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Metrics of shock in pediatric trauma patients: A systematic search and review

Alberto, Emily C; McKenna, Elise; Amberson, Michael J; Tashiro, Jun; Donnelly, Katie; Thenappan, Arunachalam A; Tempel, Peyton E; Ranganna, Adesh S; Keller, Susan; Marsic, Ivan; Sarcevic, Aleksandra; O'Connell, Karen J; Burd, Randall S
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND:. Shock-index (SI) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) are metrics for identifying children and adults with hemodynamic instability following injury. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the quality of these metrics as predictors of outcomes following pediatric injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We conducted a literature search in Pubmed, SCOPUS, and CINAHL to identify studies describing the association between shock metrics on the morbidity and mortality of injured children and adolescents. We used the data presented in the studies to calculate the sensitivity and specificity for each metric. This study was registered with Prospero, protocol CRD42020162971. RESULTS:Fifteen articles met the inclusion criteria. seven studies evaluated SI or SIPA score, an age-corrected version of SI, as predictors of outcomes following pediatric trauma, with one study comparing SIPA score and SBP and one study comparing SI and SBP. The remaining eight studies evaluated SBP as the primary indicator of shock. The median sensitivity for predicting mortality and need for blood transfusion was highest for SI, followed by SIPA, and then SBP. The median specificity for predicting these outcomes was highest for SBP, followed by SIPA, and then SI. CONCLUSIONS:Common conclusions were that high SIPA scores were more specific than SI and more sensitive than SBP. SIPA score had better discrimination for severely injured children compared to SI and SBP. An elevated SIPA was associated with a greater need for blood transfusion and higher in-hospital mortality. SIPA is specific enough to exclude most patients who do not require a blood transfusion.
PMID: 34238538
ISSN: 1879-0267
CID: 4996482

Incidence of acute postoperative robotic port-site hernias: results from a high-volume multispecialty center

Damani, Tanuja; James, Les; Fisher, Jason C; Shah, Paresh C
Fascial closure at 8-mm robotic port sites continues to be controversial. As the use of the robotic platform increases across multiple abdominal specialties, there are more case reports describing reoperation and small bowel resection for acute port-site hernias. A retrospective review of all robotic abdominal surgeries performed from 2012 to 2019 at NYU Langone Medical Center was conducted. Patients who had a reoperation in our facility within 30 days were identified, and medical records reviewed for indications for reoperation and findings. The study included 11,566 patients, of which 82 patients (0.71%) underwent a reoperation related to the index robotic surgery within 30 days. Fifteen of 11,566 patients (0.13%) had acute port-site hernias, and 3 of these 15 patients required small bowel resection. Eleven of 15 acute port-site hernias (73%) were at 8-mm robotic port site, 2 of which required a small bowel resection. More than a third of the patients had a hernia at an 8-mm port site where a surgical drain had been placed. Considering that each robotic case, regardless of specialty, has three ports at a minimum, the true incidence of acute postoperative robotic port-site hernia is 0.032% (11/34,698), with the incidence of concomitant small bowel resection being 0.006% (2/34,698). The incidence of acute port-site hernias from 8-mm robotic ports is exceedingly low across specialties. Our results do not support routine fascial closure at 8-mm robotic port sites due to an extremely low incidence. However, drain sites require special consideration.
PMID: 32710254
ISSN: 1863-2491
CID: 4539892

Hyperlipasemia in absence of acute pancreatitis is associated with elevated D-dimer and adverse outcomes in COVID 19 disease

Ahmed, Awais; Fisher, Jason C; Pochapin, Mark B; Freedman, Steven D; Kothari, Darshan J; Shah, Paresh C; Sheth, Sunil G
BACKGROUND:Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 affects multiple organs. Studies have reported mild elevations of lipase levels of unclear significance. Our study aims to determine the outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and hyperlipasemia, and whether correlation with D-dimer levels explains the effect on outcomes. METHODS:Case-control study from two large tertiary care health systems, of patients with COVID-19 disease admitted between March 1 and May 1, 2020 who had lipase levels recorded. Data analyzed to study primary outcomes of mortality, length of stay (LOS) and intensive care utilization in hyperlipasemia patients, and correlation with D-dimer and outcomes. RESULTS:992 out of 5597 COVID-19 patients had lipase levels, of which 429 (43%) had hyperlipasemia. 152 (15%) patients had a lipase > 3x ULN, with clinical pancreatitis in 2 patients. Hyperlipasemia had a higher mortality than normal lipase patients (32% vs. 23%, OR = 1.6,95%CI = 1.2-2.1, P = 0.002). In subgroup analysis, hyperlipasemia patients had significantly worse LOS (11vs.15 days, P = 0.01), ICU admission rates (44% vs. 66%,OR = 2.5,95%CI = 1.3-5.0,P = 0.008), ICU LOS (12vs.19 days,P = 0.01), mechanical ventilation rates (34% vs. 55%,OR = 2.4,95%CI = 1.3-4.8,P = 0.01), and durations of mechanical ventilation (14 vs. 21 days, P = 0.008). Hyperlipasemia patients were more likely to have a D-dimer value in the highest two quartiles, and had increased mortality (59% vs. 15%,OR = 7.2,95%CI = 4.5-11,P < 0.001) and LOS (10vs.7 days,P < 0.001) compared to those with normal lipase and lower D-dimer levels. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:There is high prevalence of hyperlipasemia without clinical pancreatitis in COVID-19 disease. Hyperlipasemia was associated with higher mortality and ICU utilization, possibly explained by elevated D-dimer.
PMID: 33741267
ISSN: 1424-3911
CID: 4836642

Surgical Management of Giant Intrapericardial Teratoma Encasing the Coronary Artery

Minocha, Prashant; Hodzic, Emina; Sharma, Madhu; Bhatla, Puneet; Nielsen, James; Ramirez, Michelle; Magid, Margret; Fisher, Jason C; Mosca, Ralph; Kumar, Tk Susheel
Intrapericardial teratomas are rare, predominantly benign tumors that warrant surgical resection in the neonatal period because of their potential detrimental effects on the cardiorespiratory system. Surgical resection can be a challenge when the tumor encases and obscures a coronary artery. Adherence to certain operative principles is necessary to achieve successful outcomes.
PMID: 33888026
ISSN: 2150-136x
CID: 4852092

Increase in Pediatric Perforated Appendicitis in the New York City Metropolitan Region at the Epicenter of the COVID-19 Outbreak

Fisher, Jason C; Tomita, Sandra S; Ginsburg, Howard B; Gordon, Alex; Walker, David; Kuenzler, Keith A
OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study was to determine whether perforated appendicitis rates in children were influenced by the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) surge. BACKGROUND:Disruption of care pathways during a public health crisis may prevent children from obtaining prompt assessment for surgical conditions. Progression of appendicitis to perforation is influenced by timeliness of presentation. In the context of state-mandated controls and public wariness of hospitals, we investigated the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on perforated appendicitis in children. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS:We conducted an analysis of all children presenting to 3 hospital sites with acute appendicitis between March 1 and May 7, 2020, corresponding with the peak COVID-19 outbreak in the New York City region. Control variables were collected from the same institutions for the preceding 5 years. The primary outcome measure was appendiceal perforation. RESULTS:Fifty-five children presented with acute appendicitis over 10 weeks. Compared to a 5-year control cohort of 1291 patients, we observed a higher perforation rate (45% vs 27%, odds ratio 2.23, 95% confidence interval 1.29-3.85, P = 0.005) and longer mean duration of symptoms in children with perforations (71 ± 39 vs 47 ± 27 h, P = 0.001) during the COVID-19 period. There were no differences in perforation rates (55% vs 59%, P = 0.99) or median length of stay (1.0 vs 3.0 days, P = 0.58) among children screening positive or negative for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS:Children in the epicenter of the COVID-19 outbreak demonstrated higher rates of perforated appendicitis compared to historical controls. Preoperative detection of SARS-CoV-2 was not associated with inferior outcomes. Although children likely avoid much of the morbidity directly linked to COVID-19, disruption to local healthcare delivery systems may negatively impact other aspects of pediatric surgical disease.
PMID: 32976285
ISSN: 1528-1140
CID: 4606112

Morbidity of conversion from venovenous to venoarterial ECMO in neonates with meconium aspiration or persistent pulmonary hypertension

Choi, Beatrix Hyemin; Verma, Sourabh; Cicalese, Erin; Dapul, Heda; Toy, Bridget; Chopra, Arun; Fisher, Jason C
BACKGROUND:Outcomes in neonates receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) and/or persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) are favorable. Infants with preserved perfusion are often offered venovenous (VV) support to spare morbidities of venoarterial (VA) ECMO. Worsening perfusion or circuit complications can prompt conversion from VV-to-VA support. We examined whether outcomes in infants requiring VA ECMO for MAS/PPHN differed if they underwent VA support initially versus converting to VA after a VV trial, and what factors predicted conversion. METHODS:We reviewed the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization registry from 2007 to 2017 for neonates with primary diagnoses of MAS/PPHN. Propensity score analysis matched VA single-runs (controls) 4:1 against VV-to-VA conversions based on age, pre-ECMO pH, and precannulation arrests. Primary outcomes were complications and survival. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact testing. Multivariate regression identified independent predictors of conversion for VV patients. RESULTS:3831 neonates underwent ECMO for MAS/PPHN, including 2129 (55%) initially requiring VA support. Of 1702 patients placed on VV ECMO, 98 (5.8%) required VV-to-VA conversion. Compared with 364 propensity-matched isolated VA controls, conversion runs were longer (190 vs. 127 h, P < 0.001), were associated with more complications, and decreased survival to discharge (70% vs. 83%, P = 0.01). On multivariate regression, conversion was more likely if neonates on VV ECMO did not receive surfactant (OR = 1.7;95%CI = 1.1-2.7;P = 0.03) or required high-frequency ventilation (OR = 1.9;95%CI = 1.2-3.3;P = 0.01) before ECMO. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Conversion from VV-to-VA ECMO in infants with MAS/PPHN conveys increased morbidity and mortality compared to similar patients placed initially onto VA ECMO. VV patients not receiving surfactant or requiring high-frequency ventilation before cannulation may have increased risk of conversion. While conversions remain rare, decisions to offer VV ECMO for MAS/PPHN must be informed by inferior outcomes observed should conversion be required. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE/METHODS:Level of evidence 3 Retrospective comparative study.
PMID: 33645507
ISSN: 1531-5037
CID: 4800052

Peritoneal drainage as a safe alternative to laparotomy in children with abdominal compartment syndrome

Choi, Beatrix Hyemin; Shenoy, Rivfka; Levy-Lambert, Dina; Fisher, Jason C; Tomita, Sandra S
ISSN: 2543-0351
CID: 5181402

Variations in the management of adolescent adnexal torsion at a single institution and the creation of a unified care pathway

Alberto, Emily C; Tashiro, Jun; Zheng, Yinan; Sandler, Anthony; Kane, Timothy; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica; Petrosyan, Mikael
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Adnexal torsion is a gynecologic emergency, requiring intervention for tissue preservation. At our institution, torsion is managed by pediatric surgeons or gynecologists. We evaluated differences between specialties to streamline evaluation for children with gynecological emergencies, develop a clinical pathway, and prevent care delays. METHODS:A retrospective review of adolescents undergoing intervention for adnexal torsion from 2004-2018 was performed. Differences in time to intervention, operation duration, the procedure performed, and length of stay (LOS) between the specialties were analyzed. RESULTS:Eighty-six patients underwent 94 operations for presumed adnexal torsion with 87 positive cases. Pediatric surgeons performed 60 operations and 34 cases were performed by gynecologists. Preservation of fertility was the goal in both cohorts and the rate of oophoropexy, cystectomy, and oophorectomy were similar between the cohorts (p = 0.14, p = 1.0, p = 0.39, respectively). There was no difference in intra-operative time (p = 0.69). LOS was shorter in the gynecology cohort (median 1 day [1-2] vs. 2 days [2-3], p > 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Adnexal torsion is a time-sensitive diagnosis requiring prompt intervention for ovarian or fallopian tube preservation. A multidisciplinary institutional care pathway should be developed and implemented.
PMID: 33242170
ISSN: 1437-9813
CID: 4996452

Current management of pediatric achalasia

Tashiro, Jun; Petrosyan, Mikael; Kane, Timothy D
Achalasia is a rare condition affecting esophageal motility in children. In a manner similar to the disease found in the adult population, children experience symptoms of dysphagia, regurgitation, and chest pain due to a failure of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. Standard diagnostic approaches include upper endoscopy and esophageal manometry. New developments in diagnosis include high-resolution esophageal manometry and the endoscopic functional lumen imaging probe. Therapies available include endoscopic balloon dilations and botulinum toxin injections into the lower esophageal sphincter, as well as surgical interventions. The Heller myotomy was first described in 1913; since then, there have been many modifications to the procedure to improve outcomes and lower morbidity. Currently, the most commonly performed surgical procedure is the laparoscopic Heller myotomy, in which the sphincter muscle is divided using longitudinal incisions with or without a partial fundoplication procedure. In recent years, per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is gaining support as a viable natural orifice therapy for achalasia. Complications of POEM occur at a relatively low rate, and outcomes following the procedure have been promising. The treatment of end-stage achalasia however, may include partial or total esophagectomy with reconstruction if possible. Future research is focused primarily on increasing the efficacy, and lowering complications, of existing therapeutic modalities.
PMID: 34423154
ISSN: 2415-1289
CID: 4996492

Oral Antibiotics and Abscess Formation After Appendectomy for Perforated Appendicitis in Children

Gordon, Alex J; Choi, Jee-Hye; Ginsburg, Howard; Kuenzler, Keith; Fisher, Jason; Tomita, Sandra
BACKGROUND:There is little consensus regarding the use of postoperative antibiotics in the management of perforated appendicitis in children. Patients are commonly discharged with oral antibiotics after a course of intravenous antibiotics; however, recent literature suggests that patients can be safely discharged without any oral antibiotics. To further evaluate this protocol, we conducted a multicenter retrospective preimplementation/postimplementation study comparing rates of abscess formation and rehospitalization between patients discharged with and without oral antibiotics. MATERIALS AND METHODS/METHODS:We reviewed the records of all pediatric patients who underwent appendectomies for perforated appendicitis at NYU Tisch Hospital, Bellevue Hospital, and Hackensack University Medical Center from January 2014 to June 2019. Data pertaining to patient demographics, hospital course, intraoperative appearance of the appendix, antibiotic treatment, abscess formation, and rehospitalization were collected. RESULTS:A total of 253 patients were included: 162 received oral antibiotics and 91 did not. The median length of antibiotic treatment (oral and intravenous) was 11 (10-14) d for patients on oral antibiotics and 5 (3-6) d for patients without oral antibiotics (P < 0.01). The median leukocyte count at discharge was 9.5 (7.4-10.9) and 8.1 (6.8-10.4) for these groups, respectively (P = 0.02). Postoperative abscesses occurred in 22% of patients receiving oral antibiotics and 15% of patients on no antibiotics (P = 0.25). Rates of rehospitalization for these groups were 10% and 11%, respectively (P = 0.99). CONCLUSIONS:Children who have undergone appendectomy for perforated appendicitis can be safely discharged without oral antibiotics on meeting clinical discharge criteria and white blood cell count normalization.
PMID: 32683057
ISSN: 1095-8673
CID: 4546092