Musculoskeletal Considerations for Exercise and Sport: Before, During, and After Pregnancy
There is little written in the orthopaedic literature regarding common musculoskeletal problems that women encounter in relation to pregnancy and their clinical and surgical management. Exercise and other physical activity are generally recommended for most women before, during, and after pregnancy. Unfortunately, a variety of musculoskeletal issues may keep women from starting, continuing, or resuming a healthy exercise regimen throughout a notable portion of their reproductive years. Untreated and undertreated orthopaedic conditions in female athletes may therefore have further unintended negative effects on maternal and fetal health. This article reviews the existing literature on musculoskeletal health considerations before, during, and after pregnancy to provide practical information to orthopaedic surgeons who treat women of all ages and athletic abilities.