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Teaching SSHADESS v HEADSS to Medical Students:Association with Improved Communication and Increased Psychosocial Assessments

Coble, Chanelle; Srivastav, Shivani; Glick, Alexander; Bradshaw, Chanda; Osman, Cynthia
OBJECTIVE:The most recent Bright Futures edition describes both the HEADSS (Home, Education, Drugs, Sexuality, Safety) and the strength-based SSHADESS (Strengths, School, Home, Activities, Drugs, Emotions, Sexuality, Safety) frameworks for conducting an adolescent psychosocial history. We found limited research comparing the effectiveness of these two frameworks. Our study objective was to examine whether teaching medical students SSHADESS versus HEADSS is associated with increased communication skills and/or completion of the psychosocial assessment. METHODS:In this retrospective cohort study of pediatric clerkship students at NYU Grossman School of Medicine, we collected data from observer (faculty, fellow, and resident) and standardized patient (SP) assessments during Objective Structured Clinical Examinations. Primary outcomes were observer and SP-rated usage of communication skills. Secondary outcomes were observer-rated assessment of six psychosocial factors. Our predictor variable was whether students were taught HEADSS (11/2015-10/2016) or SSHADESS (11/2016-10/2017). We used Fisher's exact tests and then logistic regressions to adjust for pediatrics clerkship timing and baseline communication skills. RESULTS:200 students were assessed (n=97 HEADSS cohort, n=103 SSHADESS cohort). In adjusted analyses of observer scores, the SSHADESS cohort was more likely to use all communication skills (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.2, 95% CI 1.7-6.3]) and assess all psychosocial factors (aOR 1.9, [95% CI 1.01-3.4]). There was no significant difference in SP communication scores. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS:Teaching SSHADESS was associated with higher observer-rated communication skills scores and improved completeness in assessment of psychosocial factors. Future work should examine the efficacy of SSHADESS through workplace-based assessments and 360 degree assessments from adolescent patients.
PMID: 36130691
ISSN: 1876-2867
CID: 5328592

Using Quality Improvement Science to Promote Reliable Communication During Family-Centered Rounds

Glick, Alexander F; Foster, Lauren Z; Goonan, Michael; Hart, Louis H; Alam, Sadia; Rosenberg, Rebecca E
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Family-centered rounds (FCR) can lead to improved communication, satisfaction, and care delivery. However, FCR are variable in practice. Our primary goal was to implement and sustain consistent communication practices during FCR (a subset of all rounds in which parents were present) for patients on a pediatric hospital medicine service. We aimed to achieve 80% reliability for the following FCR practices: (1) discussion of risk factors and prevention strategies for hospital-acquired conditions (HACs), (2) discussion of discharge planning, and (3) asking families for questions. METHODS:Research assistants observed FCR on a pediatric acute care unit at an academic medical center and recorded if the rounding team discussed HAC risk factors, discussed discharge, or asked families for questions. Using the Model for Improvement, we performed multiple plan-do-study-act cycles to test and implement interventions, including (1) standardized note templates, (2) education via peer-led group discussions and team e-mails, and (3) routine provider feedback about performance. Data were analyzed by using statistical process control charts. RESULTS:From October 2017 to April 2019, reliability increased to >80% and sustained for (1) discussion of HAC risk factors (increased from 11% to 89%), (2) discussion of discharge planning (from 60% to 92%), and (3) asking families for questions (from 61% to 87%). Peer-led physician education, reminder e-mails, and physician engagement were the most impactful interventions corresponding to centerline shifts. CONCLUSIONS:Using multiple interventions, we achieved and sustained improvements in key communication-related elements of FCR. Future work will focus on determining if improved practices impact clinical outcomes.
PMID: 35362064
ISSN: 1098-4275
CID: 5201402

Meds to Beds: A Quality Improvement Approach to Optimizing the Discharge Medication Process for Pediatric Patients

Foster, Lauren; Choxi, Shivali; Rosenberg, Rebecca E; Tracy, Joanna; Toscano, Dante; Betancur Paez, Juan; Glick, Alexander F
BACKGROUND:Using an on-site pharmacy or medication to bedside (MTB) program allows patients to obtain prescriptions and education before discharge, potentially improving adherence and preventing harm. The aim of this project was to improve discharge processes for pediatric acute care patients by increasing the proportion of oral antibiotics (1) prescribed to the on-site pharmacy from 15% to 70% and (2) delivered to bedside from 0% to 50%. METHODS:The Model for Improvement was used to iteratively implement interventions: increased on-site pharmacy capabilities, MTB program creation and streamlined enrollment, and secure electronic health record (EHR) messaging between clinicians and pharmacy staff regarding prescriptions. Process measures were proportion of antibiotics prescribed to the on-site pharmacy and delivered to bedside. Outcomes included surveys of family satisfaction with discharge medication education and discharge medication-related safety reports. Discharge before noon (DBN) was the balancing measure. Aims were analyzed using statistical process control charts and chi-square tests. RESULTS:A total of 1,908 antibiotics were prescribed over 28-months. On-site pharmacy prescriptions increased from 15% to 46% after pharmacy capabilities increased, then to 86% after MTB program launch, optimized workflow, and initiation of EHR messaging. Bedside medication delivery increased from 0% to 58% with these interventions. Family satisfaction with discharge medication education and frequency of discharge medication-related safety reports was not significantly different pre- and postintervention. DBN varied throughout the study. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Through clinician and pharmacy staff partnership, this initiative increased on-site pharmacy use and discharge antibiotics delivered to bedside. Key interventions included increased pharmacy capabilities, MTB program with streamlined workflow, and EHR-based communication.
PMID: 34740550
ISSN: 1938-131x
CID: 5184842

Brief Resolved Unexplained Event: Not Just a New Name for Apparent Life-Threatening Event

Gerber, Nicole L; Fawcett, Kelsey J; Weber, Emily G; Patel, Roshni; Glick, Alexander F; Farkas, Jonathan S; Mojica, Michael A
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to evaluate patients who presented to the pediatric emergency department with an apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) to (1) determine if these patients would meet the criteria for brief resolved unexplained event (BRUE), a new term coined by the American Academy of Pediatrics in May, 2016; (2) risk stratify these patients to determine if they meet the BRUE low-risk criteria; and (3) evaluate outcomes of patients meeting the criteria for BRUE. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients who presented to a large urban academic center pediatric emergency department with an ALTE from January 2013 to May 2015 (before the publication of the BRUE guideline). Children ≤12 months of age were identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth/Tenth Revision. Two physician reviews were performed to determine if patients met the ALTE diagnostic criteria. Data were then extracted from these charts to complete objectives. RESULTS:Seventy-eight patients met the diagnostic criteria for ALTE. Only 1 of those patients met the diagnostic criteria for BRUE, but not for low-risk BRUE. This patient underwent an extensive inpatient evaluation and was eventually discharged after monitoring with a benign diagnosis. Most patients did not meet the criteria for BRUE because the event was not unexplained. CONCLUSIONS:Only 1 patient who presented to the ED with ALTE met the criteria for BRUE, and this patient did not meet the low-risk criteria. This study corroborates previous research on BRUE and continues to highlight the importance of conducting a thorough history and physical examination on all patients presenting to the ED with concerning events.
PMID: 32472924
ISSN: 1535-1815
CID: 4458172

Management of pediatric atopic dermatitis by primary care providers: A systematic review

Young, Trevor K; Glick, Alexander F; Yin, H Shonna; Kolla, Avani M; Velazquez, Jessica J; Nicholson, Joey; Oza, Vikash S
BACKGROUND:Primary care providers (PCPs), including pediatricians and general practitioners, are often the first to see children with eczema/atopic dermatitis (AD). Little is known about management of pediatric AD by PCPs and adherence to national guidelines. OBJECTIVE:To review existing literature examining management components of pediatric AD (topical corticosteroids [TCS], topical calcineurin inhibitors [TCIs], antihistamines, bathing, emollients, and diet) by PCPs. DATA SOURCES/METHODS:PubMed/Medline and Embase. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA/METHODS:English-language articles dated 2015-2020 reporting outcomes addressing management of pediatric AD by PCPs. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS/METHODS:Two authors independently screened titles/abstracts, reviewed full-text articles, extracted relevant data, and evaluated study quality. Disagreements were resolved by a third author. RESULTS:20 articles were included. Surveys and national database analyses were the most common methodologies (n=7 each). PCPs commonly prescribed TCS but had a preference for low-potency agents, overprescribed non-sedating antihistamines, and avoided TCIs. PCPs commonly recommended emollients, although this was not universal. Data characterizing non-medication management were limited. LIMITATIONS/CONCLUSIONS:Most studies did not examine individual patient encounters, but rather relied on providers reporting their general behaviors. Provider behavior may vary based on country of practice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS OF KEY FINDINGS/UNASSIGNED:Knowledge and management gaps exist among PCPs in treating pediatric AD in key areas including knowledge of TCS safety profiles and prescribing of TCIs. The current literature is largely limited to small studies that evaluate prescribing behaviors with limited data characterizing non-medication management, highlighting the need for future research in this area.
PMID: 34280477
ISSN: 1876-2867
CID: 4947942

Factors Associated With Parental Participation in Family-Centered Rounds

Glick, Alexander F; Goonan, Michael; Kim, Chan; Sandmeyer, Diana; Londoño, Kevin; Gold-von Simson, Gabrielle
OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Although families positively perceive family-centered rounds (FCR), factors associated with engagement have been examined in few studies. Our objective for this study was to test the hypothesis that inviting the parent to speak and nurse presence are associated with parent engagement during FCR. METHODS:= 199) of inpatients on the pediatric hospital medicine service at an academic medical center. We used a standardized checklist to record outcomes of engagement (number of questions asked and participation occurrences), predictor variables (team invited parent to speak, nurse presence), and other encounter-related variables. Parents were surveyed to assess parent and child characteristics and experiences during FCR. We examined parent, child, and encounter characteristic associations with the above outcomes using bivariate analyses and (for those associated in bivariate analyses) Poisson regressions. RESULTS:Inviting the parent to speak was independently associated with the number of questions asked (incident rate ratio [IRR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.7). Trusting the medical team was inversely associated with questions asked (IRR 0.8; 95% CI 0.6-0.97). Factors associated with total participation included invitation for the parent to speak (IRR 1.5; 95% CI 1.3-1.6), nurse presence (IRR 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.5), white race (IRR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4), clerkship student presentation (IRR 1.2; 95% CI 1.03-1.3), and parent inclusion in rounding arrangement (IRR 1.5; 95% CI 1.05-2). CONCLUSIONS:Parents present during FCR are more engaged when invited to speak. Nurse presence was associated with total parent participation. Future studies to inform interventions to optimize engagement are warranted.
PMID: 33303474
ISSN: 2154-1671
CID: 4709252

Health Literacy and Pediatric Health

Glick, Alexander F; Yin, H Shonna; Dreyer, Benard P
The chapters and reports in this book explore a wide variety of topics related to how health literacy can impact clinical practice and public health. While health literacy is relevant to healthcare issues across populations, it has unique implications in the field of pediatrics, where parents and other caregivers are responsible for managing their child's healthcare. Younger children have varying roles and involvement; over time, as children reach adolescence, they have an increasing understanding of and participation in their healthcare. This chapter will review the epidemiology of health literacy in parents, adolescents, and children, and how this compares to the general adult population. It will highlight unique considerations regarding health literacy and pediatric health. The chapter will then focus on the impact of health literacy and relevant health literacy-informed interventions on pediatric health. Finally, the chapter will discuss gaps in the literature and future directions.
PMID: 32593985
ISSN: 1879-8365
CID: 4503732

Setting an Agenda for Hospital Medicine Research: Making Sure the Right People Are at the Table [Editorial]

Glick, Alexander F; Jacobs-Shaw, Ramon Ea; Rosenberg, Rebecca E
PMID: 32525793
ISSN: 1553-5606
CID: 4510472

Accuracy of Parent Perception of Comprehension of Discharge Instructions: Role of Plan Complexity and Health Literacy

Glick, Alexander F; Farkas, Jonathan S; Rosenberg, Rebecca E; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Tomopoulos, Suzy; Fierman, Arthur H; Dreyer, Benard P; Migotsky, Michael; Melgar, Jennifer; Yin, H Shonna
OBJECTIVE:Inpatient discharge education is often suboptimal. Measures of parents' perceived comprehension of discharge instructions are included in national metrics given linkage to morbidity; few studies compare parents' perceived and actual comprehension. We (1) compared parent perceived and actual comprehension of discharge instructions and (2) assessed associations between plan complexity and parent health literacy with overestimation of comprehension (perceive comprehension but lack actual comprehension). METHODS:Prospective cohort study of English/Spanish-speaking parents (n=192) of inpatients ≤12 years old and discharged on ≥1 daily medication from an urban public hospital. We used McNemar's tests to compare parent perceived (agree/strongly agree on 5-point Likert scale) and actual comprehension (concordance of parent report with medical record) of instructions (domains: medications, appointments, return precautions, and restrictions). Generalized estimating equations were performed to assess associations between low parent health literacy (Newest Vital Sign score ≤3) and plan complexity with overestimation of comprehension. RESULTS:Medication side effects were the domain with lowest perceived comprehension (80%), while >95% of parents perceived comprehension for other domains. Actual comprehension varied by domain (41-87%) and was lower than perceived comprehension. Most (84%) parents overestimated comprehension in ≥1 domain. Plan complexity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.6 [95% CI 2.9-4.7]) and low health literacy (aOR 1.9 [1.3-2.6]) were associated with overestimation of comprehension. CONCLUSIONS:Parental perceived comprehension of discharge instructions overestimated actual comprehension in most domains. Plan complexity and low health literacy were associated with overestimation of comprehension. Future interventions should incorporate assessment of actual comprehension and standardization of discharge instructions.
PMID: 31954854
ISSN: 1876-2867
CID: 4272542

Parents' Use of Technologies for Health Management: A Health Literacy Perspective

Meyers, Nicole; Glick, Alexander F; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Parker, Ruth M; Sanders, Lee M; Wolf, Michael S; Bailey, Stacy; Dreyer, Benard P; Velazquez, Jessica J; Yin, H Shonna
OBJECTIVE:Parent use of technology to manage child health issues has the potential to improve access and health outcomes. Few studies have examined how parent health literacy affects usage of Internet and cell phone technologies for health management. METHODS:Cross-sectional analysis of data collected as part of a randomized controlled experiment in 3 urban pediatric clinics. English- and Spanish-speaking parents (n=858) of children ≤8 years answered questions regarding use of and preferences related to Internet and cell phone technologies. Parent health literacy was measured using the Newest Vital Sign. RESULTS:The majority of parents were high Internet (70.2%) and cell phone (85.1%) utilizers (multiple times a day). 75.1% had limited health literacy (32.1% marginal, 43.0% low). Parents with higher health literacy had greater Internet and cell phone use (adequate vs. low: AOR=1.7[1.2-2.5]) and were more likely to use them for health management (AOR=1.5[1.2-1.8]); those with higher health literacy were more likely to use the Internet for provider communication (adequate vs. marginal vs. low: 25.0 vs. 18.0 vs. 12.0%, p=0.001) and health-related cell phone apps (40.6 vs. 29.7 vs. 16.4%, p<0.001). Overall preference for using technology for provider communication was high (∼70%) and did not differ by health literacy, although Internet and cell phone apps were preferred by higher literacy parents; no differences seen for texting. CONCLUSIONS:Health literacy-associated disparities in parent use of Internet and cell phone technologies exist, but parents' desire for use of these technologies for provider communication was overall high and did not differ by health literacy.
PMID: 30862511
ISSN: 1876-2867
CID: 3733102