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Beta-blocker Use After Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair in Patients with Type B Aortic Dissection Is Associated with Improved Early Aortic Remodeling

Chang, Heepeel; Rockman, Caron B; Ramkhelawon, Bhama; Maldonado, Thomas S; Cayne, Neal S; Veith, Frank J; Jacobowitz, Glenn R; Patel, Virendra I; Laskowski, Igor; Garg, Karan
OBJECTIVE:Beta-blockers are first-line anti-impulse therapy in patients presenting with acute type B aortic dissection (TBAD). However, little is understood about their impact after aortic repair. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of postoperative beta-blocker use on outcomes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) in TBAD. METHODS:The Vascular Quality Initiative database was queried for all patients undergoing TEVAR for TBAD from 2012 to 2020. Aortic-related reintervention, all-cause mortality and effect of TEVAR on false lumen thrombosis of the treated aortic segment were assessed and compared between patients treated with and without beta-blocker postoperatively. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the effect of beta-blocker therapies on outcomes. RESULTS:1,114 patients undergoing TEVAR for TBAD were identified with a mean follow-up of 18±12 months. The mean age was 61.1±11.9 years, and 791 (71%) were male. 935 (84%) patients were maintained on beta-blocker at discharge and follow-up. Patients on beta-blocker were more likely to have an entry tear originating in zones 1-2 (22% vs 13%; P=.022). The prevalence of acute, elective and symptomatic AD, concurrent aneurysm, number of endografts used, distribution of the proximal and distal zones of dissection and operative time were comparable between the two cohorts. At 18-months, significantly more complete false lumen thrombosis (58 vs 47%; log-rank P=.018) was observed in patients on beta-blocker while the rates of aortic-related reinterventions (13% vs 9%; log-rank P=.396) and mortality (0.2% vs 0.7%; log-rank P=.401) were similar in patients with and without beta-blocker, respectively. Even after adjusting for clinical and anatomic factors, postoperative beta-blocker use was associated with increased complete false lumen thrombosis (HR 1.56; 95% CI: 1.10-2.21; P=.012) but did not affect mortality or aortic-related reintervention. A secondary analysis of beta-blocker use in acute versus chronic TBAD showed a higher rate of complete false lumen thrombosis in patients on beta-blocker in chronic TBAD (59% vs 38%; log-rank P=.038). In contrast, there was no difference in the rate of complete false lumen thrombosis in acute TBAD between the two cohorts (58% vs 51%; log-rank P=.158). When analyzed separately, postoperative ACE inhibitor use did not affect the rates of complete false lumen thrombosis, mortality and aortic-related reintervention. CONCLUSIONS:Beta-blocker use was associated with promotion of complete false lumen in patients undergoing TEVAR for TBAD. In addition to its role in acute setting, anti-impulse control with beta-blocker appears to confer favorable aortic remodeling and may improve outcomes after TEVAR, particularly for chronic TBAD.
PMID: 35868420
ISSN: 1097-6809
CID: 5279412

Superficial Venous Procedures can be Performed Safely and Effectively in Patients with Deep Venous Reflux

Li, Chong; Jacobowitz, Glenn R; Rockman, Caron B; Maldonado, Thomas S; Berland, Todd L; Garg, Karan; Barfield, Michael; Sadek, Mikel
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The finding of concurrent deep venous reflux (DVR) when interrogating superficial venous reflux is common and might be a marker for more severe chronic venous insufficiency. However, the safety, clinical and patient reported outcomes in patients undergoing superficial venous treatment in the presence of DVR remains underreported. Moreover, factors associated with persistence and disappearance of DVR after superficial vein treatments have not been evaluated. This study sought to address these questions. METHODS:This study was a review of the institutional vascular quality initiative (VQI) database from June 2016 to June 2021. Consecutive patient-limbs were identified who underwent a superficial venous intervention and had duplex evaluation. These patients were then divided into those with and without DVR. Those with DVR were further reviewed for anatomical details and persistence or resolution of DVR following the procedure. The primary outcome was the venous clinical severity score (VCSS) at follow-up greater than 3 months. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of any postoperative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or endovenous heat-induced thrombosis (EHIT), differences in patient-reported outcomes, rate of resolution of DVR, and factors associated with DVR persistence. Both univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were applied. RESULTS:In patients who underwent superficial venous treatments 644 patient-limbs had DVR and 7812 did not, for a prevalence of 7.6%. The former group was associated with a higher burden of chronic venous insufficiency. On univariate analysis, patient-limbs, both with and without DVR, improved significantly in VCSS at less than 3 months follow-up, and were not significantly different. At greater than 3 months follow-up, the VCSS score again improved significantly compared to less than 3 months follow-up, but the two groups differed significantly at the longer interval. The magnitude of improvement in VCSS between the two groups at the longer follow-up were statistically similar (3.17±3.11 vs 3.03±2.93, P =0.739). HASTI score similarly improved significantly in both groups, but remained significantly higher in the DVR group on follow-up. On multivariate logistic regression, DVR was not associated with an increased VCSS at greater than 3 months follow-up. There was no intergroup difference in postoperative DVT or EHIT. 40.8% of limbs with DVR no longer had evidence of detectable DVR at the latest follow-up venous duplex, and DVR limited to single segment were more likely to be no longer detectable versus multi-segments. CONCLUSIONS:Superficial venous procedures are safe and effective in patients with DVR, leading to improvements in clinical and patient reported outcomes as they would for those without DVR. In a large proportion of the treated limbs, especially in those with DVR in a single segment, there is no longer evidence of DVR following superficial venous intervention. Although patients with DVR have a higher burden of chronic venous insufficiency, they appear to still derive significant benefit from superficial venous treatments.
PMID: 36368475
ISSN: 2213-3348
CID: 5357632

The Impact of Aorto-uni-iliac Graft Configuration on Outcomes of Endovascular Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

Rokosh, Rae S; Chang, Heepeel; Lui, Aiden; Rockman, Caron B; Patel, Virendra I; Johnson, William; Siracuse, Jeffrey; Cayne, Neal S; Jacobowitz, Glenn R; Garg, Karan
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has improved outcomes for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAA) compared to open repair. We examined the impact of aorto-uni-iliac (AUI) versus standard bifurcated endograft configuration on outcomes in rAAA. METHODS:Patients 18 years or older in the VQI database who underwent EVAR for rAAA from January 2011 to April 2020 were included. Patient characteristics were analyzed by graft configuration: AUI or standard bifurcated. Primary and secondary outcomes included 30-day mortality, post-operative major adverse events (MAE; myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, mesenteric ischemia, lower extremity embolization, dialysis requirement, re-operation, pneumonia or re-intubation) and 1-year mortality. A subset propensity-score matched (PSM) cohort was also analyzed. RESULTS:We included 2717 patients: 151 had AUI and 2566 had standard bifurcated repair. There was no significant difference between groups in terms of age, major medical comorbidities, anatomic aortic neck characteristics, or rates of conversion to open repair. Patients undergoing AUI were more commonly female (30% vs. 22%, p=0.011) and had a history of CHF (19% vs. 12%, p=0.013). Perioperatively, patients undergoing AUI had a significantly higher incidence of cardiac arrest (15% vs. 7%, p<0.001), greater intra-operative blood loss (1.3L vs. 0.6L, p<0.001), longer operative duration (218min vs. 138min, p<0.0001), higher incidence of MAE (46.3% vs. 33.3%, p=0.001), as well as prolonged ICU (7 vs. 4.7 days p=0.0006) and overall hospital length of stay (11.4 vs. 8.1 days, p=0.0003). Kaplan-Meier survival analyses demonstrated significant differences in 30-day (31.1% vs. 20.2%, log-rank p=0.001) and 1-year mortality (41.7% vs. 27.7%, log-rank p=0.001). The PSM cohort demonstrated similar results. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:The AUI configuration for rAAA appears to be implemented in a sicker cohort of patients and is associated with worse perioperative and 1-year outcomes compared to a bifurcated graft configuration, which was also seen on propensity matched analysis. Standard bifurcated graft configuration may be the preferred approach in the management of rAAA unless AUI configuration is mandated by patient anatomy or other extenuating circumstances.
PMID: 36368646
ISSN: 1097-6809
CID: 5357652

Periprocedural P2Y12 inhibitors improve perioperative outcomes after carotid stenting by primarily decreasing strokes

Heib, Adele; Chang, Heepeel; Rockman, Caron; Patel, Virendra; Jacobowitz, Glenn; Barfield, Michael; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Faries, Peter; Lamparello, Patrick J; Cayne, Neal; Maldonado, Thomas; Garg, Karan
OBJECTIVE:inhibitors for CAS. METHODS:inhibitors as well as symptomatic status. Primary endpoints were perioperative neurologic events (strokes and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)). Secondary endpoints were mortality and myocardial infarction. RESULTS:inhibitors used revealed that all appeared to be equally effective in reducing the periprocedural neurological event rate. CONCLUSIONS:inhibitors in the periprocedural period, leaving room for significant improvement.
PMID: 36328140
ISSN: 1097-6809
CID: 5358752

Severity of stenosis in symptomatic patients undergoing carotid interventions may influence perioperative neurologic events

Garg, Karan; Chang, Heepeel; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Jacobowitz, Glenn R; Torres, Jose; Veith, Frank J; Patel, Virendra I; Maldonado, Thomas S; Sadek, Mikel; Cayne, Neal S; Rockman, Caron B
OBJECTIVE:Carotid artery plaque burden, indirectly measured by the degree of stenosis, quantifies future embolic risk. In natural history studies, patients with moderate degrees of stenosis have a lower stroke risk than those with severe stenosis. However, patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis who have experienced TIA or stroke are found to have both moderate and severe degrees of stenosis. We sought to examine the association carotid artery stenosis severity with outcomes in symptomatic patients undergoing carotid interventions including carotid endarterectomy (CEA), transfemoral carotid artery stenting (CAS) and transcervical carotid artery revascularization (TCAR). METHODS:The Society for Vascular Surgery Quality Initiative database was queried for all patients undergoing CAS, CEA and TCAR between 2003 and 2020. Patients were stratified into two groups based on the severity of stenosis - non-severe (0 - 69%) and severe (≥ 70%). Primary endpoints were periprocedural neurologic events (strokes and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs)). Secondary endpoints were periprocedural death, myocardial infarction (MI) and composite outcomes of stroke/death and stroke/death/MI per reporting standards for carotid interventions. RESULTS:Of 29,614 symptomatic patients included in the analysis, 5,296 (17.9%) patients underwent TCAR, 7,844 (26.5%) underwent CAS, and 16,474 (55.6%) underwent CEA for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. In the CEA cohort, the neurologic event rate was similarly significantly lower in patients with severe stenosis when compared to those with non-severe stenosis (2.6% vs. 3.2%, P=.024). In the TCAR cohort, the periprocedural neurologic even rate was lower in patients with severe stenosis when compared to those with non-severe stenosis (3% vs. 4.3%, P=.033). There was no similar difference noted in the CAS cohort, with periprocedural neurologic event rates of 3.8% in the severe group versus 3.5% in the non-severe group (P=.518). On multivariable analysis, severe stenosis was associated with significantly decreased odds of post procedural neurologic events in patients undergoing CEA (odds ratio [OR] 0.75, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.6 - 0.92; P=.007) and TCAR (OR .83; CI, .69 - 0.99; P=.039), but not CAS. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Severe carotid stenosis as opposed to more moderate degrees of stenosis was associated with decreased rates of periprocedural stroke and TIAs in symptomatic patients undergoing TCAR and CEA, but not CAS. The finding of increased rates of periprocedural neurologic events in symptomatic patients with lesser degrees of stenosis undergoing TCAR and CEA warrants further evaluation with a particular focus on plaque morphology and brain physiology, and their inherent risks with carotid revascularization procedures.
PMID: 35272001
ISSN: 1097-6809
CID: 5183632

A Single-Center Experience of Anterior Accessory Saphenous Vein Endothermal Ablation Demonstrates Safety and Efficacy

Charitable, John; Speranza, Giancarlo; Rockman, Caron; Jacobowitz, Glenn; Kabnick, Lowell; Garg, Karan; Maldonado, Thomas; Berland, Todd; Cayne, Neal; Barfield, Michael; Sadek, Mikel
OBJECTIVE:Endothermal ablation is well established for the treatment of the great and small saphenous veins. Data are lacking for treatment of the Anterior Accessory Saphenous Vein (AASV). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of AASV treatment using endothermal ablation. METHODS:This was a retrospective review of 314 limbs at a single academic institution from 2016-2018 using the institutional Vascular Quality Initiative database. All limbs had documented AASV reflux. Baseline characteristics were evaluated including age, sex, ethnicity, CEAP (clinical, etiology, anatomy, pathophysiology) classification, Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS), and vein diameter. Outcomes relating to procedure safety and efficacy included treatment modality and length, successful ablation on post-operative imaging, post-procedural clinical outcomes, incidence of endothermal heat induced thrombosis (EHIT), and any post-procedural complication. RESULTS:A total of 314 consecutive limbs were identified from 2016-2018. Pre-procedure VCSS scores were available for 312 limbs and averaged 6.13 ± 3.33. History of varicose veins were reported in all limbs with 49.4% (n=155) having previously undergone a procedure. The most common presenting symptom was mild edema in 52.5% (n=165). Vein diameter and assessment of reflux were obtained by venous duplex ultrasound (DUS). The largest AASV diameter was available for 304 limbs, averaging 7.93 ± 2.69 mm. Treatment modalities included radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in 59.2% (n=186), endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) in 37.9% (n=119), and isolated microphlebectomy in 2.9% (n=9). 38.5% (N=121) of limbs underwent concomitant microphlebectomy at the time of EVLA. Total treatment length was obtained in 297 limbs, averaging 23.0 cm ± 12.0. Post-operatively, 94.6% (n=297) of limbs were prescribed compression stockings. Post-operative DUS was performed in 312 limbs, revealing successful ablation in 96.5% (n=303) with 2 limbs (0.6%) developing an EHIT, both treated with therapeutic enoxaparin for one week. Repeat DUS revealed thrombus resolution in one limb, while the other patient was lost to follow-up. VCSS scores post-procedure were available for 145 limbs and averaged 4.45 ± 2.31. This was a statistically significant decrease from pre-procedure VCSS scores (p<0.01). Average duration of follow-up was 2.2 years, with two limbs lost to follow-up. Of the 9 limbs (3.5%) whose initial procedure failed, 5 (56%) were treated using RFA and 4 (44%) were treated using EVLA. There were no other post-operative complications. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Our experience over a three-year period for treating the AASV shows it to be safe and effective in a broad range of disease severity with an improvement in VCSS and a low incidence of EHIT. Additionally, RFA and EVLA exhibit similar treatment efficacy. Long-term follow-up data are needed.
PMID: 35218957
ISSN: 2213-3348
CID: 5172682

Mannitol Use is Renal Protective in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Requiring Suprarenal Aortic Clamping

Teter, Katherine; Rockman, Caron; Patel, Virendra; Chang, Heepeel; Jacobowitz, Glenn; Gelb, Bruce; Barfield, Michael; Cayne, Neal; Maldonado, Thomas; Garg, Karan
BACKGROUND:Mannitol is often administered during open juxtarenal or suprarenal aortic surgery to prevent ischemic injury to the kidneys. Prior evidence evaluating the benefits of intraoperative mannitol in reducing ischemia/reperfusion injury is conflicting and largely based on small, retrospective series. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mannitol in preventing postoperative hemodialysis in patients undergoing open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair where proximal control involved temporary renal ischemia. METHODS:The Society for Vascular Surgery Quality Initiative database was queried for all patients undergoing elective open AAA repair between 2003 and 2020. Patients were included in the current analysis if the proximal aortic clamp was placed above at least one renal artery. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) was defined as Cr > 1.8 mg/dL. Primary end points were 30-day major morbidity (myocardial infarction, respiratory complications, lower extremity or intestinal ischemia, and the need for temporary or permanent hemodialysis) and mortality. Comparisons were made between the mannitol and nonmannitol cohorts and stratified by the presence of preexisting CKD. RESULTS:During the study period, 4,156 patients underwent elective open AAA repair requiring clamp placement more than one (32.7%) or both (67.3%) renal arteries; 182 patients (4.4%) had preexisting CKD. Overall, 69.8% of patients received mannitol during their surgery. Mannitol was more frequently used in cases involving clamp placement above both renal arteries (70.3%) than one renal artery (61.5%). While prolonged ischemia time (more than 40 min) was associated with a higher risk of postoperative dialysis in patients without CKD, it was not significant in patients with baseline CKD. On a univariate analysis, mannitol use in patients with CKD was associated with a lower risk of postoperative dialysis (P = 0.005). This remained significant on a multivariate analysis (P = 0.008). Mannitol use did not appear to confer renal protective effects in patients without baseline CKD. CONCLUSIONS:Mannitol use was associated with a decreased risk of need for postoperative hemodialysis in patients with CKD undergoing suprarenal aortic clamping for open aneurysm repair. In appropriately selected patients, particularly those with underlying renal insufficiency, mannitol may confer a renal protective effect in open repair of pararenal AAA requiring suprarenal clamping.
PMID: 35452789
ISSN: 1615-5947
CID: 5218642

Access site complications are uncommon with vascular closure devices or manual compression after lower extremity revascularization

Cheng, Thomas W; Farber, Alik; King, Elizabeth G; Levin, Scott R; Arinze, Nkiruka; Malas, Mahmoud B; Eslami, Mohammad H; Garg, Karan; Rybin, Denis; Siracuse, Jeffrey J
OBJECTIVE:Vascular closure devices (VCDs) and manual compression (MC) are used to achieve hemostasis after peripheral vascular interventions (PVIs). We sought to compare perioperative outcomes between MC and four VCDs after PVI in a multicenter setting. METHODS:The Vascular Quality Initiative was queried for all lower extremity PVIs with common femoral artery access performed from 2010 to 2020. The VCDs included were MynxGrip (Cordis, Santa Clara, CA), StarClose SE (Abbott Vascular, Redwood City, CA), Angio-Seal (Terumo, Somerset, NJ), and Perclose ProGlide (Abbott Vascular). In a blinded fashion, these four VCDs (labeled A, B, C, and D) were compared to MC for baseline characteristics, procedural details, and outcomes (access site hematoma and stenosis/occlusion). Those with a sheath size >8F were excluded. Propensity score matching (1:1) was performed. Univariable and multivariable analyses were completed for unmatched and matched data. RESULTS:A total of 84,172 lower extremity PVIs were identified. Of these, 32,013 (38%) had used MC and 52,159 (62%) had used VCDs (A, 12,675; B, 6224; C, 19,872; D, 13,388). The average age was 68.7 years, and 60.4% of the patients were men. The most common indications for intervention were claudication (43.8%) and tissue loss (40.1%). Compared with MC, VCDs were used more often for patients with obesity, diabetes, and end-stage renal disease (P < .001 for all). VCDs were used less often for patients with hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, prior percutaneous coronary and extremity interventions, and major amputation (P < .001 for all). VCD use was more common than MC during femoropopliteal (73% vs 63.8%) and tibial (33.8% vs 22.3%) interventions but less common with iliac interventions (20.6% vs 34.7%; P < .001 for all). Protamine was used less often with VCDs (19.1% vs 25.6%; P < .001). Overall, 2003 hematomas had developed (2.4%), of which 278 (13.9%) had required thrombin or surgical intervention. Compared with MC, the use of any VCD had resulted in fewer hematomas (1.7% vs 3.6%; P < .001) and fewer hematomas requiring intervention (0.2% vs 0.5%; P < .001). When divided by hemostatic technique, the rate of the development of any hematoma was as follows: MC, 3.6%; VCD A, 1.4%; VCD B, 1.2%; VCD C, 2.3%; and VCD D, 1.1% (P < .001). The rate of hematomas requiring intervention was as follows: MC, 0.5%; VCD A, 0.2%; VCD B, 0.2%; VCD C, 0.3%; and VCD D, 0.1% (P < .001). Access site stenosis/occlusion was similar between the MC and any VCD groups (0.2% vs 0.2%; P = .12). Multivariable analysis demonstrated that any VCD use and the use of the individual VCDs compared with MC were independently associated with the development of fewer hematomas. The incidence of access site stenosis/occlusion was similar between the use of any VCD and MC. The matched analysis revealed similar findings. CONCLUSIONS:Although the overall rates of hematomas requiring intervention were low regardless of hemostatic technique, VCD use, irrespective of type, compared favorably with MC, with significantly fewer access site complications after PVI.
PMID: 35618194
ISSN: 1097-6809
CID: 5248062

Fenestrated EVAR Promotes Positive Infrarenal Neck Remodeling and Greater Sac Shrinkage compared to EVAR

Teter, Katherine; Li, Chong; Ferreira, Luis M; Ferrer, Miguel; Rockman, Caron; Jacobowitz, Glenn; Cayne, Neal; Garg, Karan; Maldonado, Thomas
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) has become the standard of care treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in the modern era. While numerous devices exist for standard infrarenal AAA repair, fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (fEVAR) offers a minimally invasive alternative to traditional open repair in patients with short infrarenal necks. Over time, aortic neck dilation can occur leading to loss of proximal seal, endoleaks, and AAA sac growth. This study analyzes aortic remodeling following EVAR versus fEVAR and further evaluates whether fEVAR confers a benefit in terms of sac shrinkage. METHODS:A retrospective review of prospectively collected data on 120 patients undergoing EVAR was performed: 30 patients were treated with fEVAR (Cook Zenith© Fenestrated) and 90 patients were treated with EVAR devices (30 with each Medtronic Endurant ©, Gore Excluder ©, and Cook Zenith ©). Demographic data were recorded, and anatomic measurements were taken for each patient pre-operatively, 30 days post-operatively, and at the longest point of follow-up using three-dimensional reconstruction software. RESULTS:There were no significant differences in demographics data between the 4 groups. fEVAR was used more often in aortas with large necks and irregular morphology (p= 0.004). At the time of longest follow up, the suprarenal aorta encompassing 5, 10, and 15mm above the lowest renal artery (ALRA) dilated the most for fEVAR versus all EVAR groups. Despite this, the infrarenal segment tended to increase by the least, or even regress, for fEVAR compared to all EVAR groups, and was associated with the overall greatest proportion of sac shrinkage for the fEVAR group compared to Medtronic, Gore, and Cook devices, respectively (-13.90% vs. -5.75% vs. -2.31% vs. -4.68%, p=0.025). CONCLUSIONS:Compared to EVAR, patients treated with fEVAR had greater suprarenal dilation over time, consistent with an overall greater burden of disease in the proximal native aorta. However, the infrarenal segment dilated significantly less over time in the fEVAR group compared to all EVAR groups, suggesting that fEVAR may stabilize the infrarenal neck, promoting positive sac remodeling, as evidenced by the greatest degree of decrease in largest AAA diameter in the fEVAR group.
PMID: 35276266
ISSN: 1097-6809
CID: 5183652

Evaluating Proximal Clamp Site and Intraoperative Ischemia Time Among Open Repair of Juxtarenal Aneurysms

Mehta, Ambar; O'Donnell, Thomas F X; Schutzer, Richard; Trestman, Eric; Garg, Karan; Mohebali, Jahan; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Schermerhorn, Marc; Clouse, William D; Patel, Virendra I
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The proportion of open aneurysm repairs requiring at least a suprarenal clamp has increased in the past few decades, partly due to preferred endovascular approaches for most patients with infrarenal aneurysms, suggesting that the management of aortic clamp placement has become even more relevant. This study evaluated the association between proximal clamp site and intraoperative ischemia times with postoperative renal dysfunction and mortality. METHODS:We used the Vascular Quality Initiative to identify all patients undergoing open repairs of elective or symptomatic juxtarenal AAAs from 2004-2018 and compared outcomes by clamp site: above one renal artery, above both renal arteries (supra-renal), or above the celiac trunk (supra-celiac). Outcomes evaluated included acute kidney injury (AKI), new-onset renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT), 30-day mortality, and one-year mortality. We used multilevel logistic regressions and cox-proportional hazards models, clustered at the hospital level, to adjust for confounding. RESULTS:We identified 3976 patients (median age 71 years, 70% male, 8.2% non-Caucasian), with a median aneurysm diameter of 5.9cm (IQR 5.4-6.8cm). Proximal clamp sites were: above one renal artery (31%), supra-renal (52%), and supra-celiac (17%). Rates of unadjusted outcomes were 20.5% for AKI, 4.1% for new-onset RRT, 4.9% for 30-day mortality, and 8.3% for one-year mortality. On adjusted analyses, independent of ischemia time, supra-renal clamping relative to clamping above a single renal artery had higher odds of postoperative AKI (aOR 1.50 [95%-CI 1.28-1.75]) but similar odds for new-onset RRT (aOR 1.27 [0.79-2.06]) and 30-day mortality (aOR 1.12 [0.79-1.58]) and hazards for one-year mortality (aHR 1.12 [0.86-1.45]). However, every ten minutes of prolonged intraoperative ischemia time was associated with an increase in odds or hazards ratio of postoperative AKI by +7% (IQR 3-11%), new-onset RRT by +11% (IQR 4-17%), 30-day mortality by +11% (IQR 6-17%), and one-year mortality by +7% (IQR 2-13%). Patients with greater than 40 minutes of ischemia time had notably higher rates of all four outcomes. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Supra-renal clamping relative to clamping above a single renal artery was associated with AKI but not new-onset RRT or 30-day mortality. However, intraoperative renal ischemia time was independently associated with all four postoperative outcomes. While further studies are warranted, our findings suggest that an expeditious proximal anastomosis creation is more important than trying to maintain clamp position below one renal artery, suggesting that suprarenal clamping may be the best strategy for open AAA repair when needed to efficiently perform the proximal anastomosis.
PMID: 35149161
ISSN: 1097-6809
CID: 5156962