Hemoadsorption for management of patients on veno-venous ECMO support for severe COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome
BACKGROUND AND AIM/OBJECTIVE:Patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop a profound cytokine-mediated pro-inflammatory response. This study reports outcomes in 10 patients with COVID-19 supported on veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) who were selected for the emergency use of a hemoadsorption column integrated in the ECMO circuit. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:Pre and posttreatment, clinical data, and inflammatory markers were assessed to determine the safety and feasibility of using this system and to evaluate the clinical effect. RESULTS:During hemoadsorption, median levels of interleukin (IL)-2R, IL-6, and IL-10 decreased by 54%, 86%, and 64%, respectively. Reductions in other markers were observed for lactate dehydrogenase (-49%), ferritin (-46%), d-dimer (-7%), C-reactive protein (-55%), procalcitonin (-76%), and lactate (-44%). Vasoactive-inotrope scores decreased significantly over the treatment interval (-80%). The median hospital length of stay was 53 days (36-85) and at 90-days post cannulation, survival was 90% which was similar to a group of patients without the use of hemoadsorption. CONCLUSIONS:Addition of hemoadsorption to VV-ECMO in patients with severe COVID-19 is feasible and reduces measured cytokine levels. However, in this small series, the precise impact on the overall clinical course and survival benefit still remains unknown.
Impact of Early Initiation of Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy in Thoracic Organ Transplantation from Hepatitis C Virus Positive Donors
Thoracic organs from Hepatitis C virus (HCV) positive donors are not commonly used for transplantation. The development of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) for HCV treatment has led to renewed interest in using HCV-positive organs. We evaluated HCV transmission rates, viremia clearance, and short-term outcomes in HCV-negative patients who received HCV-positive thoracic organs at our institution. From January 1, 2018 to May 31, 2019, 38 patients underwent HCV-positive thoracic organ transplantation (16 lungs and 22 hearts). Heart recipients were started on glecaprevir/pibrentasvir, a pangenotypic DAA, when they developed HCV viremia. Lung recipients were empirically started on glecaprevir/pibrentasvir within the first three post-transplant days. The primary outcome was cure of HCV defined as sustained virologic response at 12 weeks (SVR12). All heart recipients developed HCV viremia with median initial viral load of 64,565 IU/mL (interquartile range: 1660 to 473,151). The median time from DAA initiation to viremia clearance was 19 days (confidence interval: 15-27 days). 11 out of 16 (68.8%) lung recipients developed HCV viremia with median initial viral load of 26 IU/mL (interquartile range: 15 to 143). The median time from DAA initiation to viremia clearance was 10 days (confidence interval: 6-17 days). 5 out of 16 (31.3%) lung recipients never became viremic. All patients demonstrated SVR12. Thoracic organ transplantation from HCV viremic donors is safe with excellent short-term survival. Early initiation of HCV treatment results in rapid viremia clearance and SVR12. Long-term outcomes and optimal timing of DAA initiation remains to be determined.
Mitral Valve Repair: The Goal Is a Durable Physiologically Normal Valve
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support in Severe COVID-19
BACKGROUND:Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) remains a worldwide pandemic with a high mortality rate among patients requiring mechanical ventilation. The limited data that exists regarding the utility of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in these critically ill patients shows poor overall outcomes. This paper describes our institutional practice regarding the application and management of ECMO support for patients with Covid-19 and reports promising early outcomes. METHODS:>60 mmHg with no life-limiting comorbidities. Patients were cannulated at bedside and were managed with protective lung ventilation, early tracheostomy, bronchoscopies and proning as clinically indicated. RESULTS:Of 321 patients intubated for Covid-19, 77 (24%) patients were evaluated for ECMO support with 27 (8.4%) patients placed on ECMO. All patients were placed on veno-venous ECMO. Current survival is 96.3%, with only one mortality to date in over 350 days of total ECMO support. Thirteen patients (48.1%) remain on ECMO support, while 13 patients (48.1%) have been successfully decannulated. Seven patients (25.9%) have been discharged from the hospital. Six patients (22.2%) remain in the hospital of which four are on room-air. No healthcare workers that participated in ECMO cannulation developed symptoms of or tested positive for Covid-19. CONCLUSIONS:The early outcomes presented here suggest that the judicious use of ECMO support in severe Covid-19 may be clinically beneficial.
Surgical management of a pulsatile chest wall mass secondary to an ascending aortic aneurysm in a patient with bovine arch [Case Report]
Ascending aortic pseudoaneurysms are rare, but life-threatening conditions, that often require intervention. While endovascular techniques have advanced significantly, the majority of these clinical scenarios preclude endovascular options and the primary treatment modality remains open surgical repair. Repair of an aortic pseudoaneurysm eroding through the sternum resulting in a pulsatile chest wall mass is technically challenging. We report the successful repair of a large ascending aortic pseudoaneurysm in a 62-year-old male with bovine arch anatomy and prior Type A dissection repair, presenting with contained rupture and a pulsatile chest wall mass.
Adverse Outcomes Associated With Delaying or Withholding beta-Blockers After Cardiac Surgery: A Retrospective Single-Center Cohort Study
BACKGROUND:Ideal timing of postoperative beta-blockers is unclear. We hypothesized that patients who do not receive beta-blockers immediately after cardiac surgery would have increased in-hospital mortality (primary outcome) and postoperative hemodynamic, pulmonary, neurologic, or respiratory complications (secondary outcomes). METHODS:We performed a retrospective cohort study evaluating patients who underwent cardiac surgery at our institution from January 1, 2013 to September 30, 2017. We compared outcomes between patients who received beta-blockers by postoperative day (POD) 5 with outcomes in patients who did not receive beta-blockers at any time or received them after POD 5. Inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to minimize confounding. Univariate logistic regression analyses were performed on the weighted sets using absent or delayed beta-blockers as the independent variable and each outcome as dependent variables in separate analyses. A secondary analysis was performed in patients prescribed preoperative beta-blockers. E-values were calculated for significant outcomes. RESULTS:All results were confounder adjusted. Among patients presenting for cardiac surgery, not receiving beta-blockers by POD 5 or at any time was not associated with the primary outcome in-hospital mortality, estimated odds ratio (OR; 99.5% confidence interval [CI]) of 1.6 (0.49-5.1), P = .28. Not receiving beta-blockers by POD 5 or at any time was associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation, estimated OR (99.5% CI) of 1.5 (1.1-2.1), P < .001, and pulmonary complications, estimated OR (99.5% CI) of 3.0 (1.8-5.2), P < .001. E-values were 2.4 for postoperative atrial fibrillation and 5.6 for pulmonary complications. Among patients presenting for cardiac surgery taking preoperative beta-blockers, not receiving beta-blockers by POD 5 or at any time was not associated with the primary outcome mortality, with estimated OR (99.5% CI) of 1.3 (0.43-4.1), P = .63. In this subset, not receiving beta-blockers by POD 5 or at any time was associated with increased adjusted ORs of postoperative atrial fibrillation (OR = 1.6; 99.5% CI, 1.1-2.4; P < .001) and postoperative pulmonary complications (OR = 2.8; 99.5% CI, 1.6-5.2; P < .001). Here, e-values were 2.7 for postoperative atrial fibrillation and 5.1 for pulmonary complications. For the sensitivity analyses for secondary outcomes, exposure and outcome periods overlap. Outcomes may have occurred before or after postoperative beta-blocker administration. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients who undergo cardiac surgery, not receiving postoperative beta-blockers within the first 5 days after cardiac surgery or at any time is not associated with in-hospital mortality and is associated with, but may not necessarily cause, postoperative atrial fibrillation and pulmonary complications.
"Addiction Is a Fatal Disease Unless Treated": Where Do Cardiac Surgeons Stand in This Continuum?
Coronary revascularization and circulatory support strategies in patients with myocardial infarction, multi-vessel coronary artery disease, and cardiogenic shock: Insights from an international survey [Letter]
Cardiogenic shock (CS) complicating acute myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with high mortality. In the absence of data to support coronary revascularization beyond the infarct artery and selection of circulatory support devices or medications, clinical practice may vary substantially.
Robotic Approach to Mitral Valve Surgery in Septo-Octogenarians
This summarizes the incidence of septo-octogenarian patients in our robotic mitral experience and provides comparative outcomes to STS predicted models of mortality, stroke, and shortened length of stay, demonstrating that elderly patients (â‰¥70 years) matched STS benchmarks and outperforming STS predicted short length of stay in this study population. NYHAâ€¯=â€¯New York Heart Association. PCIâ€¯=â€¯percutaneous coronary intervention. LOSâ€¯=â€¯length of stay. STSâ€¯=â€¯Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Advanced age confers higher STS predicted risks of mortality (PROM) and longer hospital lengths of stay (LOS) in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery; some consider it a contraindication to robotic-assisted approaches. We analyzed the feasibility and safety of totally endoscopic robotic mitral valve surgery (TERMS) in patientsâ‰¥70 years. From 5/11 to 4/18, 570 consecutive patients underwent TERMS by the same two-surgeon team utilizing the da Vinci Xi Surgical System. Differences in patient demographics, intra-operative variables, and outcomes were analyzed between septo-octogenarian (patientsâ‰¥70 years) and younger patients (<70 years). Patients requiring LV patch reconstruction following mitral annular calcification resection were excluded. For those patients with STS predicted risk scores (n=439), our outcomes were compared to those STS predictions. Patientsâ‰¥70 comprised 25% of our TERMS cohort. Patientsâ‰¥70 had higher rates of pre-operative atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure, and significantly higher STS PROM. Patientsâ‰¥70 had greater incidence of concomitant cryoablation, hybrid percutaneous coronary intervention, and tricuspid repair. Patientsâ‰¥70 did not have longer cardiopulmonary bypass or aortic occlusion times. Thirty-day mortality was similar between groups (p=0.151). Median LOS was one day longer for patientsâ‰¥70, 4 vs 3 days (p<0.001). Short LOS (<6 days) was achieved in 72% of patientsâ‰¥70, markedly outperforming the STS predicted rates (36%). Advanced age is not a limiting factor for robotic mitral valve surgery in most patients. TERMS in patientsâ‰¥70 years matched STS benchmark performance outcomes and provided excellent recovery as evidenced by the short LOS (<6 days) experienced by the majority of septo-octogenarian patients.
Concomitant temporary mechanical support in high-risk coronary artery bypass surgery
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) undergoing high-risk coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are at increased risk for postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock. This report describes planned concomitant microaxial temporary mechanical support (MA-TMS) device placement as a viable bridge-to-recovery strategy for high-risk patients receiving surgical revascularization. METHODS:A retrospective review was performed for all patients from October 2017 to May 2019 with low LVEF (<30%), New York Heart Association Class III or IV symptoms, and myocardial viability who underwent CABG with prophylactic MA-TMS support at a single institution (nâ€‰=â€‰13). RESULTS:Mean patient age was 64.8 years, and 12 patients (92%) were male. Eight patients (62%) presented with acute coronary syndrome. Mean predicted risk of mortality was 4.6%, ranging from 0.6% to 15.6%. An average of 3.4 grafts were performed per patient. Greater than 60% of patients were extubated within 48â€‰hours and out-of-bed within 72â€‰hours, and the average duration of MA-TMS was 5.7 days. Mean postoperative length of stay was 16.7 days. There were no postoperative myocardial infarctions or deaths. CONCLUSIONS:Prophylactic MA-TMS may allow safe and effective surgical revascularization for patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction who may otherwise be offered a durable ventricular assist device.