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Increasing age is associated with worse outcomes in elderly patients with severe liver injury

Gorman, Elizabeth; Bukur, Marko; Frangos, Spiros; DiMaggio, Charles; Kozar, Rosemary; Klein, Michael; Pachter, H Leon; Berry, Cherisse
While the incidence of geriatric trauma continues to increase, outcomes following severe blunt liver injury (BLI) are unknown. We sought to investigate independent predictors of mortality among elderly trauma patients with severe BLI. A retrospective study of the NTDB (2014-15) identified patients with isolated, high-grade BLI. Patients were stratified into two groups, non-elderly (<65 years) and elderly (≥65 years), and then two management groups: operative within 24 h of admission and non-operative. Demographics and outcomes were compared. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate association with mortality. A total of 1133 patients met our inclusion criteria. 107 patients required surgery and 1011 patients were managed non-operatively. Age was independently associated with mortality (AOR 1.04, p < .001). For patients <65 years, need for operative intervention was associated with a 55 times greater likelihood of death (AOR 55.1, p < .001). In patients ≥65 years, operative intervention was associated with a 122 times greater likelihood of death (AOR 122.09, p = .005). Age is independently associated with mortality in patients with high grade BLI.
PMID: 32653089
ISSN: 1879-1883
CID: 4527632

Blacks/African American Communities are at Highest Risk of COVID-19: Spatial Modeling of New York City ZIP Code-Level Testing Results

DiMaggio, Charles; Klein, Michael; Berry, Cherisse; Frangos, Spiros
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The population and spatial characteristics of COVID-19 infections are poorly understood, but there is increasing evidence that in addition to individual clinical factors, demographic, socioeconomic and racial characteristics play an important role. METHODS:We analyzed positive COVID-19 testing results counts within New York City ZIP Code Tabulation Areas (ZCTA) with Bayesian hierarchical Poisson spatial models using integrated nested Laplace approximations. RESULTS:Spatial clustering accounted for approximately 32% of the variation in the data. There was a nearly five-fold increase in the risk of a positive COVID-19 test. (IDR = 4.8, 95% Cr I 2.4, 9.7) associated with the proportion of Black / African American residents. Increases in the proportion of residents older than 65 years, housing density and the proportion of residents with heart disease were each associated with an approximate doubling of risk. In a multivariable model including estimates for age, COPD, heart disease, housing density and Black/African American race, the only variables that remained associated with positive COVID-19 testing with a probability greater than chance were the proportion of Black/African American residents and proportion of older persons. CONCLUSIONS:Areas with large proportions of Black/African American residents are at markedly higher risk that is not fully explained by characteristics of the environment and pre-existing conditions in the population.
PMID: 32827672
ISSN: 1873-2585
CID: 4581562

Underrepresented Minorities in Surgical Residencies: Where are They? A Call to Action to Increase the Pipeline

Keshinro, Ajaratu; Frangos, Spiros; Berman, Russell S; DiMaggio, Charles; Klein, Michael J; Bukur, Marko; Welcome, Akuezunkpa Ude; Pachter, Hersch Leon; Berry, Cherisse
OBJECTIVE:To describe and evaluate trends of general surgery residency applicants, matriculants, and graduates over the last 13 years. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA/BACKGROUND:The application and matriculation rates of URMs to medical school has remained unchanged over the last three decades with Blacks and Hispanics representing 7.1% and 6.3% of matriculants, respectively. With each succession along the surgical career pathway, from medical school to residency to a faculty position, the percentage of URMs decreases. METHODS:The Electronic Residency Application Service to General Surgery Residency and the Graduate Medical Education Survey of residents completing general surgery residency were retrospectively analyzed (2005-2018). Data were stratified by race, descriptive statistics were performed, and time series were charted. RESULTS:From 2005 to 2018, there were 71,687 Electronic Residency Application Service applicants to general surgery residencies, 26,237 first year matriculants, and 24,893 general surgery residency graduates. Whites followed by Asians represented the highest percentage of applicants (n = 31,197, 43.5% and n = 16,602, 23%), matriculants (n = 16,395, 62.5% and n = 4768, 18.2%), and graduates (n = 15,239, 61% and n = 4804, 19%). For URMs, the applicants (n = 8603, 12%, P < 0.00001), matriculants (n = 2420, 9.2%, P = 0.0158), and graduates (n = 2508, 10%, P = 0.906) remained significantly low and unchanged, respectively, whereas the attrition was significantly higher (3.6%, P = 0.049) when compared to Whites (2.6%) and Asians (2.9%). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Significant disparities in the application, matriculation, graduation, and attrition rates for general surgery residency exists for URMs. A call to action is needed to re-examine and improve existing recommendations/paradigms to increase the number of URMs in the surgery training pipeline.
PMID: 33074873
ISSN: 1528-1140
CID: 4642002

Age is a predictor for mortality after blunt splenic injury

Warnack, Elizabeth; Bukur, Marko; Frangos, Spiros; DiMaggio, Charles; Kozar, Rosemary; Klein, Michael; Berry, Cherisse
BACKGROUND:While the incidence of geriatric trauma continues to increase, the management of high-grade blunt splenic injury (BSI) in the elderly remains controversial. Among this population, data evaluating survival rates following non-operative and operative management are inconsistent. We analyzed mortality risk in geriatric patients with high-grade BSI based on operative vs. non-operative management. METHODS:A retrospective analysis of the National Trauma Database identified patients with isolated, high-grade (AIS ≥ 3) BSI from 2014 to 2015. Patients were stratified into three groups: non-elderly (<65 years), elderly (65-79 years), and advanced age (80 years and older). Each age group was stratified into three management groups: non-operative (including embolization), initial operative management (OR within 24 h), and failed non-operative management. Patient characteristics and outcomes were compared. Multivariable logistic regression estimated association with mortality. RESULTS:5560 patients with isolated, high-grade BSI were identified. In the group that failed NOM, mortality was 2% in non-elderly patients, versus 22.2% in elderly patients and 50% in patients of advanced age (p < .01). In this group, patients over 80 years old spent an average of 6.5 days longer in the ICU vs. non-elderly patients (median 10.5 days, IQR [6.75, 19.5] vs. 4 days, IQR [3,6], p = 0.02). In patients with isolated, high grade BSI, age was independently associated with mortality (AOR 1.02; p < 0.01). Elderly patients who required surgery were over three times more likely to die (AOR 3.39; p < 0.01). Advanced age patients who required surgery were over eight times more likely to die (AOR 8.1; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:For patients with BSI, age is independently associated with death in both operative and non-operative cases.
PMID: 32061397
ISSN: 1879-1883
CID: 4311912

Is trauma center designation associated with disparities in discharge to rehabiliation centers among elderly patients with traumatic brain injury [Editorial]

Gorman, Elizabeth; Frangos, Spiros; DiMaggio, Charles; Bukur, Marko; Klein, Michael; Pachter, H Leon; Berry, Cherisse
PMID: 32423600
ISSN: 1879-1883
CID: 4588182

Acute Care Surgeons' Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic: Observations and Strategies From the Epicenter of the American Crisis

Klein, Michael J; Frangos, Spiros G; Krowsoski, Leandra; Tandon, Manish; Bukur, Marko; Parikh, Manish; Cohen, Steven M; Carter, Joseph; Link, Robert Nathan; Uppal, Amit; Pachter, Hersch Leon; Berry, Cherisse
PMID: 32675500
ISSN: 1528-1140
CID: 4574222

A multiple casualty incident clinical tracking form for civilian hospitals

Frangos, Spiros G; Bukur, Marko; Berry, Cherisse; Tandon, Manish; Krowsoski, Leandra; Bernstein, Mark; DiMaggio, Charles; Gulati, Rajneesh; Klein, Michael J
BACKGROUND:While mass-casualty incidents (MCIs) may have competing absolute definitions, a universally ac-cepted criterion is one that strains locally available resources. In the fall of 2017, a MCI occurred in New York and Bellevue Hospital received multiple injured patients within minutes; lessons learned included the need for a formal-ized, efficient patient and injury tracking system. Our objective was to create an organized MCI clinical tracking form for civilian trauma centers. METHODS:After the MCI, the notes of the surgeon responsible for directing patient triage were analyzed. A suc-cinct, organized template was created that allows MCI directors to track demographics, injuries, interventions, and other important information for multiple patients in a real-time fashion. This tool was piloted during a subsequent MCI. RESULTS:In late 2018, the hospital received six patients following another MCI. They arrived within a 4-minute window, with 5 patients being critically injured. Two emergent surgeries and angioembolizations were performed. The tool was used by the MCI director to prioritize and expedite care. All physicians agreed that the tool assisted in orga-nizing diagnostic and therapeutic triage. CONCLUSIONS:During MCIs, a streamlined patient tracking template assists with information recall and communica-tion between providers and may allow for expedited care.
PMID: 32441042
ISSN: 1543-5865
CID: 4444722

Elderly Patients With Cervical Spine Fractures After Ground Level Falls Are at Risk for Blunt Cerebrovascular Injury

Gorman, Elizabeth; DiMaggio, Charles; Frangos, Spiros; Klein, Michael; Berry, Cherisse; Bukur, Marko
BACKGROUND:Osteopenia is common in the elderly, increasing their risk of sustaining cervical fractures after ground level falls (GLFs). We sought to examine the incidence of blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) and subsequent stroke in elderly GLF patients as compared with other higher injury mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:The Trauma Quality Improvement Program database (2011-2016) was used to identify blunt trauma patients with isolated (other body region abbreviated injury scale <3) cervical spine (C1-C7) fractures. Patients were stratified into three groups: nonelderly patients (<65) with all mechanisms of injury, elderly patients (≥65) with GLF, and elderly patients with all other mechanism of injury. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors for BCVI, stroke, spinal cord injury, and acute kidney injury. RESULTS:Seventeen thousand six hundred twenty-eight patients with cervical spine injuries were identified. BCVI was highest in the <65 group (0.8%) and lowest in elderly patients with GLF (0.3%, P = 0.001). When controlling for other factors, elderly patients with GLF were less likely to sustain BCVI (adjusted odds ratio: 0.46, P = 0.03) but had comparable rates of stroke attributable to BCVI (18.2% versus 6.5%, P = 0.184) and comparable rate of acute kidney injury compared with elderly patients with other mechanism of injury. CONCLUSIONS:In elderly patients with isolated cervical spine fracture after GLF, BCVI occurs less frequently but is associated with a comparable rate of stroke as compared with other mechanisms. Low injury mechanism should not preclude BCVI screening in the presence of cervical spine fractures.
PMID: 32339786
ISSN: 1095-8673
CID: 4411962

Early Anti-Xa Assay-Guided Low Molecular Weight Heparin Chemoprophylaxis Is Safe in Adult Patients with Acute Traumatic Brain Injury

Rodier, Simon G; Kim, Mirhee; Moore, Samantha; Frangos, Spiros G; Tandon, Manish; Klein, Michael J; Berry, Cherisse D; Huang, Paul P; DiMaggio, Charles J; Bukur, Marko
This study evaluated the safety of early anti-factor Xa assay-guided enoxaparin dosing for chemoprophylaxis in patients with TBI. We hypothesized that assay-guided chemoprophylaxis would be comparable in the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) progression to fixed dosing. An observational analysis of adult patients with blunt traumatic brain injury (TBI) was performed at a Level I trauma center from August 2016 to September 2017. Patients in the assay-guided group were treated with an initial enoxaparin dose of 0.5 mg/kg, with peak anti-factor Xa activity measured four hours after the third dose. Prophylactic range was defined as 0.2 to 0.5 IU/mL with a dose adjustment of ± 10 mg based on the assay result. The assay-guided group was compared with historical fixed-dose controls and to a TBI cohort from the most recent Trauma Quality Improvement Project dataset. Of 179 patients included in the study, 85 were in the assay-guided group and 94 were in the fixed-dose group. Compared with the fixed-dose group, the assay-guided group had a lower Glasgow Coma Score and higher Injury Severity Score. The proportion of severe (Abbreviated Injury Score, head ≥3) TBI, ICH progression, and venous thromboembolism rates were similar between all groups. The assay-guided and fixed-dose groups had chemoprophylaxis initiated earlier than the Trauma Quality Improvement Project group. The assay-guided group had the highest percentage of low molecular weight heparin use. Early initiation of enoxaparin anti-factor Xa assay-guided venous thromboembolism chemoprophylaxis has a comparable risk of ICH progression to fixed dosing in patients with TBI. These findings should be validated prospectively in a multicenter study.
PMID: 32391762
ISSN: 1555-9823
CID: 4430962

Trauma center transfer of elderly patients with mild Traumatic Brain Injury improves outcomes

Velez, Ana M; Frangos, Spiros G; DiMaggio, Charles J; Berry, Cherisse D; Avraham, Jacob B; Bukur, Marko
BACKGROUND:Elderly patients with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) are frequently transferred to designated Trauma Centers (TC). We hypothesized that TC transfer is associated with improved outcomes. METHODS:Retrospective study utilizing the National Trauma Databank. Demographics, injury and outcomes data were abstracted. Patients were dichotomized by transfer to a designated level I/II TC vs. not. Multivariate regression was used to derive the adjusted primary outcome, mortality, and secondary outcomes, complications and discharge disposition. RESULTS:19,664 patients were included, with a mean age of 78.1 years. 70% were transferred to a level I/II TC. Transferred patients had a higher ISS (12 vs. 10, p < 0.001). Mortality was significantly lower in patients transferred to level I/II TCs (5.6% vs. 6.2%, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 0.84, p = 0.011), as was the likelihood of discharge to skilled nursing facilities (26.4% vs. 30.2%, AOR 0.80, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Elderly patients with mild TBI transferred to level I/II TCs have improved outcomes. Which patients with mild TBI require level I/II TC care should be examined prospectively.
PMID: 31208625
ISSN: 1879-1883
CID: 3938982