Tracing the genetic root of Trinket cattle: an endangered cattle population of a small isolated island of Nicobar group of islands
Trinket cattle are the inhabitant of a small island called Trinket, which is one of the picturesque islands of Andaman. This herd is thought to be of Danish leftover during their dynasty in Nicobar archipelago. When the island was abandoned by foreign invaders, indigenes utilized the animals for the purpose of meat. As a result, the cattle became semi-feral in nature. After the Great Sumatra earthquake and tsunami of Indian Ocean in 2004, Trinket island was left abandoned by indigenes and the cattle became totally feral in nature. To trace the genetic root of the cattle, this study has been undertaken based on the sequence information of the mitochondrial D-loop and cytochrome b gene. The genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples of the Trinket cattle and was used for amplification of mitochondrial markers, and the sequence information was generated by Sanger sequencing. The analysis of sequence information revealed that the Trinket cattle belongs to Bos indicus (I) haplotype, sub-haplotype I2. The presence of I2 sub-haplotype in Trinket cattle may be due to the expansion of this I2 haplotype towards Southeast Asian countries. This is a novel input for the formulation of breeding strategy towards conservation of eco-friendly sustainable livestock in the isolated island ecosystem.
Mitogenome analysis of Indian isolate of Rhipicephalus microplus clade A sensu (): A first report from Maritime South-East Asia
This communication reports a comprehensive profile of mitogenome analysis of Rhipicephalus microplus, isolated and identified from Andaman and Nicobar islands, a part of Maritime South East Asia. Complete mitogenome of Indian isolate of R. microplus (MK234703) was 14,903â€¯bp. Mitochondrial (mt.) genome had 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, two ribosomal subunits and two control regions. All PCGs were located on the H-strand except nad1, nad5, nad4 and nad4L. All start codons were ATN codon and abbreviated stop codons were seen in cox-2-3, nad-5 and cytb. A purine rich tick-box motif has been identified. A tandem repeat unit (TTTATT), described as a region alike to nad1 was identified in 130â€¯bp insertion in between nad1 and tRNA-Glu and in nad1 sequence. Presence of two control regions (CRs) proved that, two CRs have evolved in concert rather than independently. Strong biasness towards A and T in Indian isolate of R. microplus is a typical feature for most of the arthropods. Subtracted values of dn and ds suggested that, there was least effect of nt. sequence of cox1 gene when Indian isolate was compared with other isolates of Rhipicephalus. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, species of the genus Rhipicephalus could be clustered in three groups; ticks of the genera belonging to sub-family Rhipicephalinae could be grouped in a single cluster. Finally, cox1 sequence of MK234703 indicated that the isolate belonged to clade A sensu Burger et al., 2014 which has not been reported earlier from India.
Mitochondrial landscape of indigenous pig germplasm of Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Nicobari pig and Andaman Desi pig are indigenous pig germplasm of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India. Over the last two decades, the pig breeds witnessed a rapid decline in population, necessitating immediate characterization and conservation. The present study depicts the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nicobari pig and Andaman Desi pig. The mitogenomes of both the breeds encode 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNAs, and two ribosomal RNA genes. In addition, a control region (D-loop) was also present. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Nicobari is phylogenetically close to Banna mini and Breed I pig, whereas Andaman Desi pig is close to Mong cai and Jinhua pig breeds. The results of the study will be helpful for formulating of conservation strategy of the native swine breeds.
Motor Evoked Potential Recordings from the Urethral Sphincter Muscles (USMEPs) during Spine Surgeries
Bowel and bladder function are at risk during tumor resection of the conus, cauda equina, and nerve roots. This study demonstrates the ability to acquire transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials (TCeMEPs) from the urethral sphincter muscles (USMEPs) by utilizing a urethral catheter with an embedded electrode. A retrospective analysis of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) data from nine intradural tumors, four tethered cord releases, and two spinal stenosis procedures was performed (n = 15). The cohort included seven females and eight males (median age: 38.91Â years). A catheter with embedded urethral electrodes was used for recording TCeMEPs and spontaneous electromyograph (s-EMG) from the external urethral sphincter (EUS). USMEPs were obtained in 14 patients (93%). The reliability of TCeMEP from the external anal sphincter (EAS) was variable across all patients. In patient 7, the TCeMEP recordings from the urethral sphincter were not present before incision; however, following the resection of the tumor, the USMEP recordings were obtained and remained stable for the remainder of the procedure. Patient 7 had subsequent improvement in bladder function postoperatively. Patient 4 exhibited a 50% increase in the amplitude of the USMEP following tumor resection and exhibited improved bladder function as well postoperatively. In this small series, we were able to acquire consistent and reliable MEPs when recorded from the urethral sphincters. More study is needed to establish a better understanding of the value added by this modality. USMEPs can be attempted in surgeries that put the function of the pelvic floor at risk.
Neurohormonal pathways regulating food intake and changes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass