First International Consensus Report on Adnexal Masses: Management Recommendations
The First International Consensus Conference on Adnexal Masses was convened to thoroughly examine the state of the science and to formulate recommendations for clinical assessment and management. The panel included representatives of societies in the fields of gynecology, gynecologic oncology, radiology, and pathology and clinicians from Europe, Canada, and the United States. In the United States, there are approximately 9.1 surgeries per malignancy compared to the European International Ovarian Tumor Analysis center trials, with only 2.3 (oncology centers) and 5.9 (other centers) reported surgeries per malignancy, suggesting that there is room to improve our preoperative assessments. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Practice Bulletin on "Management of Adnexal Masses," reaffirmed in 2015 (Obstet Gynecol 2007; 110:201-214), still states, "With the exception of simple cysts on a transvaginal ultrasound finding, most pelvic masses in postmenopausal women will require surgical intervention." The panel concluded that patients would benefit not only from a more conservative approach to many benign adnexal masses but also from optimization of physician referral patterns to a gynecologic oncologist in cases of suspected ovarian malignancies. A number of next-step options were offered to aid in management of cases with sonographically indeterminate adnexal masses. This process would provide an opportunity to improve risk stratification for indeterminate masses via the provision of alternatives, including but not limited to evidence-based risk-assessment algorithms and referral to an "expert sonologist" or to a gynecologic oncologist. The panel believed that these efforts to improve clinical management and preoperative triage patterns would ultimately improve patient care.
Modern evaluation of the endometrium
Abnormal uterine bleeding in women older than age 35 years, and certainly in menopausal patients, mandates evaluation, mainly to exclude cancer and hyperplasia, but also to better diagnose the source of the bleeding to appropriately manage the patient. In the past, dilation and curettage was the mainstay of diagnosis. This gave way to in-office suction pump-generated biopsies. Most recently, disposable biopsy instruments with their own internal piston to generate suction have become the standard of care. Rarely has such a technique received such widespread acceptance with such limited validation. Transvaginal ultrasonography, when technically feasible, is a noninvasive way to image the endometrial cavity. Saline-infusion sonohysterography is a subset of transvaginal ultrasonography reserved for patients in whom an adequate endometrial echo is not seen or when an endometrial echo is seen but not sufficiently thin. Appropriate understanding and use of transvaginal ultrasonography and addition of sonohysterography when necessary can allow a clinical algorithm that can triage patients with abnormal uterine bleeding to 1) no anatomic pathology best treated expectantly; 2) a global endometrial process, in which case random blind endometrial sampling is appropriate; or 3) a focal endometrial abnormality in which case endometrial sampling should be done with the visualization offered by hysteroscopy. Finally, the incidence of thick endometrial echo found incidentally in postmenopausal women with no bleeding is extremely high (10-17%) and should not trigger invasive endometrial sampling automatically
The conundrum of asymptomatic adnexal masses: a clinician's opinion [Editorial]
Gynecologic Teleultrasound and COVID-19: Is There a Connection?
Oral Ibrexafungerp for Vulvovaginal Candidiasis Treatment: An Analysis of VANISH 303 and VANISH 306
Sarcopenic obesity: a double whammy [Comment]
Proving microcystic ultrasound appearance of borderline ovarian tumors by three-dimensional 'silhouette' rendering
Skin, hair and beyond: the impact of menopause
The skin is an endocrine organ and a major target of hormones such as estrogens, androgens and cortisol. Besides vasomotor symptoms (VMS), skin and hair symptoms often receive less attention than other menopausal symptoms despite having a significant negative effect on quality of life. Skin and mucosal menopausal symptoms include dryness and pruritus, thinning and atrophy, wrinkles and sagging, poor wound healing and reduced vascularity, whereas skin premalignant and malignant lesions and skin aging signs are almost exclusively caused by environmental factors, especially solar radiation. Hair menopausal symptoms include reduced hair growth and density on the scalp (diffuse effluvium due to follicular rarefication and/or androgenetic alopecia of female pattern), altered hair quality and structure, and increased unwanted hair growth on facial areas. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is not indicated for skin and hair symptoms alone due to the risk-benefit balance, but wider potential benefits of HRT (beyond estrogen's effect on VMS, bone, breast, heart and blood vessels) to include skin, hair and mucosal benefits should be discussed with women so that they will be able to make the best possible informed decisions on how to prevent or manage their menopausal symptoms.
Uterine incision closure: Is it the culprit in the cesarean scar niche and related complications?
Bone health 2022: an update [Editorial]