Part I: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Considerations of Primary and Secondary Raynaud's Phenomenon
Raynaud's Phenomenon is a relatively common disease with both primary and secondary forms. It is well understood as a vasospastic condition affecting the acral and digital arteries resulting in characteristic, well-demarcated color changes typically in the hands and feet in response to cold or stress. Secondary RP has been described in association with a variety of rheumatologic and non-rheumatologic diseases, environmental exposures, and/or medications. While both primary and secondary RP may impact quality of life, SRP may lead to permanent and potentially devastating tissue destruction when undiagnosed and untreated. It is therefore crucial for dermatologists to distinguish between primary and secondary disease forms early in clinical evaluation, investigate potential underlaying causes, and risk stratify SRP patients for the development of associated ACTD. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical presentation and diagnosis of both forms of Raynaud's Phenomenon are described in detail in this review article.
Part II: The Treatment of Primary and Secondary Raynaud's Phenomenon
Raynaud's Phenomenon presents with either primary or secondary disease, of which both have the potential to negatively impact patient quality of life. First-line management of RP should include lifestyle modifications in all patients. Some patients with primary RP and most with secondary RP require pharmacologic therapies which may include CCBs, topical nitrates, PDE-5 inhibitors, or endothelin antagonists. Additional approaches to treatment for those with signs of critical ischemia or those who fail pharmacologic therapy include botulinum toxin injection and digital sympathectomy. Herein, we describe in detail the treatment options for patients with RP, as well as provide treatment algorithms for each RP subtype.
Eosinophilic Fasciitis With Concomitant Morphea Profunda Treated With Intravenous Immunoglobulin
A Comparison of 2019 EULAR/ACR SLE Classification Criteria with Two Sets of Earlier SLE Classification Criteria
OBJECTIVE:The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) 2012 SLE classification criteria and the revised American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1997 criteria are list-based, counting each SLE manifestation equally. We derived a classification rule based on giving variable weights to the SLICC criteria, and compared its performance to the revised ACR 1997, unweighted SLICC 2012 and the newly reported European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)/ACR 2019 criteria. METHODS:The physician-rated patient scenarios used to develop the SLICC 2012 classification criteria were re-employed to devise a new weighted classification rule using multiple linear regression. The performance of the rule was evaluated on an independent set of expert-diagnosed patient scenarios and compared to the performance of the previously reported classification rules. RESULTS:Weighted SLICC criteria and the EULAR/ACR 2019 criteria had less sensitivity but better specificity compared to the list-based revised ACR 1997 and SLICC 2012 classification criteria. There were no statistically significant differences between any pair of rules with respect to overall agreement with the physician diagnosis. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The two new weighted classification rules did not perform better than the existing list-based rules in terms of overall agreement on a dataset originally generated to assess the SLICC criteria. Given the added complexity of summing weights, researchers may prefer the unweighted SLICC criteria. However, the performance of a classification rule will always depend on the populations from which the cases and non-cases are derived, and whether the goal is to prioritize sensitivity or specificity.
Anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgA in the SLICC classification criteria dataset
OBJECTIVE:Anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgA is a common isotype of anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I in SLE. Anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I was not included in the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) SLE classification criteria, but was included in the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) criteria. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of anti-beta 2-glycoprotein I IgA in SLE versus other rheumatic diseases. In addition, we examined the association between anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgA and disease manifestations in SLE. METHODS:The dataset consisted of 1384 patients, 657 with a consensus physician diagnosis of SLE and 727 controls with other rheumatic diseases. Anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I isotypes were measured by ELISA. Patients with a consensus diagnosis of SLE were compared to controls with respect to presence of anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I. Among patients with SLE, we assessed the association between anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgA and clinical manifestations. RESULTS:The prevalence of anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgA was 14% in SLE patients and 7% in rheumatic disease controls (odds ratio, OR 2.3, 95% CI: 1.6, 3.3). It was more common in SLE patients who were younger patients and of African descent (pâ€‰=â€‰0.019). Eleven percent of SLE patients had anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgA alone (no anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgG or IgM). There was a significant association between anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgA and anti-dsDNA (pâ€‰=â€‰0.001) and the other antiphospholipid antibodies (pâ€‰=â€‰0.0004). There was no significant correlation of anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgA with any of the other ACR or SLICC clinical criteria for SLE. Those with anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgA tended to have a history of thrombosis (12% vs 6%, pâ€‰=â€‰0.071), but the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We found the anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I IgA isotype to be more common in patients with SLE and in particular, with African descent. It could occur alone without other isotypes.
Dermatomyositis-like Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease With MDA5 Autoantibodies
Morphea induced by treatment with Interferon Î²-1Î± [Letter]
The etiology of morphea is poorly understood, but small vessel endothelial damage, T-cell recruitment, immune dysregulation, and the release of profibrotic cytokines likely contribute to pathogenesis. Biologic agents such as interferon (IFN)-Î²1Î± influence the development of systemic sclerosis (SSc) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).1 Treatment with type I interferons, such as IFN-Î²1Î±, may activate shared pathogenic pathways of autoimmunity and promote the development of morphea. We present the case of a 55-year-old female who developed morphea secondary to IFN-Î²1Î± therapy for multiple sclerosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Case report of discoid lupus erythematosus in association with electronic cigarette use [Case Report]
A patient with POEMS syndrome responding to modified CyBorD chemotherapy as a bridge to autologous stem cell transplantation [Case Report]
The Clinical Effects of L-Arginine and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine: Implications for Treatment in Secondary Raynaud's Phenomenon
Secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is often the sentinel clinical finding in systemic sclerosis and may precede systemic disease by several years. Altered nitric oxide metabolism plays a critical role in both fibrosis and severe secondary RP phenotypes in these patients. Increased flux through inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) drives cutaneous fibrosis. Failure of flux through endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) contributes to increased vasoconstriction and decreased vasorelaxation. The underproduction of nitric oxide by eNOS is in part due to increased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. The inhibitory effects of increased ADMA levels may be counteracted increasing serum L-arginine, which is often an effective treatment strategy in these patients. As such, L-arginine based therapies should be considered in managing secondary RP, particularly given their favorable safety and tolerability profile. While there is no established dosing regimen, studies of oral L-arginine in secondary RP suggest that divided dosing may begin at 1-2g/day and may be titrated up to 10g/day. Conversely, primary RP is not associated with increased ADMA production which likely accounts for the failure of L-arginine trials to show benefit in primary RP.