Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Impact on Host Transcriptomic Response in Severe Coronavirus
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Evidence suggests that patients critically ill with COVID-19 have a dysregulated host immune response that contributes to end-organ damage. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used in this population with varying degrees of success. This study was performed to evaluate the impact of ECMO on the host immunotranscriptomic response in these patients. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Eleven patients critically ill with COVID-19 requiring ECMO underwent an analysis of cytokines and immunotranscriptomic pathways before ECMO (T1), after ECMO for 24 hours (T2), and 2 hours after ECMO decannulation (T3). A Multiplex Human Cytokine panel was used to identify cytokine changes, and immunotranscriptomic changes in peripheral leukocytes were evaluated by PAXgene and NanoString nCounter. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:, which code for binding ligands for the activation of toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Reactome analyses of differential gene expression demonstrated an impact on many of the body's most important immune inflammatory pathways. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:These findings suggest a temporal impact of ECMO on the host immunotranscriptomic response in patients critically ill with COVID-19.
Donation after circulatory death heart transplantation using normothermic regional perfusion:The NYU Protocol
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:This study aimed to evaluate the impact of cardiopulmonary bypass for thoraco-abdominal normothermic regional perfusion on the metabolic milieu of donation after cardiac death organ donors before transplantation. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Local donation after cardiac death donor offers are assessed for suitability and willingness to participate. Withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy is performed in the operating room. After declaration of circulatory death and a 5-minute observation period, the cardiac team performs a median sternotomy, ligation of the aortic arch vessels, and initiation of thoraco-abdominal normothermic regional perfusion via central cardiopulmonary bypass at 37 °C. Three sodium chloride zero balance ultrafiltration bags containing 50 mEq sodium bicarbonate and 0.5 g calcium carbonate are infused. Arterial blood gas measurements are obtained every 15 minutes after every zero balance ultrafiltration bag is infused, and blood is transfused as needed to maintain hemoglobin greater than 8 mg/dL. Cardiopulmonary bypass is weaned with concurrent hemodynamic and transesophageal echocardiogram evaluation of the donor heart. The remainder of the procurement, including the abdominal organs, proceeds in a similar controlled fashion as is performed for a standard donation after brain death donor. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:.001) . On average, donation after cardiac death donors received transfusions of 2.3 ± 1.5 units of packed red blood cells. Of the 18 donors who underwent normothermic regional perfusion, all hearts were deemed suitable for recovery and successfully transplanted, a yield of 100%. Other organs successfully recovered and transplanted include kidneys (80.6% yield), livers (66.7% yield), and bilateral lungs (27.8% yield). CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:The use of cardiopulmonary bypass for thoraco-abdominal normothermic regional perfusion is a burgeoning option for improving the quality of organs from donation after cardiac death donors. Meticulous intraoperative management of donation after cardiac death donors with a specific focus on improving their metabolic milieu may lead to improved graft function in transplant recipients.
Bacterial endocarditis with AACEK (HACEK) organisms [Case Report]
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Gram-negative organisms of the AACEK group, formerly known as HACEK, rarely cause endocarditis. CASE SERIES/METHODS:We present three cases of bacterial endocarditis, involving native and prosthetic valves, caused by AACEK organisms. In two patients, Cardiobacterium hominis was the responsible organism, and in a third, Aggregatibacter aphrophilus was implicated. A dental source of infection was identified in two patients, and in all three patients, the presentation of endocarditis was subacute. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:This case series highlights the indolent nature of infection with the AACEK organisms. It also demonstrates the crucial role of multimodality imaging, especially transesophageal echocardiography, in the diagnosis of AACEk endocarditis of both native and prosthetic valves, and in delineating the extent of abscess in those with prosthetic valve infection.
Efficacy of Proning in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
Objectives/UNASSIGNED:Proning patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been associated with increased survival, though little data exists evaluating the safety and feasibility of proning ARDS patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Methods/UNASSIGNED:, 2020 was performed. All proning events were evaluated for complications, as well as change in compliance, sweep, oxygenation and flow. The primary outcome of this study was the rate major morbidity associated with proning while on ECMO. Results/UNASSIGNED:of 86 pre to 103 post (p<0.0001). Mean ECMO flow was unchanged. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Proning in patients with ARDS on ECMO is safe with an associated improvement in lung mechanics. With careful planning and coordination, these data support the practice of appropriately proning patients with severe ARDS, even if they are on ECMO.
Readmission Rate as a Quality Metric for Valve Surgery
Early experience with donation after circulatory death heart transplantation using normothermic regional perfusion in the United States
OBJECTIVE:This pilot study sought to evaluate the feasibility of our donation after circulatory death (DCD) heart transplantation protocol using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for normothermic regional reperfusion (NRP). METHODS:Suitable local DCD candidates were transferred to our institution. Life support was withdrawn in the operating room (OR). On declaration of circulatory death, sternotomy was performed, and the aortic arch vessels were ligated. CPB was initiated with left ventricular venting. The heart was reperfused, with correction of any metabolic abnormalities. CPB was weaned, and cardiac function was assessed at 30-minute intervals. If accepted, the heart was procured with cold preservation and transplanted into recipients in a nearby OR. RESULTS:Between January 2020 and January 2021, a total of 8 DCD heart transplants were performed: 6 isolated hearts, 1 heart-lung, and 1 combined heart and kidney. All donor hearts were successfully resuscitated and weaned from CPB without inotropic support. Average lactate and potassium levels decreased from 9.39Â Â±Â 1.47Â mmol/L to 7.20Â Â±Â 0.13Â mmol/L and 7.49Â Â±Â 1.32Â mmol/L to 4.36Â Â±Â 0.67Â mmol/L, respectively. Post-transplantation, the heart-lung transplant recipient required venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for primary lung graft dysfunction but was decannulated on postoperative day 3 and recovered uneventfully. All other recipients required minimal inotropic support without mechanical circulatory support. Survival was 100% with a median follow-up of 304Â days (interquartile range, 105-371Â days). CONCLUSIONS:DCD heart transplantation outcomes have been excellent. Our DCD protocol is adoptable for more widespread use and will increase donor heart availability in the United States.
One-Year Outcomes With Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support for Severe COVID-19
BACKGROUND:Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Venovenous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used in patients in whom conventional mechanical ventilatory support has failed. To date, published data have focused on survival from ECMO and survival to discharge. In addition to survival to discharge, this study reports 1-year follow-up data for patients who were successfully discharged from the hospital. METHODS:A single-institution, retrospective review of all patients with severe COVID-19 who were cannulated for VV-ECMO between March 10, 2020 and May 1, 2020 was performed. A multidisciplinary ECMO team evaluated, selected, and managed patients with ECMO support. The primary outcome of this study was survival to discharge. Available 1-year follow-up data are also reported. RESULTS:A total of 30 patients were supported with VV-ECMO, and 27 patients (90%) survived to discharge. All patients were discharged home or to acute rehabilitation on room air, except for 1 patient (3.7%), who required supplemental oxygen therapy. At a median follow-up of 10.8 months (interquartile range [IQR], 8.9-14.4 months) since ECMO cannulation, survival was 86.7%, including 1 patient who underwent lung transplantation. Of the patients discharged from the hospital, 44.4% (12/27) had pulmonary function testing, with a median percent predicted forced expiratory volume of 100% (IQR, 91%-110%). For survivors, a 6-minute walk test was performed in 59.3% (16/27), with a median value of 350 m (IQR, 286-379 m). CONCLUSIONS:A well-defined patient selection and management strategy of VV-ECMO support in patients with severe COVID-19 resulted in exceptional survival to discharge that was sustained at 1-year after ECMO cannulation.
COVID-19-Associated Large- and Medium-Sized-Vessel Pathology: A Case Series
BACKGROUND:â€ƒCoronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) remains a public health crisis. The epidemiology of COVID-19-associated large- and medium-sized-vessel pathology is not well characterized. The aim of this study is to identify patients with possible COVID-19-associated large- and medium-sized-vessel pathology based on computed tomography (CT) imaging to provide insight into this rare, but potentially devastating, cardiovascular manifestation. METHODS:â€ƒThis is a single-center retrospective review of patients with CT chest, abdomen, and/or pelvis concerning for large- and medium-vessel pathology and confirmed COVID-19 infection from March 1, 2020 to October 31, 2020. RESULTS:â€ƒDuring the study period, 6,553 CT reports were reviewed and pertinent imaging was identified in 139 patients. Of these, 8 patients (median age: 59 years, range 51-82) were COVID-19 positive. All patients had preexisting cardiovascular risk factors and three (37.5%) had an autoimmune disease. Four patients were never hospitalized for COVID-19. Among these, two presented to the hospital at a median of 39 days (range: 27-50) after their initial COVID-19 test with chest and back pain where imaging revealed extensive aortic pathology. One patient required surgical management for aortic pathology. All other patients were treated with expectant management and outpatient follow-up. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:â€ƒThe clinical and radiological presentations of COVID-19-associated large- and medium-vessel pathology are heterogeneous and can be a late finding after COVID-19 recovery. Close clinical follow-up and surveillance imaging for large- and medium-sized-vessel pathology may be warranted in COVID-19 patients.
Logistics for expanding heart transplantation from donation after circulatory death using normothermic regional perfusion [Editorial]
Prior Infrarenal Aortic Surgery is Not Associated with Increased Risk of Spinal Cord Ischemia Following Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair and Complex Endovascular Aortic Repair
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Patients with prior infrarenal aortic intervention represent an increasing demographic of patients undergoing thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and/or complex EVAR. Studies have suggested that prior abdominal aortic surgery is a risk factor for spinal cord ischemia (SCI). However, these results are largely based on single-center experiences with limited multi-institutional and national data assessing clinical outcomes in these patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prior infrarenal aortic surgery on SCI. METHODS:The Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative database was retrospectively reviewed to identify all patients â‰¥18 years old undergoing TEVAR/complex EVAR from January 2012 to June 2020. Patients with previous thoracic or suprarenal aortic repairs were excluded. Baseline and procedural characteristics and postoperative outcomes were compared by group: TEVAR/complex EVAR with or without previous infrarenal aortic repair. The primary outcome was postoperative SCI. Secondary outcomes included postoperative hospital length of stay (LOS), bowel ischemia, renal ischemia, and 30-day mortality. Multivariate regression was used to determine independent predictors of postoperative SCI. Additional analysis was performed for patients undergoing isolated TEVAR. RESULTS:A total of 9506 patients met the inclusion criteria: 8691 (91.4%) had no history of infrarenal aortic repair and 815 (8.6%) had previous infrarenal aortic repair. Patients with previous infrarenal repair were older with an increased prevalence of chronic kidney disease (p=0.001) and cardiovascular risk factors including hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and smoking history (p<0.001). These patients presented with larger maximal aortic diameters (6.06Â±1.47 cm versus 5.15Â±1.76 cm; p<0.001) and required more stent grafts (p<0.001) with increased intraoperative blood transfusion requirements (p<0.001), and longer procedure times (p<0.001). Univariate analysis demonstrated no difference in postoperative SCI, postoperative hospital LOS, bowel ischemia, or renal ischemia between the two groups. Thirty-day mortality was significantly higher in patients with prior infrarenal repair (p=0.001). On multivariate regression, prior infrarenal aortic repair was not a predictor of postoperative SCI, while aortic dissection (odds ratio [OR] 1.65; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.26-2.16, p<0.001), number of stent grafts deployed (OR 1.45; 95% CI 1.30-1.62, p<0.001), and units of packed red blood cells transfused intraoperatively (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.03-1.73, p=0.032) were independent predictors of SCI. CONCLUSIONS:Although TEVAR/complex EVAR patients with prior infrarenal aortic repair constituted a sicker cohort with higher 30-day mortality, the rate of SCI was comparable to patients without prior repair. Previous infrarenal repair was not associated with risk of SCI.