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The Lateral Femoral Cutaneous and Over the Hip (LOH) Block for the Surgical Management of Hip Fractures: A Safe and Effective Anesthetic Strategy

Deemer, Alexa R; Furgiuele, David L; Ganta, Abhishek; Leucht, Philipp; Konda, Sanjit; Tejwani, Nirmal C; Egol, Kenneth A
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:To examine the efficacy of regional anesthesia with sedation only for a variety of hip fractures using the newly described lateral femoral cutaneous with over the hip Block (LOH Block). DESIGN/METHODS:Retrospective. SETTING/METHODS:Level-I Trauma CenterPatients/Participants: 40 patients who presented between 11/2021 and 02/2022 for fixation of OTA/AO 31.A1-3 and 31.B1-3 fractures. Matched cohorts of 40 patients who received general anesthesia and 40 patients who received spinal anesthesia for hip fracture fixation were also used. INTERVENTION/METHODS:Operative fixation under LOH block and sedation only. The LOH block is a regional hip analgesic that targets the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, articular branches of femoral nerve (FN) and accessory obturator nerve (AON). MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS/METHODS:Demographics, intraoperative characteristics, anesthesia-related complications, hospital quality metrics, and short-term mortality and reoperation rates. RESULTS:A total of 120 patients (40 each: general, spinal, LOH block) were compared. The cohorts were similar in age, race, BMI, gender, CCI, trauma risk score, ambulatory status at baseline, fracture type, and surgical fixation technique performed. Physiologic parameters during surgery were more stable in the LOH block group (p<0.05). Total OR time and anesthesia time were shortest for the LOH block cohort (p<0.05). Patients in the LOH block cohort also had lower post-operative pain scores (p<0.05). Length of hospital stay was shortest for patients in the LOH block cohort (p<0.05), and at time of discharge, patients in the LOH block cohort ambulated the furthest (p<0.05). No differences were found in regards to anesthesia-related complications, palliative care consults, major and minor hospital complications, discharge disposition, reoperation and readmission rates, and mortality rates. CONCLUSIONS:The LOH block is safe and effective anesthesia for the treatment of all types of hip fractures in the elderly requiring surgery. In addition, this block may decrease post-operative pain and length of hospital stay, and also allow for greater ambulation in the early post-operative period for hip fracture patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
PMID: 36253914
ISSN: 1531-2291
CID: 5360312

Indications for Conversion of Spinal into General Anesthesia During Total Joint Arthroplasty

Tesoriero, Paul J; Sicat, Chelsea S; Collins, Michael; Feng, James E; Furgiuele, David L; Long, William J; Schwarzkopf, Ran
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Spinal anesthesia (SA) is the preferred method of anesthesia at many centers for total joint arthro- plasty (TJA). However, a small subset of patients fails SA, necessitating a conversion to general anesthesia (GA). This report assesses the patient characteristics associated with failed SA. METHODS:A retrospective study was conducted on patients who underwent SA during their primary TJA between Janu- ary 2015 and December 2016 at our institution. A subset of this group required a conversion from SA to GA. Anesthesia reports were reviewed for the number of attempts at SA and the documented reason for failure. The SA failure cohort was then subdivided into failure categories based on the reasons that had been provided. RESULTS:A total of 5,706 patients were included in this study, 78 of which experienced SA failure. The number of attempts was most strongly associated with SA failure, with three attempts resulting in a five times increased failure rate (OR = 4.73, p = 0.010) and four attempts resulting in 12 times increased failure rate compared to the no failure cohort (OR = 12.3, p < 0.001). Greater than two attempts occurred in 87.5% of the "technical failure" sub-group of the SA failure cohort (p < 0.001). No difference was demon- strated among the other patient characteristics, such as age, sex, body mass index, race, American Society of Anesthesia (ASA) score, and surgical time. CONCLUSIONS:The results suggest that the major predic- tor influencing spinal to general anesthesia conversion was the number of attempts at SA, especially among technical failure cases. Based on the results, it may be appropriate for anesthesiologists to convert to GA after two failed spi- nal attempts. Further studies are warranted to assess this relationship for firm clinical recommendations.
PMID: 36403955
ISSN: 2328-5273
CID: 5371892

Resolution of Psoriatic Plaques of the Leg After Nailing of an Ipsilateral Tibial Shaft Fracture: A Case Report [Case Report]

Esper, Garrett W; Meltzer-Bruhn, Ariana T; Furgiuele, David L; Scher, Jose U; Egol, Kenneth A
CASE:This case describes a 45-year-old man with documented history of untreated bilateral lower extremity psoriasis of equal severity who sustained a closed left tibial-fibular shaft fracture. After operative fixation with an intramedullary nail under a regional nerve block, the left lower extremity circumferential psoriatic plaque resolved throughout 1 year of follow-up with persistence of the contralateral limb disease. CONCLUSION:This case describes a rare outcome for a patient with bilateral leg psoriasis who experienced resolution of psoriatic plaques on the operated leg only after surgery. It is unknown which process: injury, anesthetic, surgery, or fracture healing mediated this unique finding.
PMID: 36820814
ISSN: 2160-3251
CID: 5433992

Regional anesthesia for nonunion surgery with iliac crest bone grafting results in an increase in same day discharge

Littlefield, Connor P; Parola, Rown; Furgiuele, David; Konda, Sanjit; Egol, Kenneth A
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of fracture nonunion repair with autogenous iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) under regional anesthesia alone or in combination with other techniques compared to other anesthesia techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Overall, 137 patients were identified who underwent ICBG as part of a repair of a long bone fracture nonunion between January 1, 2013 and October 1, 2020. Surgical and anesthetic records were reviewed to classify patients by anesthesia type. General, spinal, and regional anesthetics were used as either the primary anesthetic or as a combination of regional nerve block with general or spinal anesthesia. RESULTS:Administration of regional anesthesia alone or in combination with general or spinal anesthesia (RA) and general or spinal anesthesia only (GS) groups differed in nonunion site distribution (p < 0.001). RA patients were discharged the same day more often than GS patients (30.9% vs 10.0%, p = 0.009) and experienced fewer postoperative complications (p = 0.021). The RA group achieved union sooner than the GS group (by 5.3 ± 3.2 months vs. by 6.8 ± 3.2 months, p = 0.006). Mean morphine equivalent dose was similar between groups (p = 0.23). Regional anesthesia use increased from 2013 to 2020, and same day discharge surgeries simultaneously increased over the same time period. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Regional anesthesia use increased in nonunion repair surgery with ICBG from 2013 to 2020. This was associated with an increase in same day discharge, sooner time to union, and decreased postoperative complications. There was not a need for increased opioid prescription in patients that underwent regional anesthesia.
PMID: 34410505
ISSN: 1633-8065
CID: 4995592

Pain, Analgesic Use, and Patient Satisfaction With Spinal Versus General Anesthesia for Hip Fracture Surgery : A Randomized Clinical Trial

Neuman, Mark D; Feng, Rui; Ellenberg, Susan S; Sieber, Frederick; Sessler, Daniel I; Magaziner, Jay; Elkassabany, Nabil; Schwenk, Eric S; Dillane, Derek; Marcantonio, Edward R; Menio, Diane; Ayad, Sabry; Hassan, Manal; Stone, Trevor; Papp, Steven; Donegan, Derek; Marshall, Mitchell; Jaffe, J Douglas; Luke, Charles; Sharma, Balram; Azim, Syed; Hymes, Robert; Chin, Ki-Jinn; Sheppard, Richard; Perlman, Barry; Sappenfield, Joshua; Hauck, Ellen; Hoeft, Mark A; Tierney, Ann; Gaskins, Lakisha J; Horan, Annamarie D; Brown, Trina; Dattilo, James; Carson, Jeffrey L; Looke, Thomas; Bent, Sandra; Franco-Mora, Ariana; Hedrick, Pamela; Newbern, Matthew; Tadros, Rafik; Pealer, Karen; Vlassakov, Kamen; Buckley, Carolyn; Gavin, Lauren; Gorbatov, Svetlana; Gosnell, James; Steen, Talora; Vafai, Avery; Zeballos, Jose; Hruslinski, Jennifer; Cardenas, Louis; Berry, Ashley; Getchell, John; Quercetti, Nicholas; Bajracharya, Gauasan; Billow, Damien; Bloomfield, Michael; Cuko, Evis; Elyaderani, Mehrun K; Hampton, Robert; Honar, Hooman; Khoshknabi, Dilara; Kim, Daniel; Krahe, David; Lew, Michael M; Maheshwer, Conjeevram B; Niazi, Azfar; Saha, Partha; Salih, Ahmed; de Swart, Robert J; Volio, Andrew; Bolkus, Kelly; DeAngelis, Matthew; Dodson, Gregory; Gerritsen, Jeffrey; McEniry, Brian; Mitrev, Ludmil; Kwofie, M Kwesi; Belliveau, Anne; Bonazza, Flynn; Lloyd, Vera; Panek, Izabela; Dabiri, Jared; Chavez, Chris; Craig, Jason; Davidson, Todd; Dietrichs, Chad; Fleetwood, Cheryl; Foley, Mike; Getto, Chris; Hailes, Susie; Hermes, Sarah; Hooper, Andy; Koener, Greg; Kohls, Kate; Law, Leslie; Lipp, Adam; Losey, Allison; Nelson, William; Nieto, Mario; Rogers, Pam; Rutman, Steve; Scales, Garrett; Sebastian, Barbara; Stanciu, Tom; Lobel, Gregg; Giampiccolo, Michelle; Herman, Dara; Kaufman, Margit; Murphy, Bryan; Pau, Clara; Puzio, Thomas; Veselsky, Marlene; Apostle, Kelly; Boyer, Dory; Fan, Brenda Chen; Lee, Susan; Lemke, Mike; Merchant, Richard; Moola, Farhad; Payne, Kyrsten; Perey, Bertrand; Viskontas, Darius; Poler, Mark; D'Antonio, Patricia; O'Neill, Greg; Abdullah, Amer; Fish-Fuhrmann, Jamie; Giska, Mark; Fidkowski, Christina; Guthrie, Stuart Trent; Hakeos, William; Hayes, Lillian; Hoegler, Joseph; Nowak, Katherine; Beck, Jeffery; Cuff, Jaslynn; Gaski, Greg; Haaser, Sharon; Holzman, Michael; Malekzadeh, A Stephen; Ramsey, Lolita; Schulman, Jeff; Schwartzbach, Cary; Azefor, Tangwan; Davani, Arman; Jaberi, Mahmood; Masear, Courtney; Haider, Syed Basit; Chungu, Carolyn; Ebrahimi, Ali; Fikry, Karim; Marcantonio, Andrew; Shelvan, Anitha; Sanders, David; Clarke, Collin; Lawendy, Abdel; Schwartz, Gary; Garg, Mohit; Kim, Joseph; Caruci, Juan; Commeh, Ekow; Cuevas, Randy; Cuff, Germaine; Franco, Lola; Furgiuele, David; Giuca, Matthew; Allman, Melissa; Barzideh, Omid; Cossaro, James; D'Arduini, Armando; Farhi, Anita; Gould, Jason; Kafel, John; Patel, Anuj; Peller, Abraham; Reshef, Hadas; Safur, Mohammed; Toscano, Fiore; Tedore, Tiffany; Akerman, Michael; Brumberger, Eric; Clark, Sunday; Friedlander, Rachel; Jegarl, Anita; Lane, Joseph; Lyden, John P; Mehta, Nili; Murrell, Matthew T; Painter, Nathan; Ricci, William; Sbrollini, Kaitlyn; Sharma, Rahul; Steel, Peter A D; Steinkamp, Michele; Weinberg, Roniel; Wellman, David Stephenson; Nader, Antoun; Fitzgerald, Paul; Ritz, Michaela; Bryson, Greg; Craig, Alexandra; Farhat, Cassandra; Gammon, Braden; Gofton, Wade; Harris, Nicole; Lalonde, Karl; Liew, Allan; Meulenkamp, Bradley; Sonnenburg, Kendra; Wai, Eugene; Wilkin, Geoffrey; Troxell, Karen; Alderfer, Mary Ellen; Brannen, Jason; Cupitt, Christopher; Gerhart, Stacy; McLin, Renee; Sheidy, Julie; Yurick, Katherine; Chen, Fei; Dragert, Karen; Kiss, Geza; Malveaux, Halina; McCloskey, Deborah; Mellender, Scott; Mungekar, Sagar S; Noveck, Helaine; Sagebien, Carlos; Biby, Luat; McKelvy, Gail; Richards, Anna; Abola, Ramon; Ayala, Brittney; Halper, Darcy; Mavarez, Ana; Rizwan, Sabeen; Choi, Stephen; Awad, Imad; Flynn, Brendan; Henry, Patrick; Jenkinson, Richard; Kaustov, Lilia; Lappin, Elizabeth; McHardy, Paul; Singh, Amara; Donnelly, Joanne; Gonzalez, Meera; Haydel, Christopher; Livelsberger, Jon; Pazionis, Theresa; Slattery, Bridget; Vazquez-Trejo, Maritza; Baratta, Jaime; Cirullo, Michael; Deiling, Brittany; Deschamps, Laura; Glick, Michael; Katz, Daniel; Krieg, James; Lessin, Jennifer; Mojica, Jeffrey; Torjman, Marc; Jin, Rongyu; Salpeter, Mary Jane; Powell, Mark; Simmons, Jeffrey; Lawson, Prentiss; Kukreja, Promil; Graves, Shanna; Sturdivant, Adam; Bryant, Ayesha; Crump, Sandra Joyce; Verrier, Michelle; Green, James; Menon, Matthew; Applegate, Richard; Arias, Ana; Pineiro, Natasha; Uppington, Jeffrey; Wolinsky, Phillip; Gunnett, Amy; Hagen, Jennifer; Harris, Sara; Hollen, Kevin; Holloway, Brian; Horodyski, Mary Beth; Pogue, Trevor; Ramani, Ramachandran; Smith, Cameron; Woods, Anna; Warrick, Matthew; Flynn, Kelly; Mongan, Paul; Ranganath, Yatish; Fernholz, Sean; Ingersoll-Weng, Esperanza; Marian, Anil; Seering, Melinda; Sibenaller, Zita; Stout, Lori; Wagner, Allison; Walter, Alicia; Wong, Cynthia; Orwig, Denise; Goud, Maithri; Helker, Chris; Mezenghie, Lydia; Montgomery, Brittany; Preston, Peter; Schwartz, J Sanford; Weber, Ramona; Fleisher, Lee A; Mehta, Samir; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J; Dinh, Cassandra; Chelly, Jacques E; Goel, Shiv; Goncz, Wende; Kawabe, Touichi; Khetarpal, Sharad; Monroe, Amy; Shick, Vladislav; Breidenstein, Max; Dominick, Timothy; Friend, Alexander; Mathews, Donald; Lennertz, Richard; Sanders, Robert; Akere, Helen; Balweg, Tyler; Bo, Amber; Doro, Christopher; Goodspeed, David; Lang, Gerald; Parker, Maggie; Rettammel, Amy; Roth, Mary; White, Marissa; Whiting, Paul; Allen, Brian F S; Baker, Tracie; Craven, Debra; McEvoy, Matt; Turnbo, Teresa; Kates, Stephen; Morgan, Melanie; Willoughby, Teresa; Weigel, Wade; Auyong, David; Fox, Ellie; Welsh, Tina; Cusson, Bruce; Dobson, Sean; Edwards, Christopher; Harris, Lynette; Henshaw, Daryl; Johnson, Kathleen; McKinney, Glen; Miller, Scott; Reynolds, Jon; Segal, B Scott; Turner, Jimmy; VanEenenaam, David; Weller, Robert; Lei, Jineli; Treggiari, Miriam; Akhtar, Shamsuddin; Blessing, Marcelle; Johnson, Chanel; Kampp, Michael; Kunze, Kimberly; O'Connor, Mary; Looke, Thomas; Tadros, Rafik; Vlassakov, Kamen; Cardenas, Louis; Bolkus, Kelly; Mitrev, Ludmil; Kwofie, M Kwesi; Dabiri, Jared; Lobel, Gregg; Poler, Mark; Giska, Mark; Sanders, David; Schwartz, Gary; Giuca, Matthew; Tedore, Tiffany; Nader, Antoun; Bryson, Greg; Troxell, Karen; Kiss, Geza; Choi, Stephen; Powell, Mark; Applegate, Richard; Warrick, Matthew; Ranganath, Yatish; Chelly, Jacques E; Lennertz, Richard; Sanders, Robert; Allen, Brian F S; Kates, Stephen; Weigel, Wade; Li, Jinlei; Wijeysundera, Duminda N; Kheterpal, Sachin; Moore, Reneé H; Smith, Alexander K; Tosi, Laura L; Looke, Thomas; Mehta, Samir; Fleisher, Lee; Hruslinski, Jennifer; Ramsey, Lolita; Langlois, Christine; Mezenghie, Lydia; Montgomery, Brittany; Oduwole, Samuel; Rose, Thomas
BACKGROUND:The REGAIN (Regional versus General Anesthesia for Promoting Independence after Hip Fracture) trial found similar ambulation and survival at 60 days with spinal versus general anesthesia for hip fracture surgery. Trial outcomes evaluating pain, prescription analgesic use, and patient satisfaction have not yet been reported. OBJECTIVE:To compare pain, analgesic use, and satisfaction after hip fracture surgery with spinal versus general anesthesia. DESIGN:Preplanned secondary analysis of a pragmatic randomized trial. ( NCT02507505). SETTING:46 U.S. and Canadian hospitals. PARTICIPANTS:Patients aged 50 years or older undergoing hip fracture surgery. INTERVENTION:Spinal or general anesthesia. MEASUREMENTS:Pain on postoperative days 1 through 3; 60-, 180-, and 365-day pain and prescription analgesic use; and satisfaction with care. RESULTS:A total of 1600 patients were enrolled. The average age was 78 years, and 77% were women. A total of 73.5% (1050 of 1428) of patients reported severe pain during the first 24 hours after surgery. Worst pain over the first 24 hours after surgery was greater with spinal anesthesia (rated from 0 [no pain] to 10 [worst pain imaginable]; mean difference, 0.40 [95% CI, 0.12 to 0.68]). Pain did not differ across groups at other time points. Prescription analgesic use at 60 days occurred in 25% (141 of 563) and 18.8% (108 of 574) of patients assigned to spinal and general anesthesia, respectively (relative risk, 1.33 [CI, 1.06 to 1.65]). Satisfaction was similar across groups. LIMITATION:Missing outcome data and multiple outcomes assessed. CONCLUSION:Severe pain is common after hip fracture. Spinal anesthesia was associated with more pain in the first 24 hours after surgery and more prescription analgesic use at 60 days compared with general anesthesia. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE:
PMID: 35696684
ISSN: 1539-3704
CID: 5277802

Preoperative echocardiogram does not increase time to surgery in hip fracture patients with prior percutaneous coronary intervention

Assefa, Tensae; Esper, Garrett; Cavaleri, Salvatore; Furgiuele, David; Konda, Sanjit; Egol, Kenneth
BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to (1) assess the effect of preoperative echocardiogram on time to surgery and (2) assess the outcomes of patients with a previous percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS:Demographic, clinical, quality and cost data were obtained and a validated risk predictive tool (STTGMA) was calculated for each of a consecutive series of hip fracture patients. Comparative analyses of patients who had an echocardiogram prior to surgery or a PCI prior to hospitalization were performed. RESULTS:Between 2014 and 2020, 2625 patients presented to our institution with a hip fracture. From this cohort 471 patients underwent a preoperative transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE), 30 who had a history of a PCI, and an additional 26 who had a history of PCI but did not undergo a preoperative TTE. Those undergoing a preoperative TTE had similar time (days) to surgery (1.73 vs 1.77, p = 0.86) and 30-day mortality (4% vs 7%, p = 0.545) regardless of PCI history. PCI patients who underwent a preoperative TTE experienced increased rates of 1-year mortality (27% vs 10%, p = 0.007) and major complications (23% vs 12%, p = 0.08) compared to those without a PCI history. PCI patients undergoing a preoperative TTE had a similar time (days) to surgery (1.77 vs 1.48, .p = 0.397) compared to PCI patients without a preoperative TTE. Patients who underwent a preoperative TTE had higher rates of 90-day readmission (31.0% vs 8.0%, p = 0.047) and 1-year mortality (26.7% vs 3.8%, p = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS:Having a preoperative TTE does not affect surgical wait times in hip fracture patients regardless of PCI history, but it may not improve mortality outcomes or reduce postoperative complications in patients with a history of a PCI.
PMID: 35279771
ISSN: 1633-8065
CID: 5182392

Standardized Preoperative Pathways Determining Preoperative Echocardiogram Usage Continue to Improve Hip Fracture Quality

Esper, Garrett; Anil, Utkarsh; Konda, Sanjit; Furgiuele, David; Zaretsky, Jonah; Egol, Kenneth
Introduction/UNASSIGNED:The purpose of this study was to assess the hospital quality measures and outcomes of operative hip fracture patients before and after implementation of an anesthesiology department protocol assigning decision for a preoperative transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) to the hospitalist co-managing physician. Materials and Methods/UNASSIGNED:Demographics, injury details, hospital quality measures, and outcomes were reviewed for a consecutive series of patients presenting to our institution with an operative hip fracture. In May of 2019, a new protocol assigning the responsibility to indicate a patient for preoperative TTE was mandated to the co-managing hospitalist at the institution. Patients were split into pre-protocol and post-protocol cohorts. Linear regression modeling and comparative analyses were conducted with a Bonferroni adjusted alpha as appropriate. Results/UNASSIGNED:Between September 2015 and June 2021, 1002 patients presented to our institution and were diagnosed with a hip fracture. Patients in the post-protocol cohort were less likely to undergo a preoperative echocardiogram, experienced a shorter time (days) to surgery, shorter length of stay, an increase in amount of home discharges, and lower complication risks for urinary tract infection and acute blood loss anemia as compared to those in the pre-protocol cohort. There were no differences seen in inpatient or 30-day mortality. Multivariable linear regression demonstrated a patient's comorbidity profile (Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI)) and their date of presentation (pre- or post-protocol), were both associated with (P<0.01) a patients' time to surgery. Conclusion/UNASSIGNED:A standardized preoperative work flow protocol regarding which physician evaluates and determines which patients require a preoperative TTE allows for a streamlined perioperative course for hip fracture patients. This allows for a shortened time to surgery and length of stay with an increase in home discharges and was associated with a reduced risk of common index hospitalization complications including UTI and anemia.
PMID: 35450301
ISSN: 2151-4585
CID: 5218572

Posterior Shoulder Instability After Infraclavicular Block for Outpatient Hand Surgery

Kanakamedala, Ajay C; Bookman, Jared S; Furgiuele, David L; Hacquebord, Jacques H
Regional blocks are being increasingly utilized for anesthesia for various orthopedic procedures. Several studies have shown that regional anesthesia has fewer side effects and improved postoperative pain relief compared to general anesthesia, but regional blocks are not without risks. We present case reports of 2 patients who experienced posterior shoulder instability, one of whom had a posterior shoulder dislocation, immediately in the postanesthesia care unit after undergoing hand surgery with regional anesthesia. This paper highlights the importance of being aware that patients might be at increased risk of shoulder instability after upper extremity regional anesthesia, and appropriate perioperative precautions should be taken.
PMID: 34963364
ISSN: 1558-9455
CID: 5108162

Regional Anesthesia for Clavicle Fracture Surgery is Safe and Effective

Ryan, Devon J; Iofin, Natalia; Furgiuele, David; Johnson, Joseph; Egol, Kenneth
BACKGROUND:Historically, clavicle fracture repairs have been performed under general anesthesia. However, in the last few years, the combination of an interscalene brachial plexus block and a modified superficial cervical plexus block has been described to provide adequate anesthesia for clavicle fracture surgery, with the added benefit of postoperative analgesia. Members of our anesthesiology department began utilizing this block with sedation for a subset of patients undergoing clavicle fracture fixation in March, 2013. METHODS:This study is a retrospective review of patients who underwent clavicle fracture repair at a single institution between June, 2014 and November, 2017. The decision for type of anesthesia (regional vs. general) was made jointly by the patient, anesthesiologist, and surgeon. Demographic data, relevant perioperative times, and intraoperative pain medication consumption were recorded, and comparisons were made in these variables between the regional and general groups. RESULTS:A total of 110 patients with 110 fractures were included. Fifty-two patients received regional anesthesia only with the combined block, while 58 patients received general anesthesia with an interscalene brachial plexus block. There were no major anesthetic-related complications noted in any patients, and there were no cases in which regional anesthesia had to be converted to general anesthesia because of block failure. Anesthesia start time was significantly longer in the general anesthesia group (29 vs. 20 minutes, p=0.022), as was total case time (164 vs. 131 minutes, p<0.001). Patients in the general group required significantly more intraoperative fentanyl administration (207 vs. 141 mcg, p=0.002). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Regional anesthesia using a combined brachial plexus and modified superficial cervical plexus is a reliable, efficacious technique. The combined block appears to be a reasonable alternative to general anesthesia with interscalene brachial plexus block, and may have benefits with regards to anesthesia start time and total case time. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level III; Retrospective Cohort Comparison; Treatment Study.
PMID: 33197587
ISSN: 1532-6500
CID: 4672402

Adductor Canal Blocks Reduce Inpatient Opioid Consumption While Maintaining Noninferior Pain Control and Functional Outcomes After Total Knee Arthroplasty

Feng, James E; Ikwuazom, Chibuokem P; Umeh, Uchenna O; Furgiuele, David L; Slover, James D; Macaulay, William; Long, William J; Schwarzkopf, Ran
BACKGROUND:The use of perioperative adductor canal blocks (PABs) continues to be a highly debated topic for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Here, we evaluate the effect of PABs on immediate postoperative subjective pain scores, opioid consumption, and objective functional outcomes. METHODS:On December 1, 2019, an institution-wide policy change was begun to use PABs in primary elective TKAs. Patient demographics, immediate postoperative nursing documented pain scores, opioid administration events, and validated physical therapy functional scores were prospectively collected as part of the standard of care and retrospectively queried through our electronic data warehouse. A historical comparison cohort was derived from consecutive patients undergoing TKA between July 1, 2019 and November 30, 2019. RESULTS:405 primary TKAs received PABs, while 789 patients were in the control cohort. Compared with controls, average verbal rating scale pain scores were lower among PAB recipients from 0-12 hours (2.42 ± 1.60 vs 2.05 ± 1.60; <.001) and 24-36 hours (4.92 ± 2.00 vs 4.47 ± 2.27; <.01). PAB recipients demonstrated significantly lower opioid consumption within the first 24 hours (44.34 ± 40.98 vs 36.83 ± 48.13; P < .01) and during their total inpatient stay (92.27 ± 109.81 vs 77.52 ± 123.11; <.05). AM-PAC scores within the first 24 hours were also higher for PABs (total scores: 20.28 ± 3.06 vs 20.71 ± 3.12; <.05). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:While the minimal clinically important differences in pain scores and functional status were comparable between both cohorts, patients demonstrated a significant reduction in overall inpatient opiate consumption after the introduction of PABs. Surgeons should consider these findings when evaluating for perioperative pain management, opioid-sparing, and rapid discharge protocols.
PMID: 33618955
ISSN: 1532-8406
CID: 4794342