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Berkowitz, Aviva C; Ginsburg, Aryeh M; Pesso, Raymond M; Angus, George L D; Kang, Amiee; Ginsburg, Dov B
BACKGROUND: Postoperative airway compromise following cervical spine surgery is a potentially serious adverse event. Residual effects of anesthesia and perioperative opioids that can cause both sedation and respiratory depression further increase this risk. Ketamine is an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that provides potent analgesia without noticeable respiratory depression. We investigated whether intraoperative ketamine administration could decrease perioperative opioid requirements in trauma patients undergoing cervical spine surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed anesthesia records identifying cervical spine surgeries performed between March 2014 and February 2015. All patients received a balanced anesthetic technique utilizing sevoflurane 0.5 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and propofol infusion (50-100 mcg/kg/min). For intraoperative analgesia, one group of patients received ketamine (N=25) and a second group received fentanyl (N=27). Cumulative opioid doses in the recovery room and until 24 hours postoperatively were recorded. RESULTS: Fewer patients in the ketamine group (11/25 [44%] vs. 20/27 [74%], respectively; p = 0.03) required analgesics in the recovery room. Additionally, the total cumulative opioid requirements in the ketamine group decreased postoperatively at both 3 and 6 hours (p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Ketamine use during cervical spine surgery decreased opioid requirements in both the recovery room and in the first 6 hours postoperatively. This may have the potential to minimize opioid induced respiratory depression in a population at increased risk of airway complications related to the surgical procedure.
PMID: 27382810
ISSN: 0544-0440
CID: 2690422

Lymphocyte infiltration of neocortex and hippocampus after a single brief seizure in mice

Silverberg, J; Ginsburg, D; Orman, R; Amassian, V; Durkin, H G; Stewart, M
Various immune responses have been described in epileptic patients and animal models of epilepsy, but immune responses in brain after a single seizure are poorly understood. We studied immune responses in brain after a single brief generalized tonic-clonic seizure in mice. C57bl/6 mice, either unanesthetized or anesthetized (pentobarbital, ethyl chloride) received either electrical (15-30 mA, 100 Hz, 1s) or sham stimulation (subcutaneous electrodes over frontal lobe, no current). Electrical stimulation of unanesthetized mice resulted in tonic-clonic convulsions with hind-limb extension (maximal seizure), tonic-clonic convulsions without hind-limb extension (submaximal seizure), or no seizure. In contrast, such stimulation of anesthetized mice did not result in seizure. Mice were killed at 1h-7 days after seizure. Brains or regions dissected from brain (neocortex, hippocampus, midbrain, cerebellum) of each group were pooled, single cell suspensions prepared, and cells separated according to density. CD4(+) (CD3(+)CD45(Hi)) and CD8(+) (CD3(+)CD45(Hi)) T cell and CD45R(+) (CD45(Hi)) B cell numbers were determined by flow cytometry. At 24h after a maximal seizure, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and CD45R(+) B cells appeared in brain, reaching peak numbers at 48 h, but were no longer detected at 7days. CD4(+) T cells and CD45R(+) B cells were preferentially found in neocortex compared with hippocampus, whereas CD8(+) T cells were preferentially found in hippocampus at 24h after a maximal seizure. In contrast, virtually no lymphocytes were detected in brains of unstimulated or sham stimulated mice, unanesthetized stimulated mice after submaximal or no seizure, and anesthetized stimulated mice at 1 h-7 day. Neither Ly6-G+ neutrophils nor erythrocytes were detected in brains of any animals, nor was there any detectable increase of blood-brain barrier permeability by uptake of Evans Blue dye. The results indicate that lymphocyte entry into brain after a single brief seizure is due to a selective process of recruitment into cortical regions.
PMID: 19822204
ISSN: 1090-2139
CID: 2783582

Specificity in Stress Response: Epidermal Keratinocytes Exhibit Specialized UV-Responsive Signal Transduction Pathways

Adachi, Makoto; Gazel, Alix; Pintucci, Giuseppe; Shuck, Alyssa; Shifteh, Shiva; Ginsburg, Dov; Rao, Laxmi S; Kaneko, Takehiko; Freedberg, Irwin M; Tamaki, Kunihiko; Blumenberg, Miroslav
UV light, a paradigmatic initiator of cell stress, invokes responses that include signal transduction, activation of transcription factors, and changes in gene expression. Consequently, in epidermal keratinocytes, its principal and frequent natural target, UV regulates transcription of a distinctive set of genes. Hypothesizing that UV activates distinctive epidermal signal transduction pathways, we compared the UV-responsive activation of the JNK and NFkappaB pathways in keratinocytes, with the activation of the same pathways by other agents and in other cell types. Using of inhibitors and antisense oligonucleotides, we found that in keratinocytes only UVB/UVC activate JNK, while in other cell types UVA, heat shock, and oxidative stress do as well. Keratinocytes express JNK-1 and JNK-3, which is unexpected because JNK-3 expression is considered brain-specific. In keratinocytes, ERK1, ERK2, and p38 are activated by growth factors, but not by UV. UVB/UVC in keratinocytes activates Elk1 and AP1 exclusively through the JNK pathway. JNKK1 is essential for UVB/UVC activation of JNK in keratinocytes in vitro and in human skin in vivo. In contrast, in HeLa cells, used as a control, crosstalk among signal transduction pathways allows considerable laxity. In parallel, UVB/UVC and TNFalpha activate the NFkappaB pathway via distinct mechanisms, as shown using antisense oligonucleotides targeted against IKKbeta, the active subunit of IKK. This implies a specific UVB/UVC responsive signal transduction pathway independent from other pathways. Our results suggest that in epidermal keratinocytes specific signal transduction pathways respond to UV light. Based on these findings, we propose that the UV light is not a genetic stress response inducer in these cells, but a specific agent to which epidermis developed highly specialized responses
PMID: 14611688
ISSN: 1044-5498
CID: 38998