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CD36-mediated metabolic adaptation supports regulatory T cell survival and function in tumors

Wang, Haiping; Franco, Fabien; Tsui, Yao-Chen; Xie, Xin; Trefny, Marcel P; Zappasodi, Roberta; Mohmood, Syed Raza; Fernández-García, Juan; Tsai, Chin-Hsien; Schulze, Isabell; Picard, Florence; Meylan, Etienne; Silverstein, Roy; Goldberg, Ira; Fendt, Sarah-Maria; Wolchok, Jedd D; Merghoub, Taha; Jandus, Camilla; Zippelius, Alfred; Ho, Ping-Chih
Depleting regulatory T cells (Treg cells) to counteract immunosuppressive features of the tumor microenvironment (TME) is an attractive strategy for cancer treatment; however, autoimmunity due to systemic impairment of their suppressive function limits its therapeutic potential. Elucidating approaches that specifically disrupt intratumoral Treg cells is direly needed for cancer immunotherapy. We found that CD36 was selectively upregulated in intrautumoral Treg cells as a central metabolic modulator. CD36 fine-tuned mitochondrial fitness via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β signaling, programming Treg cells to adapt to a lactic acid-enriched TME. Genetic ablation of Cd36 in Treg cells suppressed tumor growth accompanied by a decrease in intratumoral Treg cells and enhancement of antitumor activity in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes without disrupting immune homeostasis. Furthermore, CD36 targeting elicited additive antitumor responses with anti-programmed cell death protein 1 therapy. Our findings uncover the unexplored metabolic adaptation that orchestrates the survival and functions of intratumoral Treg cells, and the therapeutic potential of targeting this pathway for reprogramming the TME.
PMID: 32066953
ISSN: 1529-2916
CID: 4312102

A dual apolipoprotein C-II mimetic-apolipoprotein C-III antagonist peptide lowers plasma triglycerides

Wolska, Anna; Lo, Larry; Sviridov, Denis O; Pourmousa, Mohsen; Pryor, Milton; Ghosh, Soumitra S; Kakkar, Rahul; Davidson, Michael; Wilson, Sierra; Pastor, Richard W; Goldberg, Ira J; Basu, Debapriya; Drake, Steven K; Cougnoux, Antony; Wu, Ming Jing; Neher, Saskia B; Freeman, Lita A; Tang, Jingrong; Amar, Marcelo; Devalaraja, Matt; Remaley, Alan T
Recent genetic studies have established that hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is causally related to cardiovascular disease, making it an active area for drug development. We describe a strategy for lowering triglycerides (TGs) with an apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) mimetic peptide called D6PV that activates lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the main plasma TG-hydrolyzing enzyme, and antagonizes the TG-raising effect of apoC-III. The design of D6PV was motivated by a combination of all-atom molecular dynamics simulation of apoC-II on the Anton 2 supercomputer, structural prediction programs, and biophysical techniques. Efficacy of D6PV was assessed ex vivo in human HTG plasma and was found to be more potent than full-length apoC-II in activating LPL. D6PV markedly lowered TG by more than 80% within a few hours in both apoC-II-deficient mice and hAPOC3-transgenic (Tg) mice. In hAPOC3-Tg mice, D6PV treatment reduced plasma apoC-III by 80% and apoB by 65%. Furthermore, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol did not accumulate but rather was decreased by 10% when hAPOC3-Tg mice lacking the LDL-receptor (hAPOC3-Tg × Ldlr-/- ) were treated with the peptide. D6PV lowered TG by 50% in whole-body inducible Lpl knockout (iLpl-/- ) mice, confirming that it can also act independently of LPL. D6PV displayed good subcutaneous bioavailability of about 80% in nonhuman primates. Because it binds to high-density lipoproteins, which serve as a long-term reservoir, it also has an extended terminal half-life (42 to 50 hours) in nonhuman primates. In summary, D6PV decreases plasma TG by acting as a dual apoC-II mimetic and apoC-III antagonist, thereby demonstrating its potential as a treatment for HTG.
PMID: 31996466
ISSN: 1946-6242
CID: 4294262

Atherosclerosis: Making a U Turn

Goldberg, Ira J; Sharma, Gaurav; Fisher, Edward A
The development of potent cholesterol-reducing medications in the last decade of the twentieth century has altered the approach to prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Initial experience with statins, and more recently with the addition of PCSK9 inhibitors, has proven that human CVD, like that in animal models, can be halted and regressed. Available clinical data show that the lower the achieved level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the greater the regression of disease. Investigative studies are now aimed to understand those factors that both accelerate and impede this healing process. Some of these are likely to be modifiable, and the future of atherosclerotic CVD treatment is likely to be early screening, use of measures to repair atherosclerotic arteries, and prevention of most CVD events.
PMID: 31986087
ISSN: 1545-326x
CID: 4293952

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol efflux capacity is not associated with atherosclerosis and prevalence of cardiovascular outcome: The CODAM study

Josefs, Tatjana; Wouters, Kristiaan; Tietge, Uwe J F; Annema, Wijtske; Dullaart, Robin P F; Vaisar, Tomas; Arts, Ilja C W; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Goldberg, Ira J; Fisher, Edward A; van Greevenbroek, Marleen M J
BACKGROUND:Cholesterol Efflux Capacity (CEC) is considered to be a key atheroprotective property of high-density lipoproteins (HDL). However, the role of HDL-CEC in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular (CV) risk is still controversial, and data in individuals with diabetes are limited. OBJECTIVE:In this study, we have investigated the relationship of CEC and other HDL characteristics with clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis in subjects with elevated cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). METHODS:Using multiple linear regression analyses, we determined the relationship of HDL-CEC with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT, Z-Score), an endothelial dysfunction (EnD) Score (Z-Score), prevalent CVD (n = 150 cases) and history of CV events (CVE, n = 85 cases) in an observational cohort (CODAM, n = 574, 59.6 ± 0.3 yr, 61.3% men, 24.4% T2DM). Stratified analyses were performed to determine if the associations differed between individuals with normal glucose metabolism (NGM) and those with disturbed glucose metabolism. RESULTS: = .074 and .034, respectively), but not in those with NGM. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:HDL-CEC is not associated with clinical or subclinical atherosclerosis, neither in the whole population nor in individuals with (pre)diabetes, while other HDL characteristics show atheroprotective associations. The atheroprotective associations of HDL-size and HDL-P are lost in (pre)diabetes, while higher concentrations of HDL-C and apoA-I are associated with a lower prevalence of CVD in (pre)diabetes.
PMID: 31791716
ISSN: 1933-2874
CID: 4271582

Continuous Glucose Monitor Predicts Glycemic Variability in High-Risk Individuals with HbA1c < 5.7% [Meeting Abstract]

Dorcely, Brenda; Sifonte, Eliud; Divakaran, Anjana; Katz, Karin; Jagannathan, Ram; Goldberg, Ira J.; Bergman, Michael
ISI:000554509802111
ISSN: 0012-1797
CID: 4604612

Endothelial cell CD36 deficiency prevents normal angiogenesis and vascular repair

Bou Khzam, Lara; Son, Ni-Huiping; Mullick, Adam E; Abumrad, Nada A; Goldberg, Ira J
Endothelial cells (ECs) maintain vascular integrity and mediate vascular repair and angiogenesis, by which new blood vessels are formed from pre-existing blood vessels. Hyperglycemia has been shown to increase EC angiogenic potential. However, few studies have investigated effects of fatty acids (FAs) on EC angiogenesis. Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is a FA transporter expressed by ECs, but its role in EC proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis is unknown. We sought to determine if circulating FAs regulate angiogenic function in a CD36-dependent manner. CD36-dependent effects of FAs on EC proliferation and migration of mouse heart ECs (MHECs) and lung ECs (MLECs) were studied. We used both silencing RNA and antisense oligonucleotides to reduce CD36 expression. Oleic acid (OA) did not affect EC proliferation, but significantly increased migration of ECs in wound healing experiments. CD36 knockdown prevented OA-induced increases in wound healing potential. In EC transwell migration experiments, OA increased recruitment and migration of ECs, an effect abolished by CD36 knockdown. Phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) increased in MHECs exposed to OA in a CD36-dependent manner. To test whether in vivo CD36 affects angiogenesis, we studied 21-day recovery in post-hindlimb ischemia. EC-specific CD36 knockout mice had reduced blood flow recovery as assessed by laser Doppler imaging. EC content in post-ischemic muscle, assessed from CD31 expression, increased in ischemic muscle of control mice. However, mice with EC-specific CD36 deletion lacked the increase in CD31 and matrix metalloprotease 9 expression observed in controls. EC expression of CD36 and its function in FA uptake modulate angiogenic function and response to ischemia, likely due to reduced activation of the AMPK pathway.
PMCID:7791529
PMID: 33437358
ISSN: 1943-8141
CID: 4771472

Glucose lowering by SGLT2-inhibitor empagliflozin accelerates atherosclerosis regression in hyperglycemic STZ-diabetic mice

Pennig, Jan; Scherrer, Philipp; Gissler, Mark Colin; Anto-Michel, Nathaly; Hoppe, Natalie; Füner, Lisa; Härdtner, Carmen; Stachon, Peter; Wolf, Dennis; Hilgendorf, Ingo; Mullick, Adam; Bode, Christoph; Zirlik, Andreas; Goldberg, Ira J; Willecke, Florian
Diabetes worsens atherosclerosis progression and leads to a defect in repair of arteries after cholesterol reduction, a process termed regression. Empagliflozin reduces blood glucose levels via inhibition of the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) in the kidney and has been shown to lead to a marked reduction in cardiovascular events in humans. To determine whether glucose lowering by empagliflozin accelerates atherosclerosis regression in a mouse model, male C57BL/6J mice were treated intraperitoneally with LDLR- and SRB1- antisense oligonucleotides and fed a high cholesterol diet for 16 weeks to induce severe hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis progression. At week 14 all mice were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (STZ) injections. At week 16 a baseline group was sacrificed and displayed substantial atherosclerosis of the aortic root. In the remaining mice, plasma cholesterol was lowered by switching to chow diet and treatment with LDLR sense oligonucleotides to induce atherosclerosis regression. These mice then received either empagliflozin or vehicle for three weeks. Atherosclerotic plaques in the empagliflozin treated mice were significantly smaller, showed decreased lipid and CD68+ macrophage content, as well as greater collagen content. Proliferation of plaque resident macrophages and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular wall were significantly decreased in empagliflozin-treated mice. In summary, plasma glucose lowering by empagliflozin improves plaque regression in diabetic mice.
PMID: 31784656
ISSN: 2045-2322
CID: 4216342

Apolipoprotein AI) Promotes Atherosclerosis Regression in Diabetic Mice by Suppressing Myelopoiesis and Plaque Inflammation

Barrett, Tessa J; Distel, Emilie; Murphy, Andrew J; Hu, Jiyuan; Garshick, Michael S; Ogando, Yoscar; Liu, Jianhua; Vaisar, Tomas; Heinecke, Jay W; Berger, Jeffrey S; Goldberg, Ira J; Fisher, Edward A
BACKGROUND:Despite robust cholesterol lowering, cardiovascular disease risk remains increased in patients with diabetes mellitus. Consistent with this, diabetes mellitus impairs atherosclerosis regression after cholesterol lowering in humans and mice. In mice, this is attributed in part to hyperglycemia-induced monocytosis, which increases monocyte entry into plaques despite cholesterol lowering. In addition, diabetes mellitus skews plaque macrophages toward an atherogenic inflammatory M1 phenotype instead of toward the atherosclerosis-resolving M2 state typical with cholesterol lowering. Functional high-density lipoprotein (HDL), typically low in patients with diabetes mellitus, reduces monocyte precursor proliferation in murine bone marrow and has anti-inflammatory effects on human and murine macrophages. Our study aimed to test whether raising functional HDL levels in diabetic mice prevents monocytosis, reduces the quantity and inflammation of plaque macrophages, and enhances atherosclerosis regression after cholesterol lowering. METHODS:mice were transplanted into either wild-type, diabetic wild-type, or diabetic mice transgenic for human apolipoprotein AI, which have elevated functional HDL. Recipient mice all had low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to promote plaque regression. After 2 weeks, plaques in recipient mouse aortic grafts were examined. RESULTS:Diabetic wild-type mice had impaired atherosclerosis regression, which was normalized by raising HDL levels. This benefit was linked to suppressed hyperglycemia-driven myelopoiesis, monocytosis, and neutrophilia. Increased HDL improved cholesterol efflux from bone marrow progenitors, suppressing their proliferation and monocyte and neutrophil production capacity. In addition to reducing circulating monocytes available for recruitment into plaques, in the diabetic milieu, HDL suppressed the general recruitability of monocytes to inflammatory sites and promoted plaque macrophage polarization to the M2, atherosclerosis-resolving state. There was also a decrease in plaque neutrophil extracellular traps, which are atherogenic and increased by diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSIONS:Raising apolipoprotein AI and functional levels of HDL promotes multiple favorable changes in the production of monocytes and neutrophils and in the inflammatory environment of atherosclerotic plaques of diabetic mice after cholesterol lowering and may represent a novel approach to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in people with diabetes mellitus.
PMID: 31567014
ISSN: 1524-4539
CID: 4115962

Cardiac myocyte KLF5 regulates body weight via alteration of cardiac FGF21

Pol, Christine J; Pollak, Nina M; Jurczak, Michael J; Zacharia, Effimia; Karagiannides, Iordanes; Kyriazis, Ioannis D; Ntziachristos, Panagiotis; Scerbo, Diego A; Brown, Brett R; Aifantis, Iannis; Shulman, Gerald I; Goldberg, Ira J; Drosatos, Konstantinos
Cardiac metabolism affects systemic energetic balance. Previously, we showed that Krüppel-like factor (KLF)-5 regulates cardiomyocyte PPARα and fatty acid oxidation-related gene expression in diabetes. We surprisingly found that cardiomyocyte-specific KLF5 knockout mice (αMHC-KLF5-/-) have accelerated diet-induced obesity, associated with increased white adipose tissue (WAT). Alterations in cardiac expression of the mediator complex subunit 13 (Med13) modulates obesity. αMHC-KLF5-/- mice had reduced cardiac Med13 expression likely because KLF5 upregulates Med13 expression in cardiomyocytes. We then investigated potential mechanisms that mediate cross-talk between cardiomyocytes and WAT. High fat diet-fed αMHC-KLF5-/- mice had increased levels of cardiac and plasma FGF21, while food intake, activity, plasma leptin, and natriuretic peptides expression were unchanged. Consistent with studies reporting that FGF21 signaling in WAT decreases sumoylation-driven PPARγ inactivation, αMHC-KLF5-/- mice had less SUMO-PPARγ in WAT. Increased diet-induced obesity found in αMHC-KLF5-/- mice was absent in αMHC-[KLF5-/-;FGF21-/-] double knockout mice, as well as in αMHC-FGF21-/- mice that we generated. Thus, cardiomyocyte-derived FGF21 is a component of pro-adipogenic crosstalk between heart and WAT.
PMID: 31029826
ISSN: 1879-260x
CID: 3854292

Corrigendum to "Glycemic Reduction Alters White Blood Cell Counts and Inflammatory Gene Expression in Diabetes" [Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations Volume 32, Issue 11, November 2018, Pages 1027-1034]

Fang, Xiang; Dorcely, Brenda; Ding, Xi-Ping; Yin, Shi; Son, Ni-Huiping; Hu, Shi-Lian; Goldberg, Ira J
PMID: 31401988
ISSN: 1873-460x
CID: 4043132