L-tryptophan induced eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome
We describe the spectrum of clinical and histologic abnormalities of 11 women with L-tryptophan induced eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome. The illness is characterized by musculoskeletal symptoms including myalgias, arthralgias and paresthesias. The physical findings consist of muscle tenderness, neuropathies, rash, peripheral and periorbital edema. Electroneurography performed in 10 patients demonstrated a neuropathy in 5 and myopathic changes in 3. Skin and muscle biopsies showed fascial edema, inflammation and perivascular infiltrates in the skin, whereas perineural infiltrates and venulitis were identified in muscle. Seven patients were treated with prednisone; eosinophilia disappeared promptly although myalgias and neuropathy persisted.
Circulating hydroxy fatty acids in familial Mediterranean fever
Episodes of fever, serositis, and arthritis in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) suggested circulating mediators of acute inflammation (e.g., neutrophil activation). The mean serum neutrophil-aggregating activity of 51 FMF patients was 2.5 +/- 0.2 cm2/min, compared to 1.0 +/- 0.1 cm2/min in 20 normal controls (P less than 0.0002). Lipid extracts of FMF sera retained neutrophil-aggregating activity and had UV absorbance peaks at 269 and 279 nm, indicating the presence of lipids with a conjugated triene structure. Chromatography of extracts yielded peaks that were coeluted with reference dihydroxyicosatetraenoic acids, had UV absorbance peaks at 259, 269, and 279 nm, and possessed neutrophil-aggregating activity. The presence of leukotriene B4 was excluded by chromatography following methyl-esterification. Monohydroxy compounds identified in FMF extracts by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry included 5-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid, and 9- and 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids. Hydroxy acids were present in 19 of 31 FMF sera and absent in extracts of sera from 8 patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus, 7 with fever from infection, and 12 normal controls. The finding of circulating mono- and dihydroxy fatty acids in FMF suggests that defects in the formation or elimination of these compounds might play a role in the pathogenesis of FMF.
Generation of C5-derived peptides and other immune reactants in the sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
Activated complement components and immune complexes cause neutrophil aggregation in vitro and in vivo. We have previously demonstrated that sera of patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) provoke the aggregation of normal neutrophils in vitro. In this study the serum or plasma of 4 such patients was fractionated on Sephadex G-75. In 3 patients neutrophil aggregating activity (NAA) was detectable in fractions which coeluted with reference C5-derived peptides (estimated molecular radius of 17,000). The activity of these fractions was inhibitable by antibodies to human C5. All patients also had activity that coeluted with reference immune complexes. In addition, material of apparent molecular radius under 12,000 that contributed to the neutrophil aggregating activity of SLE sera was detected. In separate experiments increased levels of C5a desarg were demonstrated during active disease by means of radioimmunoassay. These findings suggest that multiple neutrophil aggregants circulate during the course of active SLE. The formation of intravascular leukoaggregates may contribute to endothelial injury in this disease.
The inactivation of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
When human neutrophils (PMNs) are activated by appropriate stimuli, they aggregate, generate superoxide anion (O2-) and secrete lysosomal enzymes. Pre-incubation of PMNs in vitro with the cyclo-oxygenase (COx) inhibitor piroxicam (50 microM) before stimulation with the chemotactic peptide f-met-leu-phe (FMLP, 10(-7)M) inhibited all of these responses. The COx inhibitor ibuprofen inhibited FMLP-induced aggregation and lysozyme secretion, leaving O2- generation unaffected. Binding of 3H-FMLP was inhibited by piroxicam. When the plant lectin concanavalin A (Con-A, 30 micrograms/ml) or the tumor promoter phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, 50 micrograms/ml) was used as a stimulus, ibuprofen had no effect on PMN response, while piroxicam inhibited only O2- generation. To determine whether such inhibition might also occur in vivo, we tested neutrophil aggregation and O2- generation in response to FMLP in 26 normal subjects. These subjects were then administered therapeutic doses of piroxicam (20 mg/day), ibuprofen (2400 mg/day) or indomethacin (100 mg/day), and neutrophil functions were retested after 3 days. Piroxicam inhibited FMLP-induced aggregation by 31% (5.2 cm2/min versus 3.6 cm2/min, P less than 0.004) and O2- generation by 35% (15.8 nmol cytochrome c reduced versus 10.2 nmol, P less than 0.002). Ibuprofen inhibited FMLP-induced aggregation by 44% (5.2 versus 3.0, P less than 0.03) but had no effect on O2- production. Indomethacin inhibited FMLP-induced aggregation (6.4 versus 2.9, P less than 0.01) but had no effect on O2- generation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents on human neutrophil functions in vitro and in vivo
Human blood neutrophils exposed to appropriate stimuli aggregate, degranulate and generate superoxide anion (O2-). These responses are anteceded by mobilization of membrane-associated calcium, monitored as a decrease in fluorescence of cells preloaded with chlortetracycline (CTC). We studied the effects, both in vitro and in vivo, of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (aspirin, indomethacin, ibuprofen and piroxicam) on these neutrophil responses to three stimuli: a chemoattractant, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP); a tumor promotor, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA); and a lectin, concanavalin A (Con A). The effects of these drugs were compared with those of two polyenoic inhibitors of arachidonate metabolism: eicosatrienoic acid (ETI) and eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA). The pattern of inhibition of neutrophil functions varied both with inhibitor and the nature of the stimulus. Thus, aspirin, piroxicam, ETYA and ETI inhibited neutrophil aggregation, degranulation, and O2- generation in response to FMLP, whereas ibuprofen inhibited only aggregation and degranulation and indomethacin only inhibited aggregation. None of the agents inhibited aggregation or degranulation induced by PMA or Con A: only piroxicam inhibited O2- generation in response to PMA or Con A. ETI and ibuprofen inhibited decrements of CTC fluorescence induced by FMLP, but whereas ETI inhibited the CTC response to PMA or Con A, ibuprofen was without effect. The agents had varying effects on binding of the stimulus [( 3H]FMLP, [3H]Con A), but these did not correlate with neutrophil responses to the ligands. Neutrophils from subjects taking therapeutic doses of ibuprofen, indomethacin, or piroxicam showed profiles of inhibited responses to FMLP similar to those observed with these agents in vitro. These data suggest that, although non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents may inhibit discrete neutrophil functions both in vitro and in vivo, their effects do not duplicate those of polyenoic inhibitors of arachidonate metabolism. Moreover, since the susceptibility of neutrophils differed not only with respect to each inhibitor, but also to the stimulus, it is unlikely that all neutrophil responses are necessarily linked by a common pathway that is blocked by inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism
BIOLOGICALLY-ACTIVE LIPOXYGENASE PRODUCTS IN THE SERA OF PATIENTS WITH FAMILIAL MEDITERRANEAN FEVER (FMF) [Meeting Abstract]
DEMONSTRATION OF CIRCULATING C5 FRAGMENTS AND NOVEL LIPID NEUTROPHIL AGGREGANTS IN ACTIVE SYSTEMIC LUPUS-ERYTHEMATOSUS [Meeting Abstract]
The neutrophil in rheumatoid arthritis: its role and the inhibition of its activation by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs
The activation of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) in rheumatoid arthritis produces toxic products that include lysosomal enzymes, stable prostaglandins, and leukotrienes and causes the release of superoxide anion. These products produce the inflammatory response, damage cell membranes, and degrade hyaluronic acid. The inhibition of prostaglandin synthetase by NSAIDs does not, by itself, account for their effectiveness in preventing inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. In vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted to determine if NSAIDs also exert an effect on neutrophil activation. The NSAIDs tested inhibited discrete PMN functions dependent upon the stimulus tested. The antiinflammatory effects of NSAIDs cannot be entirely explained by their inhibition of prostaglandin synthetase and may, in part, be due to other direct effects upon inflammatory cell activation
Neutrophil aggregation induced by sera from patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus [Case Report]
Activated complement components and immune complexes cause neutrophil (PMN) aggregation in vitro and in vivo, as in dialysis-induced neutropenia and adult respiratory distress syndrome. To investigate the possible role of PMN aggregation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we studied the capacity of 59 sera from 53 patients to induce aggregation of normal PMN in vitro. Neutrophil aggregating activity (NAA) was present in the sera of 26 of 28 patients with active SLE. The mean NAA in this group was significantly greater than that found in 13 patients with inactive SLE, 20 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and 17 normal controls. In patients with SLE there was a positive correlation between disease severity and the quantitative measure of NAA. NAA did not correlate with serum C3 or C4 nor with the presence or absence of circulating immune complexes. High levels of NAA were particularly characteristic of central nervous system lupus. These data suggest that the formation of intravascular leukoaggregates may contribute to morbidity in SLE.
NEUTROPHIL AGGREGATION IN SYSTEMIC LUPUS-ERYTHEMATOSUS (SLE) - EVIDENCE FOR A NEW, LOW-MOLECULAR WEIGHT FACTOR [Meeting Abstract]