Cutaneous hyperpigmentation following bleomycin sclerotherapy for vascular malformations [Case Report]
Systemic bleomycin therapy is associated with pulmonary fibrosis and cutaneous side effects. While it is believed that there is little to no systemic distribution of bleomycin when utilized to treat vascular malformations (VMs), we present a case series in which cutaneous, adhesive-related hyperpigmentation suggests that there is systemic egress of bleomycin following direct puncture sclerotherapy (DPS). This risk of hyperpigmentation after intralesional bleomycin should be discussed with patients, and steps to minimize the chances of it occurring should be implemented.
A novel surgical treatment for posterior glottic stenosis using thyroid ala cartilage - A case report and literature review
Posterior glottic stenosis (PGS) describes a laryngeal disorder in which worsening degrees of scarring limit abduction of the vocal folds and/or arytenoids. It can be congenital or acquired. Generally, the acquired form is the result of chronic endotracheal tube trauma to the posterior larynx. Symptoms of acquired PGS usually begin four to eight weeks after extubation, and present as gradually worsening stridor and shortness of breath as the laryngeal obstruction becomes more severe. Without intervention, PGS can cause total obstruction and respiratory failure. The mainstay of treatment for PGS is surgery. We present a case in which an infant patient with PGS was treated with a posterior cricoid split and insertion of a thyroid ala graft. The graft was bolstered in place with an appropriately-sized endotracheal tube during a six-day period of postoperative intubation. We report this as a novel surgical approach, as a literature review did not uncover that this technique has been previously described. Our patient has had excellent airway and voice outcomes. His swallow outcomes have been difficult to assess, as the patient has shown signs of global delay.