Early effectiveness and toxicity outcomes of reirradiation after breast conserving surgery for recurrent or new primary breast cancer
Hardy-Abeloos, Camille; Xiao, Julie; Oh, Cheongeun; Barbee, David; Perez, Carmen A; Oratz, Ruth; Schnabel, Freya; Axelrod, Deborah; Guth, Amber; Braunstein, Lior Z; Khan, Atif; Choi, J Isabelle; Gerber, Naamit
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Breast reirradiation (reRT) after breast conserving surgery (BCS) has emerged as a viable alternative to mastectomy for women presenting with recurrent or new primary breast cancer. There are limited data on safety of different fractionation regimens. This study reports safety and efficacy among women treated with repeat BCS and reRT. METHODS AND MATERIALS/METHODS:Patients who underwent repeat BCS followed by RT from 2015 to 2021 at 2 institutions were analyzed. Univariate logistic regression models were used to identify predictors of acute and late toxicities. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to evaluate overall survival (OS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and locoregional recurrence-free survival (LR-RFS). RESULTS:Sixty-six patients were reviewed with median follow-up of 16 months (range: 3-60 months). At time of first recurrence, 41% had invasive carcinoma with a ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) component, 41% had invasive carcinoma alone and 18% had DCIS alone. All were clinically node negative. For the reirradiation course, 95% received partial breast irradiation (PBI) (57.5% with 1.5 Gy BID; 27% with 1.8 Gy daily; 10.5% with hypofractionation), and 5% received whole breast irradiation (1.8-2 Gy/fx), all of whom had received PBI for initial course. One patient experienced grade 3 fibrosis, and one patient experienced grade 3 telangiectasia. None had grade 4 or higher late adverse events. We found no association between the fractionation of the second course of RT or the cumulative dose (measured as EQD2) with acute or late toxicity. At 2 years, OS was 100%, DMFS was 91.6%, and LR-RFS was 100%. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:In this series of patients with recurrent or new primary breast cancer, a second breast conservation surgery followed by reirradiation was effective with no local recurrences and an acceptable toxicity profile across a range of available fractionation regimens at a median follow up of 16 months. Longer follow up is required.
Different Re-Irradiation Techniques after Breast-Conserving Surgery for Recurrent or New Primary Breast Cancer
Abeloos, Camille Hardy; Purswani, Juhi M; Galavis, Paulina; McCarthy, Allison; Hitchen, Christine; Choi, J Isabelle; Gerber, Naamit K
Breast re-irradiation (reRT) after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) using external beam radiation is an increasingly used salvage approach for women presenting with recurrent or new primary breast cancer. However, radiation technique, dose and fractionation as well as eligibility criteria differ between studies. There is also limited data on efficacy and safety of external beam hypofractionation and accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) regimens. This paper reviews existing retrospective and prospective data for breast reRT after BCS, APBI reRT outcomes and delivery at our institution and the need for a randomized controlled trial using shorter courses of radiation to better define patient selection for different reRT fractionation regimens.
Radiation-induced skin changes after breast or chest wall irradiation in patients with breast cancer and skin of color: a systematic review
Purswani, Juhi M; Nwankwo, Christy; Adotama, Prince; Gutierrez, Daniel; Perez, Carmen A; Tattersall, Ian W; Gerber, Naamit K
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study is to systematically review data pertaining to breast cancer and radiation-induced skin reactions in patients with skin of color (SOC), as well as data pertaining to objective measurements of skin pigmentation in the assessment of radiation dermatitis (RD). METHODS AND MATERIALS/METHODS:We conducted a systematic review utilizing MEDLINE electronic databases to identify published studies until August 2022. Key inclusion criteria included studies that described RD in breast cancer with data pertaining to skin of color and/or characterization of pigmentation changes after radiation. RESULTS:We identified 17 prospective cohort studies, 7 cross-sectional studies, 5 retrospective studies and 4 randomized controlled trials. Prospective cohort and retrospective series demonstrate worse RD in African American (AA) patients using subjective physician-graded scales. There is more limited data in patients representing other non-White racial subgroups with SOC. 2 studies utilize patient reported outcomes and 15 studies utilize objective methods to characterize pigmentation change after radiation. There are no prospective and randomizedÂ studies that objectively describe pigmentation changes with radiotherapy in SOC. CONCLUSIONS:AA patients appear to have worse RD outcomes, though this is not uniformly observed across all studies. There are no studies that describe objective measures of RD and include baseline skin pigmentation as a variable, limiting the ability to draw uniform conclusions on the rate and impact of RD in SOC. We highlight the importance of objectively characterizing SOC and pigmentation changes before, during and after radiotherapy to understand the incidence and severity of RD in SOC.
Regional nodal irradiation (RNI) in breast cancer patients with residual isolated tumor cells or micrometastatic nodal disease after neoadjuvant chemotherapy
Kim, Joseph K; Karp, Jerome M; Gerber, Naamit K
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE/UNASSIGNED:The optimal management of residual micrometastases and isolated tumor cells (ITC) in patients with invasive breast cancer who undergo neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) followed by definitive surgery is not well-studied. We evaluated the role of regional nodal irradiation (RNI) in clinically node-positive (cN1) breast cancer patients with residual low-volume nodal disease following NAC. METHODS/MATERIALS/UNASSIGNED:We queried the National Cancer Database (NCDB) and included patients with cN1 invasive breast cancer diagnosed from 2004 to 2016 who were treated with NAC and definitive surgery and had residual micrometastases (ypN1mi) or ITC (ypN0i+). We used univariable (UVA) and multivariable (MVA) Cox regression analyses to determine prognostic factors and Kaplan-Meier (KM) methods to evaluate overall survival (OS). We used inverse probability treatment weighting (IPTW) to reweight data to account for confounding factors. RESULTS/UNASSIGNED:Our final cohort included 1980 patients, including 527 patients with ypN0i + disease and 1453 patients with ypN1mi disease. 1101 patients (45.0%) received RNI in the overall cohort with a higher proportion of ypN1mi patients receiving RNI (56.5%) compared to 53.1% of ypN0i + patients. There was no significant difference in OS between ypN0i + and ypN1mi patients. RNI had no significant effect on OS in the overall cohort using Cox MVA and KM methods. With separate subset analysis of ypN0i + and ypN1mi patients, there was no significant effect of RNI on OS. This was confirmed with IPTW. CONCLUSIONS/UNASSIGNED:In a national hospital-based study of cN1 invasive breast cancer patients with residual ITC or micrometastases after NAC, RNI did not have a significant effect on OS.
Radiation Recall Dermatitis after Donor Lymphocyte Infusion for Adult T cell Leukemia Lymphoma post Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant
Hardy-Abeloos, Camille; Gerber, Naamit; Shaikh, Fauzia
To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) after donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) after allogeneic stem cell transplant in a patient with Acute T cell Leukemia Lymphoma. Given its rare occurrence, unclear clinical characterization and etiology, RRD remains poorly understood. In the setting of novel immunotherapies and recent development of Covid 19 mRNA vaccines, we aimed to better characterize RRD and its most likely pathogenesis in our patient's case.
Definitive Radiation With Nodal Boost for Patients With Locally Advanced Breast Cancer
Purswani, Juhi M; Oh, Cheongeun; Teruel, Jose R; Xiao, Julie; Barbee, David L; Maisonet, Olivier G; Perez, Carmen A; Huppert, Nelly E; Gerber, Naamit K
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The optimal local therapy of patients with nodal disease in supraclavicular (SCV), internal mammary nodes (IMN) and level III axilla is not well studied. We aimed to evaluate the outcomes of patients with breast cancer and advanced nodal disease that received a nodal boost. METHODS AND MATERIALS/METHODS:This retrospective study included 79 patients with advanced nodal disease who underwent adjuvant radiation with a nodal boost to the SCV, IMNs, and/or axilla. All patients had radiographic changes after systemic therapy concerning for gross nodal disease. Overall survival, disease-free survival (DFS), and local recurrence-free survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS:All patients received an initial 50 Gy to the breast/chest wall and regional nodes, of whom 46.8% received an IMN boost, 38.0% axillary (ax)/SCV boost, and 15.2% both IMN and ax/SCV boost (IMN + ax/SCV). Most patients had hormone receptor positive (74.7%) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative disease (83.5%). In addition, 12.7% of patients had clinical (c) N2 disease, 21.5% cN3A disease, 51.9% cN3B disease, and 5.1% cN3C disease. Most patients received chemotherapy (97.5%). The median nodal boost dose was 10 Gy (range, 10-20 Gy), with 21.6% of IMN, 16.7% of ax/SCV, and 16.7% of IMN + ax/SCV receiving 14 to 20 Gy. With a median follow up of 30 months, the 3-year local recurrence-free survival, DFS, and overall survival rates were 94.5%, 86.3%, and 93.8%, respectively. Crude rates of failure were 13.9% (10.1% distant failure [DF] alone; 3.8% DF + locoregional failure [LRF]). Rates of failure by boost group were 13.3% for ax/SCV (10.0% DF alone; 3.3% DF + LRF), 5.4% for IMN (2.7% DF alone, 2.7% DF + LRF), and 41.7% for IMN + ax/SCV (33.3% DF, 8.3% DF + LRF). There were no LRFs without DFs. The median time to failure was 22.8 months (interquartile range, 18-34 months). Clinical tumor size and IMN + ax/SCV versus IMN or ax/SCV alone was associated with worse DFS (hazard ratio [HR]: 9.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.07-46.2; P = .004 and HR: 9.49; 95% CI, 2.67-33.7; P = .001, respectively). On multivariate analysis, IMN + ax/SCV versus IMN or ax/SCV alone retained significance (HR: 4.80; 95% CI, 1.27-18.13; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS:In this population of patients with locally advanced breast cancer, the majority of failures were distant with no isolated LRFs. Failures were the highest in the IMN + ax/SCV group (∼40%). Further treatment escalation is necessary for these patients.
Radiation in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: Moving beyond an All or Nothing Approach
Purswani, Juhi M; Hardy-Abeloos, Camille; Perez, Carmen A; Kwa, Maryann J; Chadha, Manjeet; Gerber, Naamit K
Radiotherapy omission is increasingly considered for selected patients with early-stage breast cancer. However, with emerging data on the safety and efficacy of radiotherapy de-escalation with partial breast irradiation and accelerated treatment regimens for low-risk breast cancer, it is necessary to move beyond an all-or-nothing approach. Here, we review existing data for radiotherapy omission, including the use of age, tumor subtype, and multigene profiling assays for selecting low-risk patients for whom omission is a reasonable strategy. We review data for de-escalated radiotherapy, including partial breast irradiation and acceleration of treatment time, emphasizing these regimens' decreasing biological and financial toxicities. Lastly, we review evidence of omission of endocrine therapy. We emphasize ongoing research to define patient selection, treatment delivery, and toxicity outcomes for de-escalated adjuvant therapies better and highlight future directions.
A Phase 1 Study of TAK-676, a Novel STING Agonist, Plus Pembrolizumab Following Radiation Therapy in Patients with Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC), or Squamous-Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (SCCHN) [Meeting Abstract]
Gerber, N K; Chmura, S J; Luke, J J; Shiao, S L; Basho, R; Iams, W T; Page, D B; Li, C; Gregory, R C; Shaw, M H; Horn, K H; Gibbs, J; Appleman, V A; Berger, A; Abu-Yousif, A O; Lineberry, N B; Stumpo, K F; Elfiky, A; Cooper, B
Purpose/Objective(s): Radiation therapy-induced cell death produces cytosolic DNA that activates the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-STimulator of INterferon Genes (STING) pathway, crucial for the induction of Type I interferons (IFN-I). Checkpoint inhibitor (CPI) resistance mechanisms have been linked to impaired IFN signaling. Preclinical data have shown STING agonists to reverse CPI resistance in tumors with prior exposure, particularly when used with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies. TAK-676 (a synthetic STING agonist) potently modulates the innate immune system, leading to cytokine release, adaptive immune activation, and antitumor responses in preclinical studies (Appleman et al., AACR 2022). TAK-676 is being investigated as a single agent, and in combination with pembrolizumab, for advanced solid tumors, in a first-in-human phase 1 study (NCT04420884). TAK-676 is optimally designed for intravenous (IV) delivery, with a prolonged half-life in serum and enhanced tissue permeability, allowing access to tumor sites and lymphatic tissue. Following radiation therapy, TAK-676 has the potential to stimulate T-cell mediated antitumor immunity via STING-mediated IFN-I release, particularly when used with anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapies. Here, we present a second phase 1 study to investigate the safety and preliminary antitumor activity of TAK-676 in combination with pembrolizumab following radiation therapy, in patients with advanced or metastatic NSCLC, TNBC, or SCCHN who have progressed on CPIs (NCT04879849). Materials/Methods: Patients aged >=18 years who progressed on CPIs and have >=2 lesions, of which one is targetable with radiation, are being enrolled. Patients receive 8 Gy x 3 followed by (after a minimum of 40 hours) escalating doses of IV TAK-676 on days 1, 8 and 15 of a 21-day cycle, and 200 mg of IV pembrolizumab on day 1 of each cycle until disease progression, intolerance, or withdrawal of consent. Dose escalation of TAK-676 will be guided by the Bayesian Optimal Interval design. At screening and between days 15-21 of cycle 1, patients with a safely accessible lesion outside of the radiation field will have paired biopsies collected once the pharmacologically active dose levels of TAK-676 have been observed. The primary objective is to determine the safety and tolerability of TAK-676 in combination with pembrolizumab following radiation therapy. Secondary objectives are to determine the recommended phase 2 dose of TAK-676 in combination with pembrolizumab following radiation therapy, and to assess the local (within the radiation field) and systemic (non-radiated lesions) preliminary antitumor activity. As of February 2022, ~10% of the planned patients have been enrolled.
Risk of Radiation Dermatitis in Patients with Skin of Color Who Undergo Radiation to the Breast or Chest Wall Irradiation and Regional Nodes [Meeting Abstract]
Purswani, J; Oh, C; Xiao, J; Teruel, J R; Perez, C A; Gutierrez, D; Adotama, P; Tattersall, I; Gerber, N K
Purpose/Objective(s): Radiation dermatitis (RD) is common after RT for breast cancer with data indicating potentially worse RD in African American (AA) patients (pts). Current measures of RD, such as the CTCAE, do not include hyperpigmentation, which may disproportionately affect how RD is classified and treated in pts with skin of color (SOC). We aim to characterize RD in SOC and identify factors, including baseline skin pigmentation (BSP) that predict RD. Materials/Methods: Pts treated with whole breast (WB) or chest wall (CW) with regional nodal RT or high tangents with 50 Gy in 25 fractions from 2015-2018 were identified. Three dermatologists independently classified BSP using photographs from CT simulation based on the Fitzpatrick scale ([FS], range=I-VI; I=light/pale white to VI=black/ very dark brown). SOC was defined as FS IV-VI. Pt characteristics were investigated for association with interventions to treat RD, clinician-graded acute RD, and late skin toxicity (NCI CTCAE scale) with Chi-squared and logistic regression analyses.
Result(s): 325 pts met eligibility criteria (58 African American [AA], 42 Asian, 151 Caucasian, 77 other). 40% (n=129) had SOC, 60% underwent CW RT, 40% WB RT and 82% had systemic therapy. Pts with SOC were more likely to be Hispanic (14% vs 8% p=0.007), AA (43% vs 1%, p<0.001) and have greater mean BMI (28.0 vs 26.5, p=0.02). Acute grade 2/3 RD was lower in SOC (FS I 60%, FS II 63%, FS III 52%, FS IV 64%, FS V 40%, FS VI 41%; p=0.049). Increased BSP (OR 0.83; p=0.01) and AA pts (OR: 0.22; p<0.001) had lower odds of acute grade 2/3 RD, whereas bolus and dosimetric parameters such as increased PTV volume had increased odds. On multivariable analysis (MVA), AA pts and bolus remained significant (OR: 0.14, p=0.01; OR: 6.63 p<0.001, respectively). Topical steroid use to treat RD was less frequent and oral analgesic use was more frequent in SOC (43% vs 63%, p<0.001; 50% vs 38%, p=0.05, respectively). Pts with increased BSP (OR 0.73, p<0.001), AA race (OR 0.19, p<0.001) and greater BMI had lower use of topical interventions whereas any boost phase, bolus, IMN RT and increased PTV volume had greater use. On MVA, AA pts (OR 0.27, p=0.04), boost (OR 2.04, p=0.033), IMN RT (OR 2.73, p=0.003) and PTV V105% (OR=1.002, p=0.03) retained significance. Late grade 2/3 hyperpigmentation was greater in SOC (16% vs 3%, p=0.01). Increased BSP (OR 2.14, p=0.001), AA pts (OR 8.18, p=0.02), bolus and CW boost had greater odds of grade 2/3 hyperpigmentation. On MVA, increased BSP (OR: 3.76, p=0.03) and bolus (OR: 14.1, p=0.01) retained significance.
Conclusion(s): We found less clinician-graded acute RD in SOC and AA pts, less frequent use of topical interventions but more oral analgesic use. We also found higher rates of late pigmentation change with increased BSP independent of race. These findings suggest that RD may be under-diagnosed in SOC. This study confirms the necessity for objective measures of RD that account for variability in BSP to accurately classify the severity of radiation skin toxicity in SOC and treat accordingly.
Effectiveness and Toxicity of Re-Irradiation after Breast Conserving Surgery for Recurrent Breast Cancer: A Multi-Institutional Study [Meeting Abstract]
Abeloos, C H; Xiao, J; Oh, C; Barbee, D; Perez, C A; Oratz, R; Schnabel, F R; Axelrod, D; Guth, A; Braunstein, L Z; Khan, A J; Choi, I J; Gerber, N K
Purpose/Objective(s): Breast re-irradiation (reRT) after repeat breast conserving surgery (BCS) has emerged as a viable alternative to mastectomy in women presenting with low risk in-breast tumor recurrence (IBTR). However, there is limited data on optimal patient selection and safety of different fractionation regimens. This multi-institutional study reports safety and efficacy in a large cohort of women with IBTR treated with repeat BCS and reRT. Materials/Methods: Using electronic medical record search tools, we identified all patients who underwent repeat BCS followed by breast reRT from 2015-2021 at 2 institutions. Univariate logistic regression models were used to identify clinical and dosimetric factors associated with development of acute and late toxicities. All statistical tests were two-sided, and the null hypothesis was rejected for p<0.05. Kaplan Meier methodology was used to calculate overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and locoregional recurrence-free survival (LR-RFS).
Result(s): We identified 66 patients with an IBTR treated with repeat BCS. In the initial RT course, 55% received whole breast RT (WBI) with conventional fractionation (<=2 Gy/fraction[fx]), 29% WBI with hypofractionation (2.6-2.7 Gy/fx), 6% partial breast irradiation (PBI) ultrahypofractionation (6-8 Gy/fx) and 11% had unavailable treatment details. There was a median of 11 years between initial breast cancer and IBTR. At time of recurrence, 36% of patients had tumors located in the same quadrant as the initial cancer, 41% had invasive carcinoma with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), 41% had invasive carcinoma alone, 18% had DCIS alone, 92% had tumors < 2 cm, 68% had low-intermediate grade tumors and all were clinically node negative. For reRT, 95% received PBI (57.5% 45 Gy/1.5 Gy twice daily; 27% 45 Gy/1.8 Gy daily; 10.5% hypofractionation), and 5% received WBI (45-46.8 Gy in 1.8 Gy/fx), all of whom had received PBI for the initial course. Nine patients (13%) underwent adjuvant chemotherapy and 44 (67%) adjuvant hormone therapy. Median follow-up was 16 months (range 3-60). Twenty-one patients (32%) experienced any acute >= grade 2 events, and 17 (26%) experienced any late >= grade 2 toxicities. One patient experienced grade 3 fibrosis and one patient experienced grade 3 telangiectasia at 36 months. None had grade 4 or higher late adverse events. We found no association between fractionation of reRT or cumulative dose (measured as EQD2) with acute or late toxicity. At 2 years, OS was 100%, DMFS was 91.6%, and LR-RFS was 100%.
Conclusion(s): In this large multi-institutional series of patients with recurrent breast cancer, second breast conservation surgery followed by reRT was effective with no local recurrences and excellent disease control outcomes, and toxicity appears to be acceptable. Longer follow-up and more prospective study are needed to further inform patient selection and establish the efficacy and tolerability of repeat breast conservation therapy in the setting of limited, low-risk recurrence.