: One hundred three children with ADHD (ages 7-9), free of conduct and learning disorders, who responded to short-term methylphenidate were randomized for 2 years to receive (1) methylphenidate alone, (2) methylphenidate plus multimodal psychosocial treatment that included social skills training, or (3) methylphenidate plus attention control treatment. Assessments included parent, child, and teacher ratings of social function and direct school observations in gym. RESULTS: No advantage was found on any measure of social functioning for the combination treatment over methylphenidate alone or methylphenidate plus attention control. Significant improvement occurred across all treatments and continued over 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: In young children with ADHD, there is no support for clinic-based social skills training as part of a long-term psychosocial intervention to improve social behavior. Significant benefits from methylphenidate were stable over 2 years
PMID: 15213583
ISSN: 0890-8567
CID: 43633

Academic achievement and emotional status of children with ADHD treated with long-term methylphenidate and multimodal psychosocial treatment

Hechtman, Lily; Abikoff, Howard; Klein, Rachel G; Weiss, Gabrielle; Respitz, Chara; Kouri, Joan; Blum, Carol; Greenfield, Brian; Etcovitch, Joy; Fleiss, Karen; Pollack, Simcha
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that intensive multimodal psychosocial intervention (that includes academic assistance and psychotherapy) combined with methylphenidate significantly enhances the academic performance and emotional status of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with methylphenidate alone and with methylphenidate combined with nonspecific psychosocial treatment (attention control). METHOD: One hundred three children with ADHD (ages 7-9), free of conduct and learning disorders, who responded to short-term methylphenidate were randomized for 2 years to receive one of three treatments: (1) methylphenidate alone, (2) methylphenidate plus psychosocial treatment that included academic remediation, organizational skills training, and psychotherapy as well as parent training and counseling and social skills training, or (3) methylphenidate plus attention control treatment. Children's function was assessed through academic testing, parent ratings of homework problems, and self-ratings of depression and self-esteem. RESULTS: No advantage was found on any measure of academic performance or emotional status for the combination treatment over methylphenidate alone and over methylphenidate plus attention control. Significant improvement occurred across all treatments and was maintained over 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: In stimulant-responsive young children with ADHD without learning and conduct disorders, there is no support for academic assistance and psychotherapy to enhance academic achievement or emotional adjustment. Significant short-term improvements were maintained over 2 years
PMID: 15213582
ISSN: 0890-8567
CID: 43634

Symptomatic improvement in children with ADHD treated with long-term methylphenidate and multimodal psychosocial treatment

Abikoff, Howard; Hechtman, Lily; Klein, Rachel G; Weiss, Gabrielle; Fleiss, Karen; Etcovitch, Joy; Cousins, Lorne; Greenfield, Brian; Martin, Diane; Pollack, Simcha
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypotheses that in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (1) symptoms of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder, and overall functioning are significantly improved by methylphenidate combined with intensive multimodal psychosocial treatment compared with methylphenidate alone and with methylphenidate plus attention control and (2) more children receiving combined treatment can be taken off methylphenidate. METHOD: One hundred three children with ADHD (ages 7-9), free of conduct and learning disorders, who responded to short-term methylphenidate were randomized for 2 years to (1) methylphenidate alone; (2) methylphenidate plus psychosocial treatment that included parent training and counseling, social skills training, psychotherapy, and academic assistance, or (3) methylphenidate plus attention psychosocial control treatment. Assessments included parent, teacher, and psychiatrist ratings, and observations in academic and gym classes. RESULTS: Combination treatment did not lead to superior functioning and did not facilitate methylphenidate discontinuation. Significant improvement occurred across all treatments and continued over 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: In stimulant-responsive children with ADHD, there is no support for adding ambitious long-term psychosocial intervention to improve ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. Significant benefits from methylphenidate were stable over 2 years
PMID: 15213581
ISSN: 0890-8567
CID: 43635