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Metacarpal index and bone mineral density in healthy African-American women

Shepherd, J A; Meta, M; Landau, J; Sherrer, Y S R; Goddard, D H; Ovalle, M I; Rosholm, A; Genant, H K
Bone mineral density (BMD) reference data of non-Caucasian women is scarce but greatly needed for African-American women. The objective of this study was to establish a metacarpal normative reference database for African-American women using digital X-ray radiogrammetry (DXR) and hand radiographs and compare these values to existing Caucasian data. Two hundred and fifty healthy African-American women between the ages of 20 and 79 years old, 14 of whom were excluded, were recruited to participate from four different clinical sites. The study population was recruited in approximately equal number into the following groups: 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and 70-79 years of age. A radiograph was acquired of each subject's non-dominant hand. The radiographs were scanned and analyzed using radiogrammetric techniques, and the BMD, MCI (Metacarpal Index), bone width and cortical thickness were calculated. The regression curve that best fit the data was a second order polynomial. The BMD and MCI of young adult women (20-40 years of age) were used to calculate T-score parameters. The young reference BMD and MCI with their associated standard deviations were found to be 0.6045 g/cm2+/-0.0529 g/cm2 and 0.5096 and 0.0792, respectively. However, the MCI was found to be approximately 2.5% lower (-0.0118) compared to Caucasian women. The African-American metacarpal BMD was found to be 3.5% (0.0207 g/cm2) higher across all ages when compared to existing Caucasian reference data acquired in a similar way. The differences were found to be entirely due to larger bone size, cortical diameter and bone width in the African-American women
PMID: 15947863
ISSN: 0937-941x
CID: 142600

Phospholipase A2 activating protein induces tumor regression

Goddard, D H; Bomalaski, J S; Clark, M A
There has been increasing interest in attempts to harness the body's normal inflammatory response mediated through the eicosanoid pathway to treat tumors. Accumulating data indicate that the growth of several different cancers is modulated by a group of pro-inflammatory bioactive lipids, the best known of which are the eicosanoids. Eicosanoid pathway constituents modulate cell function in several important ways, and an agent that activates PLA(2) and up-regulates LTB(4) levels could be expected to be an effective cytotoxic tumor agent, especially if it stimulated NK cells. PLAP is a 28-kDa polypeptide that is a member of the WD-repeat protein, G-protein-transducin superfamily. The pro-inflammatory properties of PLAP have been elucidated using a number of different approaches. PLAP has been found in inflamed tissues and synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Based on knowledge of PLAP as a pro-inflammatory agent, its capacity to modulate the immune response and the role of the inflammatory and immune responses in immune surveillance, the role of PLAP in cancer therapy was explored. Significant tumor regression was observed 72 hours following a single treatment with PLAP in an animal air pouch model of glioma. PEG-PLAP treatment increased the life expectancy of animals with Lewis lung cancer, and in preliminary studies in MTVL breast tumors in mice, PLAP treatment resulted in a similar increase in life expectancy. These findings suggest that PLAP holds promise as a potential therapy for cancer, and warrants further study
PMID: 15616658
ISSN: 0214-0934
CID: 142601

Nonphotochemical, Polarization-Dependent, Laser-Induced Nucleation in Supersaturated Aqueous Urea Solutions

Garetz; Aber; Goddard; Young; Myerson
PMID: 10062229
ISSN: 1079-7114
CID: 1726022

Phospholipase A2-mediated inflammation induces regression of malignant gliomas

Goddard, D H; Bomalaski, J S; Lipper, S; Shorr, R G; Clark, M A
An ideal form of cancer therapy is the harnessing of innate immunity to eradicate spontaneously arising clones of malignant cells. To date, attempts to develop effective immunotherapies have met with limited success. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes, collectively known as eicosanoids, are important mediators of immune and inflammatory responses. Harnessing these compounds could be a method to treat cancers. Eicosanoids are formed after cleavage of fatty acids from phospholipids by phospholipase enzymes. We have previously described, characterized and cloned a naturally occurring mammalian activator of phospholipase A2. Injection of a 24 amino acid peptide from this phospholipase A2 activating protein (PLAP), resulted in induction of an acute inflammatory response, and a concomitant regression of gliomas in rats. Administration of 500 micrograms of this protein resulted in a 50% decrease of the tumor mass within 72 h. Tumor regression coincided with a greater than twenty-fold increase in levels of prostaglandin E2(PGE2) and leukotriene B4(LTB4), and a marked infiltration of natural killer(NK) cells. These data suggest that activation of phospholipase A2 and modulation of the eicosanoid biosynthetic pathway may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the successful treatment of malignant tumors of the nervous system
PMID: 8603356
ISSN: 0304-3835
CID: 142602

Regulation of synovial cell growth. Coexpression of transforming growth factor beta and basic fibroblast growth factor by cultured synovial cells

Goddard, D H; Grossman, S L; Williams, W V; Weiner, D B; Gross, J L; Eidsvoog, K; Dasch, J R
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) by cultured rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial cells and to investigate their role as synovial cell mitogens. METHODS: Polypeptide growth factors were detected and identified by immunocytochemical staining and Western blot analysis. Messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts encoding TGF beta and bFGF were identified by polymerase chain reaction analysis. The influence of neutralizing growth factor monoclonal antibodies (MAb) on RA synovial cell growth was investigated. TGF beta bioactivity was determined by Mv1Lu assay. RESULTS: Lysates of RA, as compared with normal, synovial cells contained greater amounts of TGF beta and bFGF. Western blot analysis identified a single TGF beta band (MW approximately 25 kd) in each of the cell lysates examined. Western blot analysis using MAb DE6 identified a doublet of bFGF bands (MW approximately 18.0 kd) in normal synovial cell lysates and 4 bFGF bands (MW approximately 18.0, 22.0, 22.6, and 25.2 kd) in RA synovial cell lysates. RA and normal synovial cells expressed mRNA transcripts encoding TGF beta 1 but not TGF beta 2, and FGF-2 (basic FGF). Additional mRNA transcripts encoding FGF-5 and FGF-7 were expressed by RA, but not normal, synovial cells in culture. In contrast to MAb 1D11.16, which caused a dose-dependent decrease in RA synovial cell growth, MAb DG2 (up to 100 micrograms/ml) had no effect on cell growth. CONCLUSION: RA and normal synovial cells cultured in serum-free medium express TGF beta 1 and native bFGF. However, only RA synovial cells in culture express higher molecular weight isoforms of bFGF. TGF beta 1 appears to regulate synovial cell growth in vitro through an external autocrine loop. Despite expression of high-affinity bFGF receptors on cultured synovial cells, the mechanisms by which bFGF modulates synovial cell growth are unknown
PMID: 1445445
ISSN: 0004-3591
CID: 142603

Regulation of synovial cell growth: basic fibroblast growth factor synergizes with interleukin 1 beta stimulating phospholipase A2 enzyme activity, phospholipase A2 activating protein production and release of prostaglandin E2 by rheumatoid arthritis synovial cells in culture

Goddard, D H; Grossman, S L; Newton, R; Clark, M A; Bomalaski, J S
Cytokines have been implicated in the regulation of eicosanoid synthesis and synovial cell proliferation. To further define these mechanisms, we have compared the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor on cell growth, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production and phospholipase A2 enzyme activity in long-term cultures of synovial cells from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients capable of proliferating in serum-free medium. Compared with serum-free medium alone, RA synovial cell growth was significantly enhanced by adding either basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to the culture medium. Growing RA synovial cells for 14 days in serum-free medium plus bFGF caused them to spontaneously release significant amounts of PGE2, an effect not seen if cells were grown in serum-free medium alone, or serum-free medium plus PDGF. Enhanced release of PGE2 occurred when arachidonic acid was added to bFGF but not PDGF-treated RA synovial cells, suggesting that bFGF increased cyclooxygenase enzyme activity in these cells. Moreover, phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzyme activity was found to be significantly greater in RA synovial cells grown for 14 days in serum-free medium containing bFGF alone, or bFGF plus interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) compared with cells grown in either serum-free medium alone, or serum-free medium plus PDGF. Similarly, bFGF plus IL-1 beta-stimulated release of PLA2 activating protein, a novel mammalian phospholipase stimulator found in high concentrations in RA synovial fluid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
PMID: 1420999
ISSN: 1043-4666
CID: 142604

Regulation of synovial cell growth by polypeptide growth factors

Goddard, D H
In vitro, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial cells display several of the characteristics of neoplastic and virally transformed cells. The recent observation that synovial cell cultures, derived from collagenase digests of synovial membranes from RA patients, proliferate in serum-free medium suggests that these cells have the capacity to synthesize those factors essential for their growth. Direct immunocytochemical staining and Western analysis have identified transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) band and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in the cytoplasm of RA and normal synovial cells in long-term culture. Greater amounts of each growth factor were found in RA, as compared with normal synovial cell lysates. Western analysis identified a single TGF-beta band in RA and normal synovial cell lysates. Four bands were identified by Western analysis on RA synovial cell lysates probed with monoclonal antibodies recognizing bFGF, whereas only two bands (which co-migrated with human native recombinant bFGF) were identified in normal cell lysates probed with these antibodies. Gene expression analysis using PCR identified mRNA transcripts encoding TGF-beta 1 and FGF-2 (bFGF), but not TGF-beta 2 in all cell cultures studied. Taken together, these data indicate that cultured synovial cells co-express TGF-beta 1 and multiple isoforms of hFGF. These data further strengthen the concept that both polypeptide growth factors are involved in the regulation of synovial cell growth
PMID: 1567559
ISSN: 1044-5498
CID: 142605

Polypeptide growth factors augment interleukin 1-induced release of prostaglandin E2 by rheumatoid arthritis synovial cells in vitro

Goddard, D H; Grossman, S L; Newton, R
When stimulated with increasing amounts of interleukin 1 beta (IL 1 beta) rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as compared with osteoarthritis (OA), synovial cells grown in RPMI plus fetal bovine serum (FBS), released significantly more prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (p less than 0.05; paired t test, two-tailed). PGE2 release by IL 1 beta-stimulated RA synovial cells grown for 14 days in serum-free RPMI was significantly less than that released by the same cells grown in medium plus 10% FBS (p less than 0.03; two-tailed). Since these data suggest that growth factors present in FBS may augment the effects of IL 1 beta, experiments were conducted to study the influence of four polypeptide growth factors--transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), on IL 1 beta-induced release of PGE2 by cultured RA synovial cells. Both EGF and bFGF significantly enhanced IL 1 beta-induced release of PGE2 (p less than 0.05; paired t test, one-tailed), while PDGF was synergistic with IL 1 beta, significantly increasing release of PGE2 by these cultured cells (p less than 0.02; two-tailed). No such effect was seen when TGF-beta was added to the culture medium. Taken together, these data lend support to the concept that within the synovial micro-environment small quantities of individual growth factors may potentiate the effects of IL 1 beta to amplify intra-articular inflammation
PMID: 2104229
ISSN: 1043-4666
CID: 142606

Autocrine regulation of rheumatoid arthritis synovial cell growth in vitro

Goddard, D H; Grossman, S L; Moore, M E
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and not osteoarthritis (OA) synovial cells proliferate in serum-free medium, a finding that suggests that, in vitro, RA synovial cells may be stimulated to grow by the continuous autocrine production of at least one polypeptide growth factor. Adding monoclonal antibody 1D11.16, or rabbit polyclonal anti-tumor growth factor beta (anti-TGF-beta) antibodies (both neutralizing antibodies to TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2) to RA synovial cells, in culture, caused a significant reduction in cell growth, an effect not seen when other growth factor antibodies (platelet-derived growth factor [PDGF], epidermal growth factor [EGF], or EGF receptor) were added to the culture medium. Taken together, these data are consistent with the concept that RA synovial cell growth in vitro is driven endogenous TGF-beta. Moreover, when EGF was added to the culture medium, this caused the numbers of RA, and not OA, synovial cells to increase significantly. This finding suggests that RA synovial cells are in G1 phase of the cell cycle; an effect that could be mediated by endogenous TGF-beta
PMID: 2104218
ISSN: 1043-4666
CID: 142607

Common tests for rheumatoid factors: poorly standardized but ubiquitous

Goddard, D H; Moore, M E
Rheumatoid factor (RF) test results reported in the College of American Pathologists' surveys for 1983-1985 lacked inter-laboratory reliability and mutual validity. Using the 4 most popular commercial kits for RF testing, participating laboratories consistently identified as 'positive' or 'negative' all but the weakly positive samples. A wide range of titers was reported on qualitative testing, however. One popular kit using a modified sheep red blood cell agglutination technique yielded results that differed markedly from those with other kits. Investigators apparently have paid little attention to these discrepancies. In Arthritis & Rheumatism, from 1983 to 1985, over 50% of the articles that referred directly or indirectly to RFs omitted details of RF methodology. Until a reliable RF test is adopted, it is essential that such methodologic information be specified
PMID: 3358805
ISSN: 0004-3591
CID: 142608