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Benjamin Babington and the quadricuspid aortic valve [Letter]

Bietry, Raymond E; Freedberg, Robin S; Saric, Muhamed
PMID: 23922074
ISSN: 0003-4819
CID: 961462

Mitral valve libman-sacks endocarditis visualized by real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography

Shroff, Hersh; Benenstein, Ricardo; Freedberg, Robin; Mehl, Sydney; Saric, Muhamed
Libman-Sacks endocarditis (LSE) is a common manifestation of valve disease in antiphospholipid syndrome. Mitral valve LSE is characterized by verrucous vegetations on the atrial surfaces of valve leaflets. In this report, mitral valve LSE was visualized by real time 3D transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). 3D TEE provides a unique en face view of the mitral valve akin to a surgical or autopsy view that allows for an accurate determination of the size, shape, and location of the vegetations. (Echocardiography 2012;29:E100-E101).
PMID: 22176492
ISSN: 0742-2822
CID: 164334

Isolated left atrial appendage ostial stenosis [Case Report]

Stern, Joshua D; Skolnick, Adam H; Freedberg, Robin S; Kronzon, Itzhak
A patient with atrial tachycardia presented with dyspnoea on exertion. Transoesophageal echocardiography revealed idiopathic left atrial appendage stenosis. The mouth of the atrial appendage was narrowed, and there was a high velocity to and fro jet between the left atrial body and the left atrial appendage. The study, therefore, suggested isolated left atrial appendage orifice stenosis
PMID: 19435734
ISSN: 1532-2114
CID: 100048

Feasibility and cardiac safety of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin plus trastuzumab in heavily pretreated patients with recurrent HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer

Andreopoulou, Eleni; Gaiotti, Darci; Kim, Eugene; Volm, Matthew; Oratz, Ruth; Freedberg, Robin; Downey, Andrea; Vogel, Charles L; Chia, Stephen; Muggia, Franco
BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated concomitant pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) plus trastuzumab as therapy for HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer (MBC). This open-label, prospective, phase II trial assessed the safety and efficacy of this regimen, with cardiac tolerance as the principal focus. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Women with HER2-overexpressing recurrent MBC, baseline left ventricular ejection fraction >or= 55%, and no history of serious cardiac illness were eligible; preexisting cardiac risk factors, including previous anthracyclines and previous trastuzumab for MBC, were allowed. Patients received weekly trastuzumab and every-3-week PLD until progression, prohibitive toxicity, or patient refusal. Left ventricular ejection fraction was assessed during and after therapy. Grade 3/4 congestive heart failure (CHF) was monitored for premature closure. RESULTS: The trial closed after 2.5 years for slow accrual. Twelve patients were enrolled: 7 had received adjuvant anthracyclines; 9 had received previous MBC treatment, of whom 7 had received trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy. Patients received a mean of 4.8 cycles of PLD; 8 patients experienced stable disease; 4 patients experienced progression. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction levels did not change substantially: 60.4%, 57%, 60.3%, and 56.8% at baseline, after cycle 2, after cycle 4, and after completion of treatment, respectively. No patients experienced grade 4 CHF. One patient discontinued treatment after grade 3 CHF. Three patients experienced grade 2 left ventricular dysfunction, of whom 2 discontinued treatment. Cardiac function improved in all 4 patients after going off study. Other adverse events were generally mild (grade 1/2) and infrequent. CONCLUSION: Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin plus trastuzumab might be an option for heavily pretreated patients with recurrent HER2-overexpressing MBC
PMID: 17919349
ISSN: 1526-8209
CID: 75388

Effect of treatment on the incidence of stroke and other emboli in 519 patients with severe thoracic aortic plaque

Tunick, Paul A; Nayar, Ambika C; Goodkin, Gregory M; Mirchandani, Sunil; Francescone, Steven; Rosenzweig, Barry P; Freedberg, Robin S; Katz, Edward S; Applebaum, Robert M; Kronzon, Itzhak
Severe aortic plaques seen on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are a high-risk cause of stroke and peripheral embolization. Evidence to guide therapy is lacking. Retrospective information was obtained regarding the occurrence of embolic events (stroke, transient ischemic attacks, or peripheral emboli) in 519 patients with severe thoracic aortic plaque seen on TEE since 1988. Treatment with statins, warfarin, or antiplatelet medications was noted. Treatment was not randomized. In a matched-paired analysis, each patient taking each class of therapy was matched for age, gender, previous embolic event, hypertension, diabetes, congestive failure, and atrial fibrillation to someone not taking that medication. Multivariate analysis was also performed. An embolic event occurred in 111 patients (21%). Multivariate analysis showed that statin use was independently protective against recurrent events (p = 0.0001). Matched analysis also showed a protective effect of statins (p = 0.0004; absolute risk reduction 17%, relative risk reduction 59%, number needed to treat [n = 6]). No protective effect was found for warfarin or antiplatelet drugs. The odds ratio for embolic events was 0.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2 to 0.6) for statin therapy, 0.7 (95% CI 0.4 to 1.2) for warfarin, and 1.4 (95% CI 0.8 to 2.4) for antiplatelet agents. Thus, there is a protective effect of statin therapy, and no significant benefit of warfarin or antiplatelet drugs on the incidence of stroke and other embolic events in patients with severe thoracic aortic plaque on TEE
PMID: 12480041
ISSN: 0002-9149
CID: 36577

The risk of the development of aortic stenosis in patients with "benign" aortic valve thickening

Cosmi, John E; Kort, Smadar; Tunick, Paul A; Rosenzweig, Barry P; Freedberg, Robin S; Katz, Edward S; Applebaum, Robert M; Kronzon, Itzhak
BACKGROUND: Aortic valve thickening (AVT) without aortic stenosis (AS) is common and was often considered benign. However, it has recently been found to be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. It is unknown whether patients with AVT are at risk for the development of AS. METHODS: Our echocardiography database from 1987 to 1993 was searched for cases of AVT with at least 1 year of echocardiographic follow-up. The risk of the development of AS was compared in patients with and without AVT. RESULTS: There were 2131 patients with AVT and at least 1 year of echocardiographic follow-up. Aortic stenosis developed in 338 patients (15.9%) (mild, 10.5%; moderate, 2.9%; and severe, 2.5%). Multivariate analysis, including age, left ventricular hypertrophy, and mitral annular calcification, revealed that only mitral annular calcification was independently and significantly associated with progression to AS. CONCLUSIONS: Aortic valve thickening without stenosis is common, and it may progress to significant AS. It is possible that this development of AS may be responsible for some of the increased morbidity and mortality in patients with AVT
PMID: 12418948
ISSN: 0003-9926
CID: 39568

Paradoxically normal septal motion in Ebstein's anomaly [Case Report]

Reynolds, Harmony R; Tunick, Paul A; Freedberg, Robin S; Rutkowski, Monika; Kaplan, Kenneth C; Kronzon, Itzhak
Paradoxical septal motion has been reported as characteristic of Ebstein's anomaly. The patient reported here has the characteristic apical displacement of the tricuspid value, but septal motion is uncharacteristically normal. Because there is only mild tricuspid regurgitation, it is likely that the absence of right ventricular volume overload accounts for the normal septal motion in this patient
PMID: 12174355
ISSN: 0894-7317
CID: 32260

Abdominal aortic aneurysms and thoracic aortic atheromas

Reynolds HR; Tunick PA; Kort S; Rosenzweig BP; Freedberg RS; Katz ES; Applebaum RM; Portnay EL; Adelman MA; Attubato MJ; Kronzon I
BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is associated with atherosclerosis elsewhere. Thoracic aortic atheromas (ATHs) seen on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are an important cause of stroke and peripheral embolization. The purposes of this study were to determine whether an association exists between AAA and ATHs and to assess the importance of screening patients with ATHs for AAA. METHODS: For the retrospective analysis, 109 patients with AAA and 109 matched controls were compared for the prevalence of ATHs on TEE and for historical variables. For the prospective analysis, screening for AAA on ultrasonography was performed in 364 patients at the time of TEE. RESULTS: Results of the retrospective analysis showed that ATHs were present in 52% of patients with AAA and in 25% of controls (odds ratio [OR] = 3.3; P =.00003). There was a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure, smoking, and carotid or peripheral arterial disease in patients with AAA. However, only ATHs were independently associated with AAA on multivariate analysis (P =.001). Results of the prospective analysis showed that screening at the time of TEE in 364 patients revealed AAA in 13.9% of those with ATHs and in 1.4% of those without ATHs (P <.0001; OR = 11.4). CONCLUSIONS: (1) There is a strong, highly significant association between abdominal aneurysm and thoracic atheromas. (2) Patients with AAA may be at high risk for stroke because of the concomitance of thoracic aortic atheromas. (3) The high prevalence of abdominal aneurysm in patients with thoracic atheromas suggests that screening for abdominal aneurysm should be carried out in all patients with thoracic atheromas identified by TEE
PMID: 11696839
ISSN: 0894-7317
CID: 26574

Unusually located left atrial papillary fibroelastoma with probable embolization to the spinal cord [Case Report]

Friedman GR; Pappas TW; Colangelo R; Tunick PA; Freedberg RS; Scholes JV; Kronzon I
This report presents a patient with flaccid paraplegia, most probably secondary to embolization from a left atrial papillary fibroelastoma. The unique location of the tumor, attached to the ridge in the left atrium between the left atrial appendage and pulmonary vein, was well documented on transesophageal echocardiography, and the diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology. Although benign, these tumors may develop in all four cardiac chambers and result in pulmonary or systemic embolization. Paraplegia is a rare embolic complication
PMID: 11567600
ISSN: 0742-2822
CID: 26614

Innominate artery atheroma: a lesion seen with gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography and often missed by transesophageal echocardiography

Krinsky GA; Freedberg R; Lee VS; Rockman C; Tunick PA
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the procedure of choice for identifying aortic atheromas, which may result in stroke, transient ischemic attack and peripheral embolization. However, because of anatomic constraints, the innominate artery may not be visualized. We investigated gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography (MRA) as an alternative technique for evaluation of suspected atheromas of the innominate artery. From a retrospective review of 520 examinations, we identified five patients who had innominate artery atheromas diagnosed prospectively with gadolinium-enhanced MRA who also underwent TEE within 1 month. A total of 10 innominate artery atheromas were demonstrated on MRA; none of these were visualized on TEE. One patient had three atheromas, two patients had two atheromas and three patients had one atheroma. They ranged in size from 3 mm to 1.5 cm (mean 6.5 mm). One atheroma was flat, two were filiform, and seven were protruding. Gadolinium-enhanced MRA is superior to TEE for the diagnosis of atheromas of the innominate artery. In the setting of right cerebral or right arm embolization, when no source is seen in the arch on TEE, gadolinium-enhanced MRA should be considered
PMID: 11566085
ISSN: 0899-7071
CID: 26656