Comparison of Clinical Measures Among Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) Patients with Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) Patterns on High-Resolution Computed Tomography
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis is a progressive and fatal interstitial lung disease (ILD) characterized by a typical radiographic or histologic usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern.Â In 2018, diagnostic categories of UIP based on computed tomography patterns were revised by the Fleischner Society. The study aimed to describe differences in comorbidities and spirometry in ILD patients that were characterized by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images as having a typical, probable, indeterminate, and alternative diagnosis of UIP. METHODS:We retrospectively studied 80 ILD patients from 2017 to 2019. Typical UIP was defined using the Fleischner Society diagnostic criteria for IPF. Atypical UIP was reached by consensus after a multidisciplinary clinical-radiological-pathological review of patient data. Baseline characteristics, comorbidities, and spirometry were compared among the four subgroups. RESULTS:% from baseline to 6-12Â months, age, and sex, only COPD remained significantly associated with typical UIP (pâ€‰=â€‰0.018). Tobacco use was not significantly associated with any radiographic type (pâ€‰=â€‰0.199). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Typical UIP was prevalent among COPD/emphysema patients. Although smoking has a strong association with IPF, we did not find a significant association with smoking and typical UIP in our cohort.
Advances in Targeted Therapy for Progressive Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Disease
Progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease (PF-ILD) has been redefined as a new clinical syndrome that shares similar genetics, pathophysiology, and natural history to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). IPF is the most common form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, which is progressive in nature and is associated with significant mortality. Therapies targeting an inflammatory and/or immune response have not been consistently effective or well tolerated in patients with IPF. The two antifibrotic drugs approved for IPF treatment, nintedanib and pirfenidone, have been shown to reduce lung function decline in PF-ILD. Novel uses of antifibrotic therapy are emerging due to a paucity of evidence-based treatments for multiple ILD subtypes. In this review, we describe the current body of knowledge on antifibrotic therapy and immunomodulators in PF-ILD, drawing from experience in IPF where appropriate.
Acute Respiratory Decompensation Requiring Intubation in Pregnant Women with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) [Case Report]
There is a current paucity of information about the obstetric and perinatal outcomes of pregnant novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in North America. Data from China suggest that pregnant women with COVID-19 have favorable maternal and neonatal outcomes, with rare cases of critical illness or respiratory compromise. However, we report two cases of pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 in the late preterm period admitted to tertiary care hospitals in New York City for respiratory indications. After presenting with mild symptoms, both quickly developed worsening respiratory distress requiring intubation, and both delivered preterm via caesarean delivery. These cases highlight the potential for rapid respiratory decompensation in pregnant COVID-19 patients and the maternal-fetal considerations in managing these cases.
EXAMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPIROMETRY AND USUAL INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONIA (UIP) PATTERNS ON CT AMONG IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY FIBROSIS (IPF) PATIENTS [Meeting Abstract]
SESSION TITLE: Tuesday Electronic Posters 3 SESSION TYPE: Original Inv Poster Discussion PRESENTED ON: 10/22/2019 01:00
Effects of deep sedation on sleep in critically Ill medical patients on mechanical ventilation
Atypical EEG patterns not consistent with standard sleep staging criteria have been observed in medical intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Our aim was to examine the relationship between sleep architecture and sedation in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients pre- and post-extubation. We performed a prospective observational repeated measures study where 50 mechanically ventilated patients with 31 paired analyses were examined at an academic medical centre. The sleep efficiency was 58.3Â Â±Â 25.4% for intubated patients and 45.6Â Â±Â 25.4% for extubated patients (pÂ =Â .02). Intubated patients spent 76.33Â Â±Â 3.34% of time in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep compared to 64.66Â Â±Â 4.06% of time for extubated patients (pÂ =Â .02). REM sleep constituted 1.36Â Â±Â 0.67% of total sleep time in intubated patients and 2.06Â Â±Â 1.09% in extubated patients (pÂ =Â .58). Relative sleep atypia was higher in intubated patients compared to extubated patients (3.38Â Â±Â 0.87 versus 2.79Â Â±Â 0.42; pÂ <Â .001). Eleven patients were sedated with propofol only, 18 patients with fentanyl only, 11 patients with fentanyl and propofol, and 10 patients had no sedation. The mean sleep times on "propofol", "fentanyl", "propofol and fentanyl," and "no sedation" were 6.54Â Â±Â 0.64, 4.88Â Â±Â 0.75, 6.20Â Â±Â 0.75 and 4.02Â Â±Â 0.62Â hr, respectively. The sigma/alpha values for patients on "propofol", "fentanyl", "propofol and fentanyl" and "no sedation" were 0.69Â Â±Â 0.04, 0.54Â Â±Â 0.01, 0.62Â Â±Â 0.02 and 0.57Â Â±Â 0.02, respectively. Sedated patients on mechanical ventilation had higher sleep efficiency and more atypia compared to the same patients following extubation. Propofol was associated with higher sleep duration and less disrupted sleep architecture compared to fentanyl, propofol and fentanyl, or no sedation.
Prevalence and Predictors of Deep Vein Thrombosis in Critically Ill Medical Patients Who Underwent Diagnostic Duplex Ultrasonography
INTRODUCTION:/UNASSIGNED:Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a recognized but preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the medical intensive care unit (MICU). We examined the prevalence and risk factors for DVT in MICU patients who underwent diagnostic venous duplex ultrasonography (DUS) and the potential effect on clinical outcomes. METHODS:/UNASSIGNED:This is a retrospective study examining prevalence of DVT in 678 consecutive patients admitted to a tertiary care level academic MICU from July 2014 to 2015. Patients who underwent diagnostic DUS were included. Potential conditions of interest were mechanical ventilation, hemodialysis, sepsis, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores, central venous catheters, prior DVT, and malignancy. Primary outcomes were pulmonary embolism, ICU length of stay, and mortality. Additionally, means of thromboprophylaxis was compared between the groups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilized to determine predictors of DVT occurrence. RESULTS:/UNASSIGNED:Of the 678 patients, 243 (36%) patients underwent DUS to evaluate for DVT. The prevalence of DVT was 16% (38) among tested patients, and a prior history of DVT was associated with DVT prevalence ( P < .01). Between cases and controls, there were no significant differences in central venous catheters, mechanical ventilation, hemodialysis, sepsis, SOFA scores, malignancy, and recent surgery. Patients receiving chemical prophylaxis had fewer DVTs compared to persons with no prophylaxis (14% vs 29%; P = .01) and persons with dual chemical and mechanical prophylaxis ( P = 0.1). Fourteen percent of patients tested had documented DVT while on chemoprophylaxis. There were no significant differences in ICU length of stay ( P = .35) or mortality ( P = .34). CONCLUSIONS:/UNASSIGNED:Despite the appropriate use of universal thromboprophylaxis, critically ill nonsurgical patients still demonstrated high rates of DVT. A history of DVT was the sole predictor for development of proximal DVT on DUS testing. Dual chemical and mechanical prophylaxis does not appear to be superior to single-chemical prophylaxis in DVT prevention in this population.
Improvement in Physical Activity in Persons With Obstructive Sleep Apnea Treated With Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
BACKGROUND:Exercise improves sleep quality, yet people with untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may engage in less physical activity (PA) due to fatigue and daytime sleepiness. We examined changes in PA and sleep quality before and after treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in OSA patients. METHODS:In this prospective longitudinal study, persons with a primary diagnosis of OSA were enrolled at a community-based hospital in New York City. At 3 time intervals pre- and post-CPAP (3-8 months), we measured sleep quality using validated questionnaires, perceived PA using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and actual PA using pedometer steps per day. We sought to investigate how CPAP use and changes in sleep quality impacted the number of steps taken, as recorded in pedometer steps. RESULTS:In total, 62 patients were enrolled in the study from March 2012 to July 2014. In all, patients averaged 53 years of age, and 26 patients (42%) were female. Among all participants, 86% of persons had moderate to severe sleep apnea (AHI â‰¥15). Approximately 73% of participants were compliant with CPAP use. Poor sleep quality correlated with lower actual PA (P = .004) at baseline. At 3 and 7 months, there was significant improvement in sleep quality (Î” -2.63 Â± 3.4 and Î” -3.5 Â± 3.8; P < .001) and actual PA (Î” 840 Â± 1313 and Î” 1431 Â± 1419 steps/day, P < .001) compared with baseline. On multivariate analyses, participants with a higher waist circumference had a significantly greater increase in actual PA (P = .018). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Treatment of OSA with CPAP had a progressive incremental improvement in sleep quality and actual PA.
Prevalence And Predictors Of Pneumothorax In Patients With Septic Pulmonary Embolism [Meeting Abstract]
The Challenges Of Sleep In The Icu: The Significance Of Sedatives On Sleep Architecture [Meeting Abstract]
Assessment of Mortality Risk in Elderly Persons with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Diagnosed with Pneumonia
Objective: Aging is associated with increased risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and treatment of OSA in elderly is of great interest but controversial. Pneumonia requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) is a leading cause of death in the elderly. The purpose of the study was to assess pneumonia-related mortality in elderly persons with OSA.