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Size matters: Total testicular volume predicts sperm count in Tanner V varicocele patients

Fang, Alexander H; Franco, Israel; Pizzuti, Joseph M; Boroda, Joseph U; Friedman, Steven C; Fine, Ronnie G; Horowitz, Mark; Schlussel, Richard N; Landau-Dyer, Lori; Zelkovic, Paul F; Freyle, Jaime; Sommer, Jessica E; Gitlin, Jordan S
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:It is known the prevalence of varicoceles in adolescent men is 14-29% but there is debate surrounding implications on fertility. As obtaining a semen analysis (SA) may be challenging, there is need for objective tests as measures of fecundity. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between testicular volume differential (TVD), varicocele grade, and total testicular volume (TTV) on seminal parameters including total motile sperm count (TMSC). MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We conducted a retrospective single-center chart review over 14 years of 486 Tanner V adolescent males. Three hundred and four met inclusion of palpable, non-operated left-sided varicocele who underwent at least one SA and ultrasound. Abnormal TMSC was defined by World Health Organization 2010 criteria for minimal reference ranges. Multivariate logistic regression, receiver operating characteristic analysis with Youden J-statistic and descriptive statistics were performed. RESULTS:Three hundred and four Tanner V adolescents with median age of 18.0 years (18.0-19.0), median TTV of 34.5 cc (28.9, 40.2) and median TMSC of 62.5 million/ejaculate (25.4, 123.4) were evaluated. TTV cutoff of 29.5 cc was found to predict TMSC of <9 million/ejaculate with negative predictive value of 96.2% and odds ratio of 6.08 ([2.13-17.42], p < 0.001). TVD greater than 20% did not reach statistical significance with an odds ratio of 1.66 ([0.41-6.62], p = 0.50). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:In clinical practice, each patient will need to have an individualized plan. Based on our data, for older adolescents (17 or 18 years) with varicocele and an abnormal TTV, clinicians may have a lower threshold for advising SA, and if unable to obtain, surgical intervention and/or closer surveillance should be stressed. Patients should be informed of their six-fold increase in abnormal SA. Patients with normal TTV should be advised they are at lower risk of having abnormal SA. Younger patients with varicocele and an initial TVD>20%, should be followed closely but intervention delayed until 17 or 18 to better assess TTV. The importance of trending patient data should be emphasized as a single measurement has low predictive value for developing adolescents. Limitations of our study include a retrospective design and the lack of uniform correlation between adolescent SA and paternity. CONCLUSIONS:Total testicular volume less than 29.5 cc increased odds of abnormal semen analysis by over six times and had a negative predictive value of 96.2%. Ultrasound results may be useful for risk stratification and counselling on appropriateness of surgical intervention.
PMID: 38876892
ISSN: 1873-4898
CID: 5669582

A comparison of 467 uroflowmetry results in repaired hypospadias vs. normal male flows

Boroda, Joseph; Gitlin, Jordan; Fang, Alexander; Zelkovic, Paul; Reda, Edward; Friedman, Steven; Fine, Ronnie; Horowitz, Mark; Schlussel, Richard; Landau-Dyer, Lori; Freyle, Jaime; Franco, Israel
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:There are currently no clinical criteria for obstructed urinary flow after hypospadias repair surgery. Previous studies have utilized adult and pediatric nomograms and flow shapes to define obstruction, however these methods are limited by a lack of standardization and lack of interrater reliability when determining flow shapes, respectively. The idealized voider derived flow indexes offer a way to track uroflowmetry results in a volume and age agnostic manner. OBJECTIVE:We sought to evaluate all our hypospadias patients over a 10-year period and identify patients without complications and those with complications and determine their respective flow parameters. Our secondary objective is to identify which uroflowmetry parameters are the most significant predictors of urethral stricture and meatal stenosis at the time of the uroflowmetry study. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective chart review was used to compile demographic information, details of hypospadias repair surgeries, and uroflowmetry results from pediatric hypospadias repair patients. Subjects were divided into distal, midshaft, and proximal groups based on the initial location of their urethral meatus. Flows from the hypospadias repair groups were compared to flows from normal age matched controls from a previous study. We compared flows from hypospadias repair patients with no complications present with those who had urethral stricture or meatal stenosis present at the time of uroflowmetry. Binary logistic regression and ROC analysis was used to assess different uroflowmetry parameters' ability to detect the presence of obstructed urine flow. RESULTS:467 uroflowmetry studies from 200 hypospadias repair patients were included in the database. Compared to controls, the hypospadias repair groups tended to have significantly lower Qmax, Qavg, Qmax FI, Qavg FI, and longer ttQmax. Significant differences in flow parameters were observed when comparing hypospadias repair patients with and without flow obstructing complications at the time of uroflowmetry. Binary logistic regression including various uroflowmetry parameters showed Qmax FI had a significant effect on the odds of observing the absence of a stricture in proximal and distal hypospadias cases. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Of the uroflowmetry parameters analyzed, binary logistic regression and the likelihood ratio of a positive result all point to Qmax FI as the better parameter to use to detect the presence of complications in patients who have undergone distal or proximal hypospadias repair surgery. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:We have established normal parameters for post-operative hypospadias repair patients which can be used to follow patients over time and allow for the identification of complications by keeping track of flow indexes which are volume and age agnostic.
PMID: 38772843
ISSN: 1873-4898
CID: 5654462

A comparison of 467 uroflowmetry results in repaired hypospadias vs. normal male flows

Boroda, Joseph; Gitlin, Jordan; Fang, Alexander; Zelkovic, Paul; Reda, Edward; Friedman, Steven; Fine, Ronnie; Horowitz, Mark; Schlussel, Richard; Landau-Dyer, Lori; Freyle, Jaime; Franco, Israel
Introduction: There are currently no clinical criteria for obstructed urinary flow after hypospadias repair surgery. Previous studies have utilized adult and pediatric nomograms and flow shapes to define obstruction, however these methods are limited by a lack of standardization and lack of interrater reliability when determining flow shapes, respectively. The idealized voider derived flow indexes offer a way to track uroflowmetry results in a volume and age agnostic manner. Objective: We sought to evaluate all our hypospadias patients over a 10-year period and identify patients without complications and those with complications and determine their respective flow parameters. Our secondary objective is to identify which uroflowmetry parameters are the most significant predictors of urethral stricture and meatal stenosis at the time of the uroflowmetry study. Study design: Retrospective chart review was used to compile demographic information, details of hypospadias repair surgeries, and uroflowmetry results from pediatric hypospadias repair patients. Subjects were divided into distal, midshaft, and proximal groups based on the initial location of their urethral meatus. Flows from the hypospadias repair groups were compared to flows from normal age matched controls from a previous study. We compared flows from hypospadias repair patients with no complications present with those who had urethral stricture or meatal stenosis present at the time of uroflowmetry. Binary logistic regression and ROC analysis was used to assess different uroflowmetry parameters"™ ability to detect the presence of obstructed urine flow. Results: 467 uroflowmetry studies from 200 hypospadias repair patients were included in the database. Compared to controls, the hypospadias repair groups tended to have significantly lower Qmax, Qavg, Qmax FI, Qavg FI, and longer ttQmax. Significant differences in flow parameters were observed when comparing hypospadias repair patients with and without flow obstructing complications at the time of uroflowmetry. Binary logistic regression including various uroflowmetry parameters showed Qmax FI had a significant effect on the odds of observing the absence of a stricture in proximal and distal hypospadias cases. Discussion: Of the uroflowmetry parameters analyzed, binary logistic regression and the likelihood ratio of a positive result all point to Qmax FI as the better parameter to use to detect the presence of complications in patients who have undergone distal or proximal hypospadias repair surgery. Conclusion: We have established normal parameters for post-operative hypospadias repair patients which can be used to follow patients over time and allow for the identification of complications by keeping track of flow indexes which are volume and age agnostic.
SCOPUS:85193628053
ISSN: 1477-5131
CID: 5660792

Pediatric Bladder Tumors: A Ten-Year Retrospective Analysis

Shumaker, Andrew D; Harel, Miriam; Gitlin, Jordan; Friedman, Steven C; Dyer, Lori; Freyle, Jaime; Zelkovic, Paul F; Horowitz, Mark; Fine, Ronnie G; Schlussel, Richard N
OBJECTIVE:To present our experience in a single pediatric urology practice over a 10-year period with bladder tumors in the pediatric population in an effort to add to the relatively small amount of existing data. We hope to expand the community's knowledge of presentations, management and natural history of pediatric bladder tumors. METHODS:We retrospectively queried our electronic medical records for International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) and Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes relevant for bladder tumors. Patients with underlying bladder pathology, such as neurogenic bladder, history of bladder exstrophy, and history of bladder augmentation, were excluded. RESULTS:We identified 30 patients with bladder tumors from 2011 to 2021. There were 21 males and 9 females. Age at diagnosis ranged from 16 months to 19 years. Tumors identified were: 11 of various inflammatory subtypes; 4 papillomas; 4 rhabdomyosarcomas; 3 papillary urothelial neoplasms of low malignant potential and 8 of other types. Treatment included transurethral resection of bladder tumor, chemoradiation and laparoscopic partial cystectomy. Twenty nine patients had disease limited to the bladder and 1 had disease outside the bladder. Follow-up ranged from 2 weeks to 13 years (median 19 months). All patients had no evidence of disease at most recent follow-up. CONCLUSION:Pediatric bladder tumors range from aggressive rhabdomyosarcomas to more benign urothelial lesions. Fortunately, the latter type of tumor is the more prevalent lesion. Knowledge of the treatment options and natural history of these tumors will hopefully be of benefit to clinicians and parents alike.
PMID: 35970356
ISSN: 1527-9995
CID: 5674432

Tunneled buccal mucosa tube grafts for repair of proximal hypospadias

Fine, Ronnie; Reda, Edward F; Zelkovic, Paul; Gitlin, Jordan; Freyle, Jaime; Franco, Israel; Palmer, Lane S
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Buccal mucosa is the favored graft material for patients with long urethral defects and a paucity of skin. Since 2007, we have used the novel tunneled buccal mucosa tube graft urethroplasty technique in these patients. We describe this operative technique and report our surgical and functional outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Between 2007 and 2013, 37 males with proximal hypospadias underwent tunneled buccal mucosa tube graft urethroplasty. After the penile shaft was optimized at a prior stage a free buccal graft was tubularized and tunneled under the intact ventral shaft skin and into the glans. We retrospectively reviewed all charts to report our results. We assessed uroflowmetry and bladder ultrasound for post-void residual urine. RESULTS:The overall complications rate in 34 patients with more than 1-year followup was 32% (11), including fistula in 5, proximal stricture in 4 and meatal stenosis in 2. In the first 10 patients a total of 7 complications (70%) developed but there were only 4 complications in the next 24 (16%). Surgeon experience was the only significant predictor of complications (p = 0.003). We obtained uroflow and post-void residual urine data on 13 of 37 patients, of whom 9 achieved a normal flow pattern and post-void residual urine, and 4 had a blunted flow pattern. CONCLUSIONS:The novel technique of the tunneled buccal mucosa tube graft in patients with proximal hypospadias represents a good alternative for a long urethroplasty in patients with a paucity of skin. After the learning curve plateaus the rate and degree of complications decrease. Furthermore, voiding function is adequate, as assessed by uroflow studies and post-void residual urine measurement.
PMID: 25817150
ISSN: 1527-3792
CID: 5014452

Familial testicular torsion

Cubillos, Jimena; Palmer, Jeffrey S; Friedman, Steven C; Freyle, Jaime; Lowe, Franklin C; Palmer, Lane S
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Isolated reported cases of familial torsion yield modest information on incidence, genetics or clinical features. We present what is to our knowledge the largest series of familial torsion, including the first 3 generation case and a review of the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Since 2006, we have questioned the presence of a positive family history in all patients with torsion at the initial consultation. We compiled data on familial relationship, laterality, age and outcomes of the proband and affected relatives. We collected previously published cases to better understand clinical features and genetics. RESULTS:Eight of 70 boys (11.4%) with torsion had affected family members. Another 2 families were included from a historical perspective. One relative was affected in 7 families, 2 were affected in 2 and 3 were affected in 1. First degree relatives were most commonly affected. In 1 family torsion occurred in 3 consecutive generations. Despite a family history 50% of patients experienced testicular loss. Brothers were affected in each of the 10 previously reported cases. In 3 families fathers were also affected. There were 3 sets of monozygotic twins. We noted laterality concordance 5 times and discordance 6 times. Age at torsion in probands was adolescence except in 2 with neonatal torsion. No clear inheritance mode was found. CONCLUSIONS:Familial torsion occurs in about 10% of probands and can affect multiple relatives and generations. A positive family history may be useful for torsion diagnosis and management. Relatives of affected patients need education on the signs and symptoms of torsion, and the importance of early presentation to improve outcome.
PMID: 21555017
ISSN: 1527-3792
CID: 5015472

Familial testicular torsion in three consecutive generations of first-degree relatives [Case Report]

Shteynshlyuger, Alex; Freyle, Jaime
We report the first and largest family with testicular torsion in three consecutive generations affecting four first-degree relatives. The incidence of familial testicular torsion is under reported in the literature. We recommend eliciting family history in evaluation of acute scrotum, as a useful adjunct for clinical decision making. In families with a strong predisposition to testicular torsion, management should include family counseling about the significant risk of occurrence of this condition.
PMID: 20971686
ISSN: 1873-4898
CID: 5015462

Parenchymal echo texture predicts testicular salvage after torsion: potential impact on the need for emergent exploration

Kaye, Jonathan D; Shapiro, Edan Y; Levitt, Selwyn B; Friedman, Steven C; Gitlin, Jordan; Freyle, Jaime; Palmer, Lane S
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:In the setting of signs and symptoms of testicular torsion the absence of diastolic flow and/or color flow on Doppler ultrasound has traditionally prompted emergent scrotal exploration. This practice emanates largely from the difficulty on ultrasound of distinguishing salvageable torsed testes from those that are not salvageable. We identified ultrasound findings predictive of testicular viability or the lack thereof. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We retrospectively reviewed the charts of all boys who underwent scrotal exploration for signs and symptoms of torsion during a 4-year period. In those who underwent preoperative Doppler ultrasound of the scrotum ultrasound findings were reviewed, as were the operative dictations. In patients who underwent orchiectomy the pathology reports were also reviewed. In patients in whom the torsed testis appeared viable and who underwent orchiopexy followup data were reviewed when available. Emergency room charts were also reviewed to ascertain, when documented, the duration of pain before presentation to the emergency room and the interval between ultrasound and operating room. RESULTS:During this period 55 boys underwent exploration after preoperative scrotal Doppler ultrasound revealed absent diastolic flow and/or color flow Doppler in the symptomatic testis. Assessment of parenchymal echogenicity revealed heterogeneity in 37 testes (67%), of which none were deemed viable at exploration. Orchiectomy was performed in 34 of 37 cases. Pathological examination revealed necrosis in all 34 cases, a finding consistent with late torsion. The remaining 3 testes underwent orchiopexy by parental directive despite nonviability, as confirmed by biopsy and subsequent atrophy. Thus, heterogeneity on preoperative ultrasound was universally predictive of organ loss (chi-square p <0.001). Of the 18 symptomatic testes (33%) demonstrating homogeneity and isoechogenicity on ultrasound 16 (89%) were deemed viable at exploration. Boys in whom the torsed testicle was nonviable on exploration experienced an average of 27.5 hours of pain preoperatively (range 5 to 72), whereas boys in whom the torsed testis was salvaged experienced an average of 20.5 hours of pain (range 2 to 96) (p = 0.073). The nonviable group underwent surgery an average of 49 minutes after ultrasound, whereas the viable group underwent surgery 52 minutes after ultrasound (p = 0.92). None of the 55 patients experienced any surgical or anesthetic complications and no pathological condition was noted intraoperatively in the contralateral asymptomatic testis. CONCLUSIONS:In the setting of Doppler proven testicular torsion heterogeneous parenchymal echo texture indicates late torsion and testicular nonviability. Therefore, the case may not require emergent scrotal exploration. On the other hand, homogeneous echo texture portends extremely well for testicular viability. Thus, such testes should be explored emergently.
PMID: 18721947
ISSN: 1527-3792
CID: 5015452

Climatic conditions and the risk of testicular torsion in adolescent males

Srinivasan, Arun K; Freyle, Jaime; Gitlin, Jordan S; Palmer, Lane S
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The risk factors for acute testicular torsion are poorly understood. Environmental factors have been implicated by some authors and discredited by others. The only previous known study in the United States did not demonstrate any seasonal correlation, although the study was done in a warmer climate. We sought to determine if environmental factors impact the incidence of testicular torsion in our temperate climate conditions with a large differential between the warmest and coldest temperatures. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We retrospectively studied patients who were diagnosed with testicular torsion between January 1997 and December 2006. Data regarding weather conditions were collected, including season, temperature, humidity and atmospheric pressure at the time of onset of symptoms. Spearman's rank correlation was performed to assess the relationship between atmospheric temperature and frequency of testicular torsion. Multivariate analysis was performed to analyze the effect of covariables. RESULTS:A total of 58 children presented with testicular torsion. Mean temperature at onset of symptoms was 6.9C (range -12C to 23C). Of the patients 81% had symptom onset when the atmospheric temperature was less than 15C. Seasonal incidence of testicular torsion was 36.2%, 31%, 19% and 13.8% for spring, winter, summer and fall, respectively. Spearman's rank correlation test revealed a significant negative correlation between the incidence of testicular torsion and increasing temperature (r = -0.94, p <0.0001) and decreasing humidity (r = -0.44, p <0.001). After controlling for effects by patient age, atmospheric pressure and humidity by multivariate analysis a significant correlation was observed between testicular torsion and decreasing atmospheric temperature. None of the other atmospheric factors examined correlated with the incidence of testicular torsion. CONCLUSIONS:An increased incidence of testicular torsion is seen with decreasing atmospheric temperature and humidity, suggesting a possible etiological role.
PMID: 17945301
ISSN: 1527-3792
CID: 3939882