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Differences in COVID-19 Outcomes among Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: First vs Later Surges

Gallagher, Mary Pat; Rompicherla, Saketh; Ebekozien, Osagie; Wilkes, Meredith; Antal, Zoltan; Feuer, Alexis Jamie; Rioles, Nicole; Noor, Nudrat; Gabriel, Liana; O"™Malley, Grenye; Golden, Lauren; Alonso, G. Todd; Ospelt, Emma; Odugbesan, Ori; Lyons, Sarah K.; Mungmode, Ann; Prahalad, Priya; Clements, Mark; Neyman, Anna; Demeterco-Berggren, Carla; Rapaport, Robert
Background: Patient outcomes of COVID-19 have improved throughout the pandemic. However, because it is not known whether outcomes of COVID-19 in the type 1 diabetes (T1D) population improved over time, we investigated differences in COVID-19 outcomes for patients with T1D in the United States. Methods: We analyzed data collected via a registry of patients with T1D and COVID-19 from 56 sites between April 2020 and January 2021. We grouped cases into first surge (April 9, 2020, to July 31, 2020, n = 188) and late surge (August 1, 2020, to January 31, 2021, n = 410), and then compared outcomes between both groups using descriptive statistics and logistic regression models. Results: Adverse outcomes were more frequent during the first surge, including diabetic ketoacidosis (32% vs 15%, P< .001), severe hypoglycemia (4% vs 1%, P= .04), and hospitalization (52% vs 22%, P< .001). Patients in the first surge were older (28 [SD,18.8] years vs 18.0 [SD, 11.1] years, P< .001), had higher median hemoglobin A1c levels (9.3 [interquartile range {IQR}, 4.0] vs 8.4 (IQR, 2.8), P< .001), and were more likely to use public insurance (107 [57%] vs 154 [38%], P< .001). The odds of hospitalization for adults in the first surge were 5 times higher compared to the late surge (odds ratio, 5.01; 95% CI, 2.11-12.63). Conclusion: Patients with T1D who presented with COVID-19 during the first surge had a higher proportion of adverse outcomes than those who presented in a later surge.
ISSN: 1079-6533
CID: 5314772

Diabetic ketoacidosis drives COVID-19 related hospitalizations in children with type 1 diabetes

Alonso, Guy Todd; Ebekozien, Osagie; Gallagher, Mary Pat; Rompicherla, Saketh; Lyons, Sarah K; Choudhary, Abha; Majidi, Shideh; Pinnaro, Catherina T; Balachandar, Sadana; Gangat, Mariam; Curda Roberts, Alissa Jeanne; Marks, Brynn E; Creo, Ana; Sanchez, Janine; Seeherunvong, Tossaporn; Jimenez-Vega, Jose; Patel, Neha S; Wood, Jamie R; Gabriel, Liana; Sumpter, Kathryn M; Wilkes, Meredith; Rapaport, Robert; Cymbaluk, Anna; Wong, Jenise C; Sanda, Srinath; Albanese-O'neill, Anastasia
BACKGROUND:Diabetes is a risk factor for poor COVID-19 outcomes, but pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes are poorly represented in current studies. METHODS:T1D Exchange coordinated a US type 1 diabetes COVID-19 registry. Forty-six diabetes centers submitted pediatric cases for patients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19. Associations between clinical factors and hospitalization were tested with Fisher's Exact Test. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for hospitalization. RESULTS:Data from 266 patients with previously established type 1 diabetes aged <19 years with COVID-19 were reported. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was the most common adverse outcome (n = 44, 72% of hospitalized patients). There were four hospitalizations for severe hypoglycemia, three hospitalizations requiring respiratory support (one of whom was intubated and mechanically ventilated), one case of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 10 patients who were hospitalized for reasons unrelated to COVID-19 or diabetes. Hospitalized patients (n = 61) were more likely than nonhospitalized patients (n = 205) to have minority race/ethnicity (67% vs 39%, P < 0.001), public insurance (64% vs 41%, P < 0.001), higher A1c (11% [97 mmol/mol] vs 8.2% [66 mmol/mol], P < 0.001), and lower insulin pump and lower continuous glucose monitoring use (26% vs 54%, P < 0.001; 39% vs 75%, P < 0.001). Age and gender were not associated with risk of hospitalization. Higher A1c was significantly associated with hospitalization, with an odds ratio of 1.56 (1.34-1.84) after adjusting for age, gender, insurance, and race/ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS:Higher A1c remained the only predictor for hospitalization with COVID-19. Diabetic ketoacidosis is the primary concern among this group.
PMID: 33855813
ISSN: 1753-0407
CID: 4871502