Mental Health Care in Pediatric Diabetes: Overcoming Challenges and Barriers [Editorial]
Cortisol Levels in Children With Diabetic Ketoacidosis Associated With New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
There is little data documenting cortisol levels in children with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), despite the fact that untreated adrenal insufficiency (AI) could worsen the outcome of DKA. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed serum cortisol levels in 28 children with DKA and new onset type 1 diabetes mellitus evaluated at our center over a 5-year period. Average duration of diabetes-related symptoms was positively associated with age ( P = .002), and significantly lower hemoglobin A1c levels were observed in the youngest children. The mean cortisol level was 40.9 microg/dL, with a range of 7.8 to 119 microg/dL. Cortisol levels were found to be inversely associated with serum pH ( P = .007). There was no difference in the clinical outcome of the 4 patients who had cortisol levels less than 18 microg/dL. Overall, we did not find clinical or laboratory evidence of diminished cortisol reserve; however, the possibility of AI must be kept in mind when treating children with DKA.
Mechanisms and Disease Associations of Haplotype-Dependent Allele-Specific DNA Methylation
Haplotype-dependent allele-specific methylation (hap-ASM) can impact disease susceptibility, but maps of this phenomenon using stringent criteria in disease-relevant tissues remain sparse. Here we apply array-based and Methyl-Seq approaches to multiple human tissues and cell types, including brain, purified neurons and glia, T lymphocytes, and placenta, and identify 795 hap-ASM differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and 3,082 strong methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTLs), most not previously reported. More than half of these DMRs have cell type-restricted ASM, and among them are 188 hap-ASM DMRs and 933 mQTLs located near GWAS signals for immune and neurological disorders. Targeted bis-seq confirmed hap-ASM in 12/13 loci tested, including CCDC155, CD69, FRMD1, IRF1, KBTBD11, and S100A( *)-ILF2, associated with immune phenotypes, MYT1L, PTPRN2, CMTM8 and CELF2, associated with neurological disorders, NGFR and HLA-DRB6, associated with both immunological and brain disorders, and ZFP57, a trans-acting regulator of genomic imprinting. Polymorphic CTCF and transcription factor (TF) binding sites were over-represented among hap-ASM DMRs and mQTLs, and analysis of the human data, supplemented by cross-species comparisons to macaques, indicated that CTCF and TF binding likelihood predicts the strength and direction of the allelic methylation asymmetry. These results show that hap-ASM is highly tissue specific; an important trans-acting regulator of genomic imprinting is regulated by this phenomenon; and variation in CTCF and TF binding sites is an underlying mechanism, and maps of hap-ASM and mQTLs reveal regulatory sequences underlying supra- and sub-threshold GWAS peaks in immunological and neurological disorders.
Identifying monogenic diabetes in a pediatric cohort with presumed type 1 diabetes
OBJECTIVE: Monogenic diabetes (MD) is rare and can often be confused with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a pediatric cohort. We sought to determine clinical criteria that could optimally identify candidates for genetic testing of two common forms of MD that alter therapy: glucokinase (GCK) and hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1alpha). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of 939 patients with a presumed diagnosis of T1D, 6 months-20 yr of age, and identified four clinical criteria that were unusual for T1D and could warrant further evaluation for MD: (i) negative pancreatic autoantibodies, (ii) evidence of prolonged endogenous insulin production, or (iii) strong family history of diabetes in multiple generations. One hundred and twenty-one patients were identified as having one or more of these high-risk clinical criteria and were offered screening for mutations in GCK and HNF1alpha; 58 consented for genetic testing. RESULTS: Of 58 patients with presumed T1D who underwent genetic testing, four were found to have GCK and one had HNF1alpha. No patients with only one high-risk feature were found to have MD. Of 10 patients who had two or more high risk criteria, five had MD (50%). CONCLUSION: A high frequency of MD from mutations in GCK/HNF1alpha may be identified among pediatric diabetic patients originally considered to have T1D by performing genetic testing on those patients with multiple clinical risk factors for MD.
Mental health issues in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes: prevalence and impact on glycemic control
Mental health comorbidities can negatively affect disease management in adolescents with chronic illnesses. This study sought to determine the prevalence and impact of mental health issues in a population of adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. A cross-sectional study of 150 patients aged 11 to 25 years with type 1 diabetes from an urban, academic diabetes center was conducted. Participants completed 3 validated mental health disorder screening instruments: Beck's Depression Inventory, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders-41 anxiety screen, and the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary Care. More than a third screened positive: 11.3% for depression, 21.3% for anxiety, and 20.7% for disordered eating (14.7% had >/=2 positive screens). Patients with a positive screen had twice the odds of having poor glycemic control as those without, as measured by HgbA1c. This study supports screening for mental health issues in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.
Treatment Patterns in Asymptomatic Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Diagnosed by Research Screening [Meeting Abstract]
Making progress: preserving beta cells in type 1 diabetes
The clinical care of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) has greatly improved over the past few decades; however, it remains impossible to completely normalize blood sugar utilizing currently available tools. Research is underway with a goal to improve the care and, ultimately, to cure T1D by preserving beta cells. This review will outline the progress that has been made in trials aimed at preserving insulin secretion in T1D by modifying the immune assault on the pancreatic beta cell. Although not yet ready for clinical use, successful trials have been conducted in new-onset T1D that demonstrated utility of three experimental agents with disparate modes of action (anti-T cell, anti-B cell, and costimulation blockade) to preserve insulin secretion. In contrast, prevention studies have so far failed to produce positive results but have shown that such studies are feasible and have identified new promising agents for study.
HLA-E-restricted regulatory CD8(+) T cells are involved in development and control of human autoimmune type 1 diabetes
A key feature of the immune system is its ability to discriminate self from nonself. Breakdown in any of the mechanisms that maintain unresponsiveness to self (a state known as self-tolerance) contributes to the development of autoimmune conditions. Recent studies in mice show that CD8(+) T cells specific for the unconventional MHC class I molecule Qa-1 bound to peptides derived from the signal sequence of Hsp60 (Hsp60sp) contribute to self/nonself discrimination. However, it is unclear whether they exist in humans and play a role in human autoimmune diseases. Here we have shown that CD8(+) T cells specific for Hsp60sp bound to HLA-E (the human homolog of Qa-1) exist and play an important role in maintaining peripheral self-tolerance by discriminating self from nonself in humans. Furthermore, in the majority of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients tested, there was a specific defect in CD8(+) T cell recognition of HLA-E/Hsp60sp, which was associated with failure of self/nonself discrimination. However, the defect in the CD8(+) T cells from most of the T1D patients tested could be corrected in vitro by exposure to autologous immature DCs loaded with the Hsp60sp peptide. These data suggest that HLA-E-restricted CD8(+) T cells may play an important role in keeping self-reactive T cells in check. Thus, correction of this defect could be a potentially effective and safe approach in the therapy of T1D.
Prevalence of Monogenic Diabetes at an Academic Diabetes Center [Meeting Abstract]
A review of the effects of therapy on growth and bone mineralization in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia
The medical management of children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) can be challenging with regard to optimizing final height. Insufficient glucocorticoid suppression of adrenal hormone production will result in acceleration of bone maturation and premature epiphyseal fusion, while appropriate or excessive glucocorticoid therapy can be accompanied by suppression of the growth axis. The extent of the growth suppression appears to be affected by the type and dose of glucocorticoid. Some studies suggest that such growth suppression can be ameliorated through concomitant use of growth hormone (GH) therapy. Available data published over the last 10 years on height outcomes in CAH patients treated with glucocorticoids will be reviewed