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Intraoperative Use of Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump to Generate Pulsatile Flow During Heart Transplantation: A Single-Center Experience

James, Les; Dorsey, Michael P; Kilmarx, Sumner E; Yassin, Sallie; Shrivastava, Shashwat; Menghani, Neil; Bajaj, Vikram; Grossi, Eugene A; Galloway, Aubrey C; Moazami, Nader; Smith, Deane E
The physiologic impact of pulsatile flow (PF) on end-organ perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is controversial. Using an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) to maintain PF during CPB for patients undergoing heart transplantation (HT) may impact end-organ perfusion, with implications for postoperative outcomes. A single-center retrospective study of 76 patients bridged to HT with IABP was conducted between January 2018 and December 2022. Beginning in May 2022, patients received IABP-generated PF during CPB at an internal rate of 80 beats/minute. Fifty-eight patients underwent HT with the IABP turned off (IABP-Off), whereas 18 patients underwent HT with IABP-generated PF (IABP-On). The unmatched IABP-On group experienced shorter organ ischemia times (180 vs. 203 minutes, p = 0.015) and CPB times (104 vs. 116 minutes, p = 0.022). The cohort was propensity matched according to age, organ ischemia time, and CPB time. Elevations in postoperative lactates in the immediate (2.8 vs. 1.5, p = 0.062) and 24 hour (4.7 vs. 2.4, p = 0.084) postoperative periods trended toward significance in the matched IABP-Off group. There was no difference in postoperative vasoactive inotropic score (VIS), postoperative creatinine, or length of stay. This limited preliminary data suggest that maintaining counterpulsation to generate PF during CPB may improve end-organ perfusion in this patient population as suggested by lower postoperative lactate levels.
PMID: 38531093
ISSN: 1538-943x
CID: 5644742

Impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on drug overdoses in the United States and the effect on cardiac transplant volume and survival

Phillips, Katherine G; James, Les; Rabadi, Marie; Grossi, Eugene A; Smith, Deane; Galloway, Aubrey C; Moazami, Nader
BACKGROUND:Drug overdose (DO) deaths rose to unprecedented levels during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This study examines the impact of COVID-19 on the availability of cardiac allografts from DO donors and the implications of DO donor use on recipient survival. METHODS:Heart transplants reported to the United Network for Organ Sharing from January 2017 to November 2019 ("pre-COVID") and from March 2020 to June 2021 ("COVID pandemic") were analyzed with respect to DO donor status. Outcomes were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression to identify predictors of survival. Characteristics of discarded cardiac allografts were also compared by DO donor status. RESULTS:During the COVID-19 pandemic, 27.2% of cardiac allografts were from DO donors vs 20.5% pre-COVID, a 32.7% increase (p < 0.001). During the pandemic, DO donors were younger (84.7% vs 76.3% <40 years, p < 0.001), had higher cigarette use (16.1% vs 10.8%, p < 0.001), higher cocaine use (47.4% vs 19.7%, p < 0.001), and higher incidence of hepatitis C antibodies (26.8% vs 6.1%, p < 0.001) and RNA positivity (16.2% vs 4.2%, p < 0.001). While DO donors were less likely to require inotropic support (30.8% vs 35.4%, p = 0.008), they were more likely to have received cardiopulmonary resuscitation (95.3% vs 43.2%, p < 0.001). Recipient survival was equivalent using Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank, p = 0.33) and survival probability at 36 months was 85.6% (n at risk = 398) for DO donors vs 83.5% (n at risk = 1,633) for all other donors. Cox regression demonstrated that DO donor status did not predict mortality (hazard ratio 1.05; 95% confidence interval 0.90-1.23, p = 0.53). CONCLUSIONS:During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a 32.7% increase in heart transplants utilizing DO donor hearts, and DO became the most common mechanism of death for donors. The use of DO donor hearts did not have an impact on short-term recipient survival.
PMID: 37890684
ISSN: 1557-3117
CID: 5620362

Readmission Rate as a Quality Metric for Valve Surgery

Galloway, Aubrey C
PMID: 35940314
ISSN: 1552-6259
CID: 5286622

Routine Extubation in the Operating Room After Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass

James, Les; Smith, Deane E; Galloway, Aubrey C; Paone, Darien; Allison, Michael; Shrivastava, Shashwat; Vaynblat, Mikhail; Swistel, Daniel G; Loulmet, Didier F; Grossi, Eugene A; Williams, Mathew R; Zias, Elias
BACKGROUND:The benefits of fast-track extubation in the intensive care unit (ICU) after cardiac surgery are well established. Although extubation in the operating room (OR) is safe in carefully selected patients, widespread use of this strategy in cardiac surgery remains unproven. This study was designed to evaluate perioperative outcomes with OR vs ICU extubation in patients undergoing nonemergency, isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS:The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) data for all single-center patients who underwent nonemergency isolated CABG over a 6-year interval were analyzed. Perioperative morbidity and mortality with ICU vs OR extubation were compared. RESULTS:Between January 1, 2017 and December 31, 2022, 1397 patients underwent nonemergency, isolated CABG; 891 (63.8%) of these patients were extubated in the ICU, and 506 (36.2%) were extubated in the OR. Propensity matching resulted in 414 pairs. In the propensity-matched cohort, there were no differences between the 2 groups in incidence of reintubation, reoperation for bleeding, total operative time, stroke or transient ischemic attack, renal failure, or 30-day mortality. OR-extubated patients had shorter ICU hours (14 hours vs 20 hours; P < .0001), shorter postoperative hospital length of stay (3 days vs 5 days; P < .0001), a greater likelihood of being discharged directly to home (97.3% vs 89.9%; P < .0001), and a lower 30-day readmission rate (1.7% vs 4.1%; P = .04). CONCLUSIONS:Routine extubation in the OR is a feasible and safe strategy for a broad spectrum of patients after nonemergency CABG, with no increase in perioperative morbidity or mortality. Wider adoption of routine OR extubation for nonemergency CABG is indicated.
PMID: 37806334
ISSN: 1552-6259
CID: 5605312

Commentary: Incremental improvement is better than no improvement! [Editorial]

Galloway, Aubrey C; Dorsey, Michael P
PMID: 37890661
ISSN: 1097-685x
CID: 5620352

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Impact on Host Transcriptomic Response in Severe Coronavirus

Smith, Deane E; Goparaju, Chandra M; Pass, Harvey I; James, Les; Alimi, Marjan; Chang, Stephanie; Grossi, Eugene A; Moazami, Nader; Galloway, Aubrey C
BACKGROUND/UNASSIGNED:Evidence suggests that patients critically ill with COVID-19 have a dysregulated host immune response that contributes to end-organ damage. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used in this population with varying degrees of success. This study was performed to evaluate the impact of ECMO on the host immunotranscriptomic response in these patients. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Eleven patients critically ill with COVID-19 requiring ECMO underwent an analysis of cytokines and immunotranscriptomic pathways before ECMO (T1), after ECMO for 24 hours (T2), and 2 hours after ECMO decannulation (T3). A Multiplex Human Cytokine panel was used to identify cytokine changes, and immunotranscriptomic changes in peripheral leukocytes were evaluated by PAXgene and NanoString nCounter. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:, which code for binding ligands for the activation of toll-like receptors 2 and 4. Reactome analyses of differential gene expression demonstrated an impact on many of the body's most important immune inflammatory pathways. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:These findings suggest a temporal impact of ECMO on the host immunotranscriptomic response in patients critically ill with COVID-19.
PMID: 37360841
ISSN: 2772-9931
CID: 5540102

Donation after circulatory death heart transplantation using normothermic regional perfusion:The NYU Protocol

James, Les; LaSala, V Reed; Hill, Fredrick; Ngai, Jennie Y; Reyentovich, Alex; Hussain, Syed T; Gidea, Claudia; Piper, Greta L; Galloway, Aubrey C; Smith, Deane E; Moazami, Nader
OBJECTIVE/UNASSIGNED:This study aimed to evaluate the impact of cardiopulmonary bypass for thoraco-abdominal normothermic regional perfusion on the metabolic milieu of donation after cardiac death organ donors before transplantation. METHODS/UNASSIGNED:Local donation after cardiac death donor offers are assessed for suitability and willingness to participate. Withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy is performed in the operating room. After declaration of circulatory death and a 5-minute observation period, the cardiac team performs a median sternotomy, ligation of the aortic arch vessels, and initiation of thoraco-abdominal normothermic regional perfusion via central cardiopulmonary bypass at 37 °C. Three sodium chloride zero balance ultrafiltration bags containing 50 mEq sodium bicarbonate and 0.5 g calcium carbonate are infused. Arterial blood gas measurements are obtained every 15 minutes after every zero balance ultrafiltration bag is infused, and blood is transfused as needed to maintain hemoglobin greater than 8 mg/dL. Cardiopulmonary bypass is weaned with concurrent hemodynamic and transesophageal echocardiogram evaluation of the donor heart. The remainder of the procurement, including the abdominal organs, proceeds in a similar controlled fashion as is performed for a standard donation after brain death donor. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:.001) . On average, donation after cardiac death donors received transfusions of 2.3 ± 1.5 units of packed red blood cells. Of the 18 donors who underwent normothermic regional perfusion, all hearts were deemed suitable for recovery and successfully transplanted, a yield of 100%. Other organs successfully recovered and transplanted include kidneys (80.6% yield), livers (66.7% yield), and bilateral lungs (27.8% yield). CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:The use of cardiopulmonary bypass for thoraco-abdominal normothermic regional perfusion is a burgeoning option for improving the quality of organs from donation after cardiac death donors. Meticulous intraoperative management of donation after cardiac death donors with a specific focus on improving their metabolic milieu may lead to improved graft function in transplant recipients.
PMID: 36820336
ISSN: 2666-2507
CID: 5509582

Bacterial endocarditis with AACEK (HACEK) organisms [Case Report]

Kuohn, Lindsey R; Ro, Richard; Bamira, Daniel; Vainrib, Alan; Freedberg, Robin; Galloway, Aubrey; Williams, Mathew R; Saric, Muhamed
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Gram-negative organisms of the AACEK group, formerly known as HACEK, rarely cause endocarditis. CASE SERIES/METHODS:We present three cases of bacterial endocarditis, involving native and prosthetic valves, caused by AACEK organisms. In two patients, Cardiobacterium hominis was the responsible organism, and in a third, Aggregatibacter aphrophilus was implicated. A dental source of infection was identified in two patients, and in all three patients, the presentation of endocarditis was subacute. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:This case series highlights the indolent nature of infection with the AACEK organisms. It also demonstrates the crucial role of multimodality imaging, especially transesophageal echocardiography, in the diagnosis of AACEk endocarditis of both native and prosthetic valves, and in delineating the extent of abscess in those with prosthetic valve infection.
PMID: 36198094
ISSN: 1540-8175
CID: 5356642

Efficacy of Proning in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

Chang, Stephanie H; Smith, Deane E; Carillo, Julius A; Sommer, Philip M; Geraci, Travis C; Williams, David; Paone, Darien; Goldernberg, Ronald; Chan, Justin; Kon, Zachary N; Galloway, Aubrey C; Moazami, Nader
Objectives/UNASSIGNED:Proning patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has been associated with increased survival, though little data exists evaluating the safety and feasibility of proning ARDS patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Methods/UNASSIGNED:, 2020 was performed. All proning events were evaluated for complications, as well as change in compliance, sweep, oxygenation and flow. The primary outcome of this study was the rate major morbidity associated with proning while on ECMO. Results/UNASSIGNED:of 86 pre to 103 post (p<0.0001). Mean ECMO flow was unchanged. Conclusions/UNASSIGNED:Proning in patients with ARDS on ECMO is safe with an associated improvement in lung mechanics. With careful planning and coordination, these data support the practice of appropriately proning patients with severe ARDS, even if they are on ECMO.
PMID: 36168330
ISSN: 2666-2507
CID: 5334262

Early experience with donation after circulatory death heart transplantation using normothermic regional perfusion in the United States

Smith, Deane E; Kon, Zachary N; Carillo, Julius A; Chen, Stacey; Gidea, Claudia G; Piper, Greta L; Reyentovich, Alex; Montgomery, Robert A; Galloway, Aubrey C; Moazami, Nader
OBJECTIVE:This pilot study sought to evaluate the feasibility of our donation after circulatory death (DCD) heart transplantation protocol using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for normothermic regional reperfusion (NRP). METHODS:Suitable local DCD candidates were transferred to our institution. Life support was withdrawn in the operating room (OR). On declaration of circulatory death, sternotomy was performed, and the aortic arch vessels were ligated. CPB was initiated with left ventricular venting. The heart was reperfused, with correction of any metabolic abnormalities. CPB was weaned, and cardiac function was assessed at 30-minute intervals. If accepted, the heart was procured with cold preservation and transplanted into recipients in a nearby OR. RESULTS:Between January 2020 and January 2021, a total of 8 DCD heart transplants were performed: 6 isolated hearts, 1 heart-lung, and 1 combined heart and kidney. All donor hearts were successfully resuscitated and weaned from CPB without inotropic support. Average lactate and potassium levels decreased from 9.39 ± 1.47 mmol/L to 7.20 ± 0.13 mmol/L and 7.49 ± 1.32 mmol/L to 4.36 ± 0.67 mmol/L, respectively. Post-transplantation, the heart-lung transplant recipient required venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for primary lung graft dysfunction but was decannulated on postoperative day 3 and recovered uneventfully. All other recipients required minimal inotropic support without mechanical circulatory support. Survival was 100% with a median follow-up of 304 days (interquartile range, 105-371 days). CONCLUSIONS:DCD heart transplantation outcomes have been excellent. Our DCD protocol is adoptable for more widespread use and will increase donor heart availability in the United States.
PMID: 34728084
ISSN: 1097-685x
CID: 5038042