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Lower Limb Soft Tissue Mass in a Newborn

Beverstock, Andrew; Glynn, Loretto; Noyola, Estela
PMID: 37122047
ISSN: 1526-3347
CID: 5507922

Nucleated red blood cells as a potential biomarker for predicting spontaneous intestinal perforation in premature infants

O'Neill, Michaela; Katebian, Roia; Shutter, Mollie; Wozniak, Amy; DeChristopher, Phillip J.; Glynn, Loretto; Weiss, Marc G.; Muraskas, Jonathan K.
Background: The specific etiology of spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains elusive. Both can present acutely without antecedent signs and can be difficult to differentiate. Neonatal nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) counts are part of the routine admission and serial CBCs drawn on premature neonates. Elevated NRBC counts could represent relative intrauterine hypoxemia, a possible risk factor for the development of SIP or NEC. Methods: We compared premature neonates with SIP to premature neonates with NEC and controls, matched gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW). Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, or Fisher's exact tests and univariate and multivariate nominal logistic regression models were used to estimate the association of baseline NRBC. Median times to SIP and NEC were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. All analyses were performed with SAS 9.4. Results: Male sex (72.5%), lower GA [Median (Q1, Q3): 25.1 (23.8, 28)], and lower BW [Median (Q1, Q3): 690 g (585, 1072)] had the highest incidence of SIP compared to NEC or controls. Increased baseline NRBC was associated with lower odds of developing NEC compared to controls [Median (Q1, Q3): 9 (5, 29) vs 19 (10, 51); OR (CI) 0.70 (0.55, 0.89), p-value = 0.0033]. Increased baseline NRBC was associated with higher odds of developing SIP compared to NEC [Median (Q1, Q3): 9 (5, 29) vs 19 (10, 51); OR (CI) 1.61 (1.18, 2.20) p-value = 0.0027]. There were no significant differences between intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), maternal hypertension, chorioamnionitis, multiple births, or depressed APGAR scores in all three groups. NRBC for SIP neonates remained significantly higher at the day of life (DOL) 1-3 compared to other groups [Median (Q1, Q3): 23 (6, 93), p-value = 0.0020]. The percentage of patients with NRBC >4, remained elevated for patients with SIP as late as week three (p = 0.0023). Conclusion: ELBW, male sex, and elevated baseline NRBC were significantly associated with the risk of developing SIP compared to NEC or controls. NRBC remained significantly elevated on DOL 1-3, compared to NEC or controls. Between the groups, there were no significant differences in perinatal stressors.
ISSN: 2226-0439
CID: 5461282

Teaching assistant cases in general surgery training - A literature review

Geary, Alaina D; Sanfey, Hilary; Glynn, Loretto; Pernar, Luise I
BACKGROUND:There is a lack of understanding of the scope and purpose of teaching assistant cases, impact on patients and safety, as well as the facilitators or barriers to resident participation in these cases. METHODS:Four databases (PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Education Resources Information Center), were searched. The references of identified resources were additionally hand-searched. 10 articles were identified and considered in the literature review. RESULTS:The TA case literature focuses on case numbers and safety. The discussions of papers allude to perceived benefits of TA cases. The literature review reveals that residents are more likely to be granted TA opportunities if they show themselves worthy of entrustment. CONCLUSIONS:The work elucidates aspects of TA cases that have not previously been emphasized or highlighted. The literature review can serve to inform attending surgeons and trainees how to optimize the opportunities teaching assistant cases can afford.
PMID: 34819229
ISSN: 1879-1883
CID: 5277202

ABO blood group and procoagulant factors: the hypercoagulation hypothesis ABO and Procoagulant Factors

Lai, Angela; Jeske, Walter; Habeeb, Omar; Mooney, Sarah; Levin, Samuel; DeChristopher, Phillip J; Glynn, Loretto A; Muraskas, Jonathan K
BACKGROUND:The correlation between procoagulant levels-factor VIII (FVIII), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and fibrinogen-and risk of thrombosis has been well documented in adult populations. We hypothesize that interaction of passively transferred isoagglutinins in premature neonates with a compromised immune system may trigger an immune response that can target the immature gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study is to evaluate if there are procoagulant level differences in preterm newborns stratified by ABO blood group. METHODS:VWF, FVIII, and fibrinogen levels were analyzed in neonates ≤32 weeks and/or birthweight ≤1500 g over the first 6 weeks of life. Demographic, blood type, and transfusion data were collected. RESULTS:Elevations in vWF and FVIII were found to be statistically significant in the third week of life in non-O neonates vs. type O neonates. FVIII was also found to be significantly elevated in week 1. Transfused neonates also showed elevations between weeks 0 and 3. CONCLUSION:There appears to be a time-dependent variation in procoagulant factor levels in preterm newborns. Although the clinical significance remains unclear, prothrombotic factors vWF and FVIII are significantly higher in non-O blood-type preterm neonates in the third week of life.
PMID: 31158844
ISSN: 1530-0447
CID: 5019602

Staged imaging pathway for the evaluation of pediatric appendicitis

Chien, Ming; Habis, Arie; Glynn, Loretto; O'Connor, Ann; Smith, Tracie L; Prendergast, Francis
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:Despite significant radiation exposure involved with computed tomography (CT) in evaluation of pediatric appendicitis, its use is still widespread. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of a staged imaging pathway for appendicitis to significantly decrease CT use while maintaining diagnostic accuracy. METHODS:Chart review was performed for patients evaluated for appendicitis over a 12-month period prior to and after pathway implementation. RESULTS:There was a significant decrease in CT use as initial imaging after implementation of the pathway; 87.1-13.4 % for evaluations positive for appendicitis (decrease 84.6 %, p < 0.0001) and 82.6-9.2 % for evaluations negative for appendicitis (decrease 88.9 %, p < 0.0001). Use of CT during any point in the evaluation decreased from 91.7 to 25.1 % (decrease 72.6 %, p < 0.0001). The negative appendectomy rate was similar; 5.4 % prior, 4.9 % post (p = 0.955). The missed appendicitis rate did not statistically change; 1.1 % prior, 3.7 % post (p = 0.523). The perforation rate was not statistically altered; 6.5 % prior; 9.8 % post (p = 0.421). 350 less patients underwent CT during the year following the pathway. CONCLUSIONS:The staged imaging pathway resulted in a marked decrease in children exposed to CT without compromising diagnostic accuracy.
PMID: 27142212
ISSN: 1437-9813
CID: 5019592

The relationship between reticulated platelets, intestinal alkaline phosphatase, and necrotizing enterocolitis

Kampanatkosol, Richard; Thomson, Tricia; Habeeb, Omar; Glynn, Loretto; Dechristopher, Phillip J; Yong, Sherri; Jeske, Walter; Maheshwari, Akhil; Muraskas, Jonathan
BACKGROUND:Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) affects up to 10% of extremely-low-birthweight infants, with a 30% mortality rate. Currently, no biomarker reliably facilitates early diagnosis. Since thrombocytopenia and bowel ischemia are consistent findings in advanced NEC, we prospectively investigated two potential biomarkers: reticulated platelets (RP) and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (iAP). METHODS:Infants born ≤ 32 weeks and/or ≤ 1500 g were prospectively enrolled from 2009 to 2012. Starting within 72 hours of birth, 5 weekly whole blood specimens were collected to measure RP and serum iAP. Additional specimens were obtained at NEC onset (Bell stage II or III) and 24 hours later. Dichotomous cut-points were calculated for both biomarkers. Non-parametric (Mann-Whitney) and Chi-square tests were used to test differences between groups. Differences in Kaplan-Meier curves were examined by log-rank test. The Cox proportional hazards model estimated hazard ratios. RESULTS:A total of 177 infants were enrolled in the study, 15 (8.5%) of which developed NEC (40% required surgery and 20% died). 14 (93%) NEC infants had "low" (≤ 2.3%) reticulated platelets, and 9 (60%) had "high" iAP (>0 U/L) in at least one sample before onset. Infants with "low" RP were significantly more likely to develop NEC [HR=11.0 (1.4-83); P=0.02]. Infants with "high" iAP were at increased risk for NEC, although not significant [HR=5.2 (0.7-42); P=0.12]. Median iAP levels were significantly higher at week 4 preceding the average time to NEC onset by one week (35.7 ± 17.3 days; P=0.02). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Decreased RP serves as a sensitive marker for NEC onset, thereby enabling early preventative strategies. iAP overexpression may signal NEC development.
PMID: 24528965
ISSN: 1531-5037
CID: 5019582

Splenic torsion after congenital diaphragmatic hernia repair: case report and review of the literature [Case Report]

Mehta, Anupama; Vana, Paul Geoffrey; Glynn, Loretto
Wandering spleen with torsion, a rare clinical diagnosis, was found to be the cause of chronic abdominal pain in an 11-year-old female with a history of congenital diaphragmatic hernia repaired at three days of age. Doppler ultrasound revealed patent vessels with splenomegaly, and computed tomography (CT) showed an absence of the spleen in the left subphrenic space with torsion at the splenic hilum. Due to the chronicity of pain and risk of ischemia from torsion, open splenopexy with Vicryl mesh was performed. This case report/review of the literature discusses the rarity of this condition, and the importance of timely diagnosis and intervention.
PMID: 23480945
ISSN: 1531-5037
CID: 5019572

Outcomes research in pediatric surgery. Part 1: overview and resources

Abdullah, Fizan; Ortega, Gezzer; Islam, Saleem; Barnhart, Douglas C; St Peter, Shawn D; Lee, Steven L; Glynn, Loretto; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Arca, Marjorie J; Chang, David C
Outcomes research in pediatric surgery can be defined as the analysis of pediatric surgical outcomes and their predictors at different levels in the health care delivery system. The objectives of this article are to understand the differences between outcomes research and clinical trials as well as to gain familiarity with public multispecialty and specialty-specific databases. The utility of outcomes research extends to benchmarking the quality of care, refinement of management strategies, patient education, and marketing. Assessment of the integration of a new surgical technique into the health care system is best determined by examining a population-based registry, whereas comparative efficacy of surgical procedures is best assessed by randomized clinical trials. In the first part of this 2-part series, an overview and brief outline of available resources for outcomes research in pediatric surgery are reviewed. In part 2, a template is presented on how to structure and design an outcomes research question.
PMID: 21238672
ISSN: 1531-5037
CID: 5019562

Handlebar injuries in children: should we raise the bar of suspicion? [Case Report]

Mezhir, James J; Glynn, Loretto; Liu, Donald C; Statter, Mindy B
Injury prevention strategies for child bicyclists have focused on helmet use to prevent head trauma. Handlebars are another source of injury. A retrospective review from 2005 identified 385 admissions to a Level 1 pediatric trauma center of which 23 (5.9%) were pedal cyclists. Four cases (<1.0%) of handlebar injuries were identified. Three children (two bicyclists, one riding a scooter) sustained handlebar impact to the neck. All children with neck injuries had subcutaneous emphysema. Two of the children had pneumomediastinum, which after work-up was managed nonoperatively. One child had a tracheal injury requiring operative intervention. Another child was struck in the upper abdomen resulting in a traumatic abdominal wall hernia requiring emergent exploration and hernia repair. Discordance exists between the apparently minor circumstances of handlebar trauma and the severity of injury sustained by bicyclists. Recognizing the mechanism of handlebar-related injuries and maintaining a high index of suspicion for visceral injuries aids in the diagnosis. The incidence of these injuries is underestimated due to insufficient documentation of the circumstances of injury events and a lack of applicable E-codes specific for handlebar injury.
PMID: 17879690
ISSN: 0003-1348
CID: 5019552

The umbilical mass: a rare neonatal anomaly [Case Report]

Carlisle, Erica M; Mezhir, James J; Glynn, Loretto; Liu, Donald C; Statter, Mindy B
Umbilical anomalies are a rare presentation in the pediatric patient. The differential diagnosis includes anomalies resulting from urachal and vitelline duct derivatives such as urachal sinus, urachal cyst, urachal diverticulum, patent urachus, herniated Meckel's diverticulum, umbilico-enteric fistula, or umbilical polyp. In this article, a case presentation of an umbilical anomaly along with the differential diagnosis and management options are discussed. Based upon this review of the literature, the authors propose a management algorithm for treating children with umbilical anomalies.
PMID: 17641925
ISSN: 0179-0358
CID: 5019542