Try a new search

Format these results:

Searched for:



Total Results:


Machine Learning to Classify Relative Seizure Frequency From Chronic Electrocorticography

Sun, Yueqiu; Friedman, Daniel; Dugan, Patricia; Holmes, Manisha; Wu, Xiaojing; Liu, Anli
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Brain responsive neurostimulation (NeuroPace) treats patients with refractory focal epilepsy and provides chronic electrocorticography (ECoG). We explored how machine learning algorithms applied to interictal ECoG could assess clinical response to changes in neurostimulation parameters. METHODS:We identified five responsive neurostimulation patients each with ≥200 continuous days of stable medication and detection settings (median, 358 days per patient). For each patient, interictal ECoG segments for each month were labeled as "high" or "low" to represent relatively high or low long-episode (i.e., seizure) count compared with the median monthly long-episode count. Power from six conventional frequency bands from four responsive neurostimulation channels were extracted as features. For each patient, five machine learning algorithms were trained on 80% of ECoG, then tested on the remaining 20%. Classifiers were scored by the area-under-the-receiver-operating-characteristic curve. We explored how individual circadian cycles of seizure activity could inform classifier building. RESULTS:Support vector machine or gradient boosting models achieved the best performance, ranging from 0.705 (fair) to 0.892 (excellent) across patients. High gamma power was the most important feature, tending to decrease during low-seizure-frequency epochs. For two subjects, training on ECoG recorded during the circadian ictal peak resulted in comparable model performance, despite less data used. CONCLUSIONS:Machine learning analysis on retrospective background ECoG can classify relative seizure frequency for an individual patient. High gamma power was the most informative, whereas individual circadian patterns of seizure activity can guide model building. Machine learning classifiers built on interictal ECoG may guide stimulation programming.
PMID: 34049367
ISSN: 1537-1603
CID: 5418582

Association between postictal EEG suppression, postictal autonomic dysfunction, and sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: Evidence from intracranial EEG

Esmaeili, Behnaz; Weisholtz, Daniel; Tobochnik, Steven; Dworetzky, Barbara; Friedman, Daniel; Kaffashi, Farhad; Cash, Sydney; Cha, Brannon; Laze, Juliana; Reich, Dustine; Farooque, Pue; Gholipour, Taha; Singleton, Michael; Loparo, Kenneth; Koubeissi, Mohamad; Devinsky, Orrin; Lee, Jong Woo
OBJECTIVE:The association between postictal electroencephalogram (EEG) suppression (PES), autonomic dysfunction, and Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) remains poorly understood. We compared PES on simultaneous intracranial and scalp-EEG and evaluated the association of PES with postictal heart rate variability (HRV) and SUDEP outcome. METHODS:Convulsive seizures were analyzed in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy at 5 centers. Intracranial PES was quantified using the Hilbert transform. HRV was quantified using root mean square of successive differences of interbeat intervals, low-frequency to high-frequency power ratio, and RR-intervals. RESULTS:There were 64 seizures from 63 patients without SUDEP and 11 seizures from 6 SUDEP patients. PES occurred in 99% and 87% of seizures on intracranial-EEG and scalp-EEG, respectively. Mean PES duration in intracranial and scalp-EEG was similar. Intracranial PES was regional (<90% of channels) in 46% of seizures; scalp PES was generalized in all seizures. Generalized PES showed greater decrease in postictal parasympathetic activity than regional PES. PES duration and extent were similar between patients with and without SUDEP. CONCLUSIONS:Regional intracranial PES can be present despite scalp-EEG demonstrating generalized or no PES. Postictal autonomic dysfunction correlates with the extent of PES. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSIONS:Intracranial-EEG demonstrates changes in autonomic regulatory networks not seen on scalp-EEG.
PMID: 36608528
ISSN: 1872-8952
CID: 5401832

Risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) with lamotrigine and other sodium channel-modulating antiseizure medications

Nightscales, Russell; Barnard, Sarah; Laze, Juliana; Chen, Zhibin; Tao, Gerard; Auvrez, Clarissa; Sivathamboo, Shobi; Cook, Mark J; Kwan, Patrick; Friedman, Daniel; Berkovic, Samuel F; D'Souza, Wendyl; Perucca, Piero; Devinsky, Orrin; O'Brien, Terence J
OBJECTIVE:In vitro data prompted U.S Food and Drug Administration warnings that lamotrigine, a common sodium channel modulating anti-seizure medication (NaM-ASM), could increase the risk of sudden death in patients with structural or ischaemic cardiac disease, however, its implications for Sudden Unexpected Death in Epilepsy (SUDEP) are unclear. METHODS:This retrospective, nested case-control study identified 101 sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) cases and 199 living epilepsy controls from Epilepsy Monitoring Units (EMUs) in Australia and the USA. Differences in proportions of lamotrigine and NaM-ASM use were compared between cases and controls at the time of admission, and survival analyses from the time of admission up to 16 years were conducted. Multivariable logistic regression and survival analyses compared each ASM subgroup adjusting for SUDEP risk factors. RESULTS:Proportions of cases and controls prescribed lamotrigine (P = 0.166), one NaM-ASM (P = 0.80), or ≥2NaM-ASMs (P = 0.447) at EMU admission were not significantly different. Patients taking lamotrigine (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.56; P = 0.054), one NaM-ASM (aHR = 0.8; P = 0.588) or ≥2 NaM-ASMs (aHR = 0.49; P = 0.139) at EMU admission were not at increased SUDEP risk up to 16 years following admission. Active tonic-clonic seizures at EMU admission associated with >2-fold SUDEP risk, irrespective of lamotrigine (aHR = 2.24; P = 0.031) or NaM-ASM use (aHR = 2.25; P = 0.029). Sensitivity analyses accounting for incomplete ASM data at follow-up suggest undetected changes to ASM use are unlikely to alter our results. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSIONS:This study provides additional evidence that lamotrigine and other NaM-ASMs are unlikely to be associated with an increased long-term risk of SUDEP, up to 16 years post-EMU admission.
PMID: 36648376
ISSN: 2470-9239
CID: 5426352

Brain Molecular Mechanisms in Rasmussen Encephalitis

Leitner, Dominique F; Lin, Ziyan; Sawaged, Zacharia; Kanshin, Evgeny; Friedman, Daniel; Devore, Sasha; Ueberheide, Beatrix; Chang, Julia W; Mathern, Gary W; Anink, Jasper J; Aronica, Eleonora; Wisniewski, Thomas; Devinsky, Orrin
OBJECTIVE:Identify molecular mechanisms in brain tissue of Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) when compared to people with non-RE epilepsy (PWE) and control cases using whole exome sequencing (WES), RNAseq, and proteomics. METHODS:Frozen brain tissue (ages 2-19 years) was obtained from control autopsy (n=14), surgical PWE (n=10), and surgical RE cases (n=27). We evaluated WES variants in RE associated with epilepsy, seizures, RE, and human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). Differential expression was evaluated by RNAseq (adjusted p<0.05) and label-free quantitative mass spectrometry (false discovery rate<5%) in the three groups. RESULTS:, z=5.61). Proteomics detected fewer altered targets. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSIONS:In RE, we identified activated immune signaling pathways and immune cell type annotation enrichment that suggest roles of the innate and adaptive immune responses, as well as HLA variants that may increase vulnerability to RE. Follow up studies could evaluate cell type density and subregional localization associated with top targets, clinical history (neuropathology, disease duration), and whether modulating crosstalk between dendritic and natural killer cells may limit disease progression.
PMID: 36336987
ISSN: 1528-1167
CID: 5356972

The clinical spectrum of SMA-PME and in vitro normalization of its cellular ceramide profile

Lee, Michelle M; McDowell, Graeme S V; De Vivo, Darryl C; Friedman, Daniel; Berkovic, Samuel F; Spanou, Maria; Dinopoulos, Argirios; Grand, Katheryn; Sanchez-Lara, Pedro A; Allen-Sharpley, Michelle; Warman-Chardon, Jodi; Solyom, Alexander; Levade, Thierry; Schuchman, Edward H; Bennett, Steffany A L; Dyment, David A; Pearson, Toni S
OBJECTIVE:The objectives of this study were to define the clinical and biochemical spectrum of spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME) and to determine if aberrant cellular ceramide accumulation could be normalized by enzyme replacement. METHODS:Clinical features of 6 patients with SMA-PME were assessed by retrospective chart review, and a literature review of 24 previously published cases was performed. Leukocyte enzyme activity of acid ceramidase was assessed with a fluorescence-based assay. Skin fibroblast ceramide content and was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization tandem mass spectroscopy. Enzyme replacement was assessed using recombinant human acid ceramidase (rhAC) in vitro. RESULTS:The six new patients showed the hallmark features of SMA-PME, with variable initial symptom and age of onset. Five of six patients carried at least one of the recurrent SMA-PME variants observed in two specific codons of ASAH1. A review of 30 total cases revealed that patients who were homozygous for the most common c.125C > T variant presented in the first decade of life with limb-girdle weakness as the initial symptom. Sensorineural hearing loss was associated with the c.456A > C variant. Leukocyte acid ceramidase activity varied from 4.1%-13.1% of controls. Ceramide species in fibroblasts were detected and total cellular ceramide content was elevated by 2 to 9-fold compared to controls. Treatment with rhAC normalized ceramide profiles in cultured fibroblasts to control levels within 48 h. INTERPRETATION/CONCLUSIONS:This study details the genotype-phenotype correlations observed in SMA-PME and shows the impact of rhAC to correct the abnormal cellular ceramide profile in cells.
PMID: 36325744
ISSN: 2328-9503
CID: 5358692

Serotonin receptor expression in hippocampus and temporal cortex of temporal lobe epilepsy patients by postictal generalized electroencephalographic suppression duration

Leitner, Dominique Frances; Devore, Sasha; Laze, Juliana; Friedman, Daniel; Mills, James D; Liu, Yan; Janitz, Michael; Anink, Jasper J; Baayen, Johannes C; Idema, Sander; van Vliet, Erwin Alexander; Diehl, Beate; Scott, Catherine; Thijs, Roland; Nei, Maromi; Askenazi, Manor; Sivathamboo, Shobi; O'Brien, Terence; Wisniewski, Thomas; Thom, Maria; Aronica, Eleonora; Boldrini, Maura; Devinsky, Orrin
OBJECTIVE:Prolonged postictal generalized electroencephalographic suppression (PGES) is a potential biomarker for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), which may be associated with dysfunctional autonomic responses and serotonin signaling. To better understand molecular mechanisms, PGES duration was correlated to 5HT1A and 5HT2A receptor protein expression and RNAseq from resected hippocampus and temporal cortex of temporal lobe epilepsy patients with seizures recorded in preoperative evaluation. METHODS:Analyses included 36 cases (age = 14-64 years, age at epilepsy onset = 0-51 years, epilepsy duration = 2-53 years, PGES duration = 0-93 s), with 13 cases in all hippocampal analyses. 5HT1A and 5HT2A protein was evaluated by Western blot and histologically in hippocampus (n = 16) and temporal cortex (n = 9). We correlated PGES duration to our previous RNAseq dataset for serotonin receptor expression and signaling pathways, as well as weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) to identify correlated gene clusters. RESULTS: = .25). WGCNA identified four modules correlated with PGES duration, including positive correlation with synaptic transcripts (p = .040, Pearson correlation r = .52), particularly potassium channels (KCNA4, KCNC4, KCNH1, KCNIP4, KCNJ3, KCNJ6, KCNK1). No modules were associated with serotonin receptor signaling. SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSIONS:Higher hippocampal 5HT2A receptor protein and potassium channel transcripts may reflect underlying mechanisms contributing to or resulting from prolonged PGES. Future studies with larger cohorts should assess functional analyses and additional brain regions to elucidate mechanisms underlying PGES and SUDEP risk.
PMID: 36053862
ISSN: 1528-1167
CID: 5332232

Competency-based EEG education: a list of "must-know" EEG findings for adult and child neurology residents

Nascimento, Fábio A; Jing, Jin; Strowd, Roy; Sheikh, Irfan S; Weber, Dan; Gavvala, Jay R; Maheshwari, Atul; Tanner, Adriana; Ng, Marcus; Vinayan, K P; Sinha, Saurabh R; Yacubian, Elza M; Rao, Vikram R; Perry, M Scott; Fountain, Nathan B; Karakis, Ioannis; Wirrell, Elaine; Yuan, Fang; Friedman, Daniel; Tankisi, Hatice; Rampp, Stefan; Fasano, Rebecca; Wilmshurst, Jo M; O'Donovan, Cormac; Schomer, Donald; Kaplan, Peter W; Sperling, Michael R; Benbadis, Selim; Westover, M Brandon; Beniczky, Sándor
PMID: 35904042
ISSN: 1950-6945
CID: 5276952

Future Opportunities for Research in Rescue Treatments

Wheless, James W; Friedman, Daniel; Krauss, Gregory L; Rao, Vikram R; Sperling, Michael R; Carrazana, Enrique; Rabinowicz, Adrian L
Clinical studies of rescue medications for seizure clusters are limited and designed to satisfy regulatory requirements, which may not fully consider the needs of the diverse patient population that experiences seizure clusters or utilize rescue medication. The purpose of this narrative review is to examine factors that contribute to, or may influence the quality of, seizure cluster research with a goal of improving clinical practice. We address five areas of unmet needs and provide advice of how they could enhance future trials of seizure cluster treatments. The topics addressed in this manuscript are: 1) unaddressed endpoints to pursue in future studies, 2) roles for devices to enhance rescue medication clinical development programs, 3) tools to study seizure cluster prediction and prevention, 4) the value of other designs for seizure cluster studies, and 5) unique challenges of future trial paradigms for seizure clusters. By focusing on novel endpoints and technologies with value to patients, caregivers, and clinicians, data obtained from future studies can benefit the diverse patient population that experiences seizure clusters, providing more effective, appropriate care as well as alleviating demands on healthcare resources.
PMID: 35822912
ISSN: 1528-1167
CID: 5279892

Temporal dynamics of neural responses in human visual cortex

Groen, Iris I A; Piantoni, Giovanni; Montenegro, Stephanie; Flinker, Adeen; Devore, Sasha; Devinsky, Orrin; Doyle, Werner; Dugan, Patricia; Friedman, Daniel; Ramsey, Nick; Petridou, Natalia; Winawer, Jonathan
Neural responses to visual stimuli exhibit complex temporal dynamics, including sub-additive temporal summation, response reduction with repeated or sustained stimuli (adaptation), and slower dynamics at low contrast. These phenomena are often studied independently. Here, we demonstrate these phenomena within the same experiment and model the underlying neural computations with a single computational model. We extracted time-varying responses from electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings from patients presented with stimuli that varied in contrast, duration, and inter-stimulus interval (ISI). Aggregating data across patients from both sexes yielded 98 electrodes with robust visual responses, covering both earlier (V1-V3) and higher-order (V3a/b, LO, TO, IPS) retinotopic maps. In all regions, the temporal dynamics of neural responses exhibit several non-linear features: peak response amplitude saturates with high contrast and longer stimulus durations; the response to a second stimulus is suppressed for short ISIs and recovers for longer ISIs; response latency decreases with increasing contrast. These features are accurately captured by a computational model comprised of a small set of canonical neuronal operations: linear filtering, rectification, exponentiation, and a delayed divisive normalization. We find that an increased normalization term captures both contrast- and adaptation-related response reductions, suggesting potentially shared underlying mechanisms. We additionally demonstrate both changes and invariance in temporal response dynamics between earlier and higher-order visual areas. Together, our results reveal the presence of a wide range of temporal and contrast-dependent neuronal dynamics in the human visual cortex, and demonstrate that a simple model captures these dynamics at millisecond resolution.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTSensory inputs and neural responses change continuously over time. It is especially challenging to understand a system that has both dynamic inputs and outputs. Here we use a computational modeling approach that specifies computations to convert a time-varying input stimulus to a neural response time course, and use this to predict neural activity measured in the human visual cortex. We show that this computational model predicts a wide variety of complex neural response shapes that we induced experimentally by manipulating the duration, repetition and contrast of visual stimuli. By comparing data and model predictions, we uncover systematic properties of temporal dynamics of neural signals, allowing us to better understand how the brain processes dynamic sensory information.
PMID: 35999054
ISSN: 1529-2401
CID: 5338232

Flexural bending to approximate cortical forces exerted by electrocorticography (ECoG) arrays

Witham, Nicholas S; Reiche, Christopher F; Odell, Thomas; Barth, Katrina; Chiang, Chia-Han; Wang, Charles; Dubey, Agrita; Wingel, Katie; Devore, Sasha; Friedman, Daniel; Pesaran, Bijan; Viventi, Jonathan; Solzbacher, Florian
OBJECTIVE:The force that an electrocorticography (ECoG) array exerts on the brain manifests when it bends to match the curvature of the skull and cerebral cortex. This force can negatively impact both short-term and long-term patient outcomes. Here we provide a mechanical characterization of a novel Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) ECoG array prototype to demonstrate that its thinner geometry reduces the force potentially applied to the cortex of the brain. APPROACH/METHODS:We built a low-force flexural testing machine to measure ECoG array bending forces, calculate their effective flexural moduli, and approximate the maximum force they could exerted on the human brain. MAIN RESULTS/RESULTS:The LCP ECoG prototype was found to have a maximal force less than 20% that of any commercially available ECoG arrays that was tested. However, as a material, LCP was measured to be as much as 24x more rigid than silicone, which is traditionally used in ECoG arrays. This suggests that the lower maximal force resulted from the prototype's thinner profile (2.9x-3.25x). SIGNIFICANCE/CONCLUSIONS:While decreasing material stiffness can lower the force an ECoG array exhibits, our LCP ECoG array prototype demonstrated that flexible circuit manufacturing techniques can also lower these forces by decreasing ECoG array thickness. Flexural tests of ECoG arrays are necessary to accurately assess these forces, as material properties for polymers and laminates are often scale dependent. As the polymers used are anisotropic, elastic modulus cannot be used to predict ECoG flexural behavior. Accounting for these factors, we used our four-point flexure testing procedure to quantify the forces exerted on the brain by ECoG array bending. With this experimental method, ECoG arrays can be designed to minimize force excerted on the brain, potentially improving both acute and chronic clinical utility.
PMID: 35882223
ISSN: 1741-2552
CID: 5276412