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Evaluation of the SSTR2-targeted radiopharmaceutical 177Lu-DOTATATE and SSTR2-specific 68Ga-DOTATATE PET as imaging biomarker in patients with intracranial meningioma

Kurz, Sylvia C; Zan, Elcin; Cordova, Christine; Troxel, Andrea B; Barbaro, Marissa; Silverman, Joshua S; Snuderl, Matija; Zagzag, David; Kondziolka, Douglas; Golfinos, John G; Chi, Andrew S; Sulman, Erik P
BACKGROUND:There are no effective medical therapies for patients with meningioma who progress beyond surgical and radiotherapeutic interventions. Somatostatin receptor Type 2 (SSTR2) represents a promising treatment target in meningiomas. In this multicenter, single-arm phase II clinical study (NCT03971461), the SSTR2-targeting radiopharmaceutical 177Lu-DOTATATE is evaluated for its feasibility, safety, and therapeutic efficacy in these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS/METHODS:Adult patients with progressive intracranial meningiomas received 177Lu-DOTATATE at a dose of 7.4 GBq (200 mCi) every eight weeks for four cycles. 68Ga-DOTATATE PET-MRI was performed before and six months after begin of treatment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) at 6 months (PFS-6). Secondary endpoints were safety and tolerability, overall survival (OS) at 12 months (OS-12), median PFS, and median OS. RESULTS:Fourteen patients (F=11, M=3) with progressive meningiomas (WHO 1=3, 2=10, 3=1) were enrolled. Median age was 63.1 (range 49.7-78) years. All patients previously underwent tumor resection and at least one course of radiation. Treatment with 177Lu-DOTATATE was well tolerated. Seven patients (50%) achieved PFS-6. Best radiographic response by modified Macdonald criteria was stable disease (SD) in all seven patients. A >25% reduction in 68Ga-DOTATATE (PET) was observed in five meningiomas and two patients. In one lesion, this corresponded to >50% reduction in bidirectional tumor measurements (MRI). CONCLUSIONS:Treatment with 177Lu-DOTATATE was well tolerated. The predefined PFS-6 threshold was met in this interim analysis, thereby allowing this multicenter clinical trial to continue enrollment. 68Ga-DOTATATE PET may be a useful imaging biomarker to assess therapeutic outcome in patients with meningioma.
PMID: 38048045
ISSN: 1557-3265
CID: 5595302

Impact of Rare and Multiple Concurrent Gene Fusions on Diagnostic DNA Methylation Classifier in Brain Tumors

Galbraith, Kristyn; Serrano, Jonathan; Shen, Guomiao; Tran, Ivy; Slocum, Cheyanne C; Ketchum, Courtney; Abdullaev, Zied; Turakulov, Rust; Bale, Tejus; Ladanyi, Marc; Sukhadia, Purvil; Zaidinski, Michael; Mullaney, Kerry; DiNapoli, Sara; Liechty, Benjamin L; Barbaro, Marissa; Allen, Jeffrey C; Gardner, Sharon L; Wisoff, Jeffrey; Harter, David; Hidalgo, Eveline Teresa; Golfinos, John G; Orringer, Daniel A; Aldape, Kenneth; Benhamida, Jamal; Wrzeszczynski, Kazimierz O; Jour, George; Snuderl, Matija
UNLABELLED:DNA methylation is an essential molecular assay for central nervous system (CNS) tumor diagnostics. While some fusions define specific brain tumors, others occur across many different diagnoses. We performed a retrospective analysis of 219 primary CNS tumors with whole genome DNA methylation and RNA next-generation sequencing. DNA methylation profiling results were compared with RNAseq detected gene fusions. We detected 105 rare fusions involving 31 driver genes, including 23 fusions previously not implicated in brain tumors. In addition, we identified 6 multi-fusion tumors. Rare fusions and multi-fusion events can impact the diagnostic accuracy of DNA methylation by decreasing confidence in the result, such as BRAF, RAF, or FGFR1 fusions, or result in a complete mismatch, such as NTRK, EWSR1, FGFR, and ALK fusions. IMPLICATIONS/UNASSIGNED:DNA methylation signatures need to be interpreted in the context of pathology and discordant results warrant testing for novel and rare gene fusions.
PMID: 37870438
ISSN: 1557-3125
CID: 5625782

Volumetric growth rate of incidentally found meningiomas on immunotherapy

Berger, Assaf; Mullen, Reed; Bernstein, Kenneth; Mashiach, Elad; Meng, Ying; Silverman, Joshua S.; Sulman, Erik P.; Golfinos, John G.; Kondziolka, Douglas
Purpose: The expression of PD-L1 in high-grade meningiomas made it a potential target for immunotherapy research in refractory cases. Several prospective studies in this field are still on going. We sought to retrospectively investigate the effects of check-point inhibitors (CI) on meningiomas that had been naïve to either surgical or radiation approaches by following incidental meningiomas found during treatment with CI for various primary metastatic cancers. Methods: We used the NYU Perlmutter Cancer Center Data Hub to find patients treated by CI for various cancers, who also had serial computerized-tomography (CT) or magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI) reports of intracranial meningiomas. Meningioma volumetric measurements were compared between the beginning and end of the CI treatment period. Patients treated with chemotherapy during this period were excluded. Results: Twenty-five patients were included in our study, of which 14 (56%) were on CI for melanoma, 5 (20%) for non-small-cell lung cancer and others. CI therapies included nivolumab (n = 15, 60%), ipilimumab (n = 11, 44%) and pembrolizumab (n = 9, %36), while 9 (36%) were on ipilimumab/nivolumab combination. We did not find any significant difference between tumor volumes before and after treatment with CI (1.31 ± 0.46 vs. 1.34 ± 0.46, p=0.8, respectively). Among patients beyond 1 year of follow-up (n = 13), annual growth was 0.011 ± 0.011 cm3/year. Five patients showed minor volume reduction of 0.12 ± 0.10 cm3 (21 ± 6% from baseline). We did not find significant predictors of tumor volume reduction. Conclusion: Check-point inhibitors may impact the natural history of meningiomas. Additional research is needed to define potential clinical indications and treatment goals.
SCOPUS:85181904502
ISSN: 0167-594x
CID: 5629992

Clinical and Imaging Outcomes After Trigeminal Schwannoma Radiosurgery: Results From a Multicenter, International Cohort Study

Niranjan, Ajay; Faramand, Andrew; Raju, Sudesh S; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Yang, Huai-Che; Nabeel, Ahmed M; Tawadros, Sameh R; El-Shehaby, Amr M N; Abdelkarim, Khaled; Emad, Reem M; Reda, Wael A; Álvarez, Roberto Martínez; Moreno, Nuria E Martínez; Liscak, Roman; May, Jaromir; Mathieu, David; Langlois, Anne-Marie; Snyder, M Harrison; Shepard, Matthew J; Sheehan, Jason; Muhsen, Baha'eddin A; Borghei-Razavi, Hamid; Barnett, Gene; Kondziolka, Douglas; Golfinos, John G; Attuati, Luca; Picozzi, Piero; McInerney, James; Daggubati, Lekhaj Chand; Warnick, Ronald E; Feliciano, Caleb E; Carro, Eric; McCarthy, David; Starke, Robert M; Landy, Howard J; Cifarelli, Christopher P; Vargo, John A; Flickinger, John; Lunsford, L Dade
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:An international, multicenter, retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the long-term clinical outcomes and tumor control rates after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for trigeminal schwannoma. METHODS:Patient data (N = 309) were collected from 14 international radiosurgery centers. The median patient age was 50 years (range 11-87 years). Sixty patients (19%) had prior resections. Abnormal facial sensation was the commonest complaint (49%). The anatomic locations were root (N = 40), ganglion (N = 141), or dumbbell type (N = 128). The median tumor volume was 4 cc (range, 0.2-30.1 cc), and median margin dose was 13 Gy (range, 10-20 Gy). Factors associated with tumor control, symptom improvement, and adverse radiation events were assessed. RESULTS:The median and mean time to last follow-up was 49 and 65 months (range 6-242 months). Greater than 5-year follow-up was available for 139 patients (45%), and 50 patients (16%) had longer than 10-year follow-up. The overall tumor control rate was 94.5%. Tumors regressed in 146 patients (47.2%), remained unchanged in 128 patients (41.4%), and stabilized after initial expansion in 20 patients (6.5%). Progression-free survival rates at 3 years, 5 years, and 10 years were 91%, 86%, and 80 %. Smaller tumor volume (less than 8 cc) was associated with significantly better progression-free survival ( P = .02). Seventeen patients with sustained growth underwent further intervention at a median of 27 months (3-144 months). Symptom improvement was noted in 140 patients (45%) at a median of 7 months. In multivariate analysis primary, SRS ( P = .003) and smaller tumor volume ( P = .01) were associated with better symptom improvement. Adverse radiation events were documented in 29 patients (9%). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:SRS was associated with long-term freedom (10 year) from additional management in 80% of patients. SRS proved to be a valuable salvage option after resection. When used as a primary management for smaller volume tumors, both clinical improvement and prevention of new deficits were optimized.
PMID: 37523519
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 5613382

Long-term Survival From Breast Cancer Brain Metastases in the Era of Modern Systemic Therapies

Mashiach, Elad; Alzate, Juan Diego; De Nigris Vasconcellos, Fernando; Bernstein, Kenneth; Donahue, Bernadine R; Schnurman, Zane; Gurewitz, Jason; Rotman, Lauren E; Adams, Sylvia; Meyers, Marleen; Oratz, Ruth; Novik, Yelena; Kwa, Maryann J; Silverman, Joshua S; Sulman, Erik P; Golfinos, John G; Kondziolka, Douglas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Median survival for all patients with breast cancer with brain metastases (BCBMs) has increased in the era of targeted therapy (TT) and with improved local control of intracranial tumors using stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and surgical resection. However, detailed characterization of the patients with long-term survival in the past 5 years remains sparse. The aim of this article is to characterize patients with BCBM who achieved long-term survival and identify factors associated with the uniquely better outcomes and to find predictors of mortality for patients with BCBM. METHODS:We reviewed 190 patients with breast cancer with 931 brain tumors receiving SRS who were followed at our institution with prospective data collection between 2012 and 2022. We analyzed clinical, molecular, and imaging data to assess relationship to outcomes and tumor control. RESULTS:The median overall survival from initial SRS and from breast cancer diagnosis was 25 months (95% CI 19-31 months) and 130 months (95% CI 100-160 months), respectively. Sixteen patients (17%) achieved long-term survival (survival ≥5 years from SRS), 9 of whom are still alive. Predictors of long-term survival included HER2+ status ( P = .041) and treatment with TT ( P = .046). A limited number of patients (11%) died of central nervous system (CNS) causes. A predictor of CNS-related death was the development of leptomeningeal disease after SRS ( P = .025), whereas predictors of non-CNS death included extracranial metastases at first SRS ( P = .017), triple-negative breast cancer ( P = .002), a Karnofsky Performance Status of <80 at first SRS ( P = .002), and active systemic disease at last follow-up ( P = .001). Only 13% of patients eventually needed whole brain radiotherapy. Among the long-term survivors, none died of CNS progression. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Patients with BCBM can achieve long-term survival. The use of TT and HER2+ disease are associated with long-term survival. The primary cause of death was extracranial disease progression, and none of the patients living ≥5 years died of CNS-related disease.
PMID: 37581437
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 5599542

Volumetric growth rate of incidentally found meningiomas on immunotherapy

Berger, Assaf; Mullen, Reed; Bernstein, Kenneth; Mashiach, Elad; Meng, Ying; Silverman, Joshua S; Sulman, Erik P; Golfinos, John G; Kondziolka, Douglas
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE:The expression of PD-L1 in high-grade meningiomas made it a potential target for immunotherapy research in refractory cases. Several prospective studies in this field are still on going. We sought to retrospectively investigate the effects of check-point inhibitors (CI) on meningiomas that had been naïve to either surgical or radiation approaches by following incidental meningiomas found during treatment with CI for various primary metastatic cancers. METHODS:We used the NYU Perlmutter Cancer Center Data Hub to find patients treated by CI for various cancers, who also had serial computerized-tomography (CT) or magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI) reports of intracranial meningiomas. Meningioma volumetric measurements were compared between the beginning and end of the CI treatment period. Patients treated with chemotherapy during this period were excluded. RESULTS:(21 ± 6% from baseline). We did not find significant predictors of tumor volume reduction. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Check-point inhibitors may impact the natural history of meningiomas. Additional research is needed to define potential clinical indications and treatment goals.
PMID: 38194196
ISSN: 1573-7373
CID: 5633162

Developing an Automated Registry (Autoregistry) of Spine Surgery Using Natural Language Processing and Health System Scale Databases

Cheung, Alexander T M; Kurland, David B; Neifert, Sean; Mandelberg, Nataniel; Nasir-Moin, Mustafa; Laufer, Ilya; Pacione, Donato; Lau, Darryl; Frempong-Boadu, Anthony K; Kondziolka, Douglas; Golfinos, John G; Oermann, Eric Karl
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Clinical registries are critical for modern surgery and underpin outcomes research, device monitoring, and trial development. However, existing approaches to registry construction are labor-intensive, costly, and prone to manual error. Natural language processing techniques combined with electronic health record (EHR) data sets can theoretically automate the construction and maintenance of registries. Our aim was to automate the generation of a spine surgery registry at an academic medical center using regular expression (regex) classifiers developed by neurosurgeons to combine domain expertise with interpretable algorithms. METHODS:We used a Hadoop data lake consisting of all the information generated by an academic medical center. Using this database and structured query language queries, we retrieved every operative note written in the department of neurosurgery since our transition to EHR. Notes were parsed using regex classifiers and compared with a random subset of 100 manually reviewed notes. RESULTS:A total of 31 502 operative cases were downloaded and processed using regex classifiers. The codebase required 5 days of development, 3 weeks of validation, and less than 1 hour for the software to generate the autoregistry. Regex classifiers had an average accuracy of 98.86% at identifying both spinal procedures and the relevant vertebral levels, and it correctly identified the entire list of defined surgical procedures in 89% of patients. We were able to identify patients who required additional operations within 30 days to monitor outcomes and quality metrics. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates the feasibility of automatically generating a spine registry using the EHR and an interpretable, customizable natural language processing algorithm which may reduce pitfalls associated with manual registry development and facilitate rapid clinical research.
PMID: 37345933
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 5542832

Development and implementation of an Enhanced Recovery After Cranial Surgery pathway following supratentorial tumor resection at a tertiary care center

Khan, Hammad A; Hill, Travis C; Suryadevara, Carter M; Carter, Camiren C; Eremiev, Alexander N; Save, Akshay V; Golfinos, John G; Pacione, Donato
OBJECTIVE:Controlling length of stay (LOS) reduces rates of nosocomial infections and falls, facilitates earlier return to daily activities, and decreases strain on the healthcare system. Complications following supratentorial tumor resection present early in the postoperative period, thereby enhancing the prospect of safe, early discharge. Here, the authors describe their initial experience with the development and implementation of an Enhanced Recovery After Cranial Surgery (ERACS) pathway following resection of supratentorial tumors in select patients. METHODS:This was a nonrandomized, ambispective quality improvement study of patients undergoing elective craniotomy for supratentorial tumor resection at New York University Langone Health between November 17, 2020, and May 19, 2022. Eligible patients were prospectively enrolled in either the ERACS pathway or the standard pathway. These prospective cohorts were compared to a retrospective cohort of patients who met eligibility criteria for the pathway. Patients in the ERACS pathway cohort were targeted for discharge on postoperative day 2. The primary outcome metric was hospital LOS. Secondary outcome metrics included duration of intensive care unit (ICU) care and rates of 30-day emergency department visits, readmissions, and complications. RESULTS:Over the study period, 188 of 317 patients (59.3%) who underwent supratentorial tumor resection met inclusion criteria for ERACS pathway enrollment. Sixty-three patients were enrolled in the ERACS pathway, and 125 patients completed the standard pathway. The historical cohort consisted of 332 patients who would have been eligible for ERACS enrollment. Patients in the ERACS pathway cohort had a median LOS of 1.93 days compared with 2.92 and 2.88 days for patients in the standard pathway and historical cohort, respectively (p < 0.001). There was a significant reduction in ICU utilization in ERACS pathway patients (16.0 ± 6.53 vs 29.5 ± 53.0 vs 21.8 ± 18.2 hours, p = 0.005). There were no differences in the rates of 30-day emergency department visits (12.7% vs 9.6% vs 10.9%, p = 0.809) and readmissions (4.8% vs 4.0% vs 7.8%, p = 0.279) between groups. CONCLUSIONS:Patients in the ERACS pathway cohort experienced reduced LOS and ICU utilization, with similar rates of adverse outcomes compared to standard pathway patients. The authors' initial experience suggests that an accelerated recovery pathway can be safely implemented following supratentorial tumor resection in select patients.
PMID: 38039535
ISSN: 1092-0684
CID: 5590472

Causes of Death in Patients With Brain Metastases

Schnurman, Zane; Mashiach, Elad; Link, Katherine E; Donahue, Bernadine; Sulman, Erik; Silverman, Joshua; Golfinos, John G; Oermann, Eric Karl; Kondziolka, Douglas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Advances in targeted therapies and wider application of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) have redefined outcomes of patients with brain metastases. Under modern treatment paradigms, there remains limited characterization of which aspects of disease drive demise and in what frequencies. This study aims to characterize the primary causes of terminal decline and evaluate differences in underlying intracranial tumor dynamics in patients with metastatic brain cancer. These fundamental details may help guide management, patient counseling, and research priorities. METHODS:Using NYUMets-Brain-the largest, longitudinal, real-world, open data set of patients with brain metastases-patients treated at New York University Langone Health between 2012 and 2021 with SRS were evaluated. A review of electronic health records allowed for the determination of a primary cause of death in patients who died during the study period. Causes were classified in mutually exclusive, but collectively exhaustive, categories. Multilevel models evaluated for differences in dynamics of intracranial tumors, including changes in volume and number. RESULTS:Of 439 patients with end-of-life data, 73.1% died secondary to systemic disease, 10.3% died secondary to central nervous system (CNS) disease, and 16.6% died because of other causes. CNS deaths were driven by acute increases in intracranial pressure (11%), development of focal neurological deficits (18%), treatment-resistant seizures (11%), and global decline driven by increased intracranial tumor burden (60%). Rate of influx of new intracranial tumors was almost twice as high in patients who died compared with those who survived (P < .001), but there was no difference in rates of volume change per intracranial tumor (P = .95). CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:Most patients with brain metastases die secondary to systemic disease progression. For patients who die because of neurological disease, tumor dynamics and cause of death mechanisms indicate that the primary driver of decline for many may be unchecked systemic disease with unrelenting spread of new tumors to the CNS rather than failure of local growth control.
PMID: 37255296
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 5543262

Low-Dose Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases in the Era of Modern Systemic Therapy

Alzate, Juan Diego; Mashiach, Elad; Berger, Assaf; Bernstein, Kenneth; Mullen, Reed; Nigris Vasconcellos, Fernando De; Qu, Tanxia; Silverman, Joshua S; Donahue, Bernadine R; Cooper, Benjamin T; Sulman, Erik P; Golfinos, John G; Kondziolka, Douglas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES/OBJECTIVE:Dose selection for brain metastases stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) classically has been based on tumor diameter with a reduction of dose in the settings of prior brain irradiation, larger tumor volumes, and critical brain location. However, retrospective series have shown local control rates to be suboptimal with reduced doses. We hypothesized that lower doses could be effective for specific tumor biologies with concomitant systemic therapies. This study aims to report the local control (LC) and toxicity when using low-dose SRS in the era of modern systemic therapy. METHODS:We reviewed 102 patients with 688 tumors managed between 2014 and 2021 who had low-margin dose radiosurgery, defined as ≤14 Gy. Tumor control was correlated with demographic, clinical, and dosimetric data. RESULTS:The main primary cancer types were lung in 48 (47.1%), breast in 31 (30.4%), melanoma in 8 (7.8%), and others in 15 patients (11.7%). The median tumor volume was 0.037cc (0.002-26.31 cm3), and the median margin dose was 14 Gy (range 10-14). The local failure (LF) cumulative incidence at 1 and 2 years was 6% and 12%, respectively. On competing risk regression analysis, larger volume, melanoma histology, and margin dose were predictors of LF. The 1-year and 2-year cumulative incidence of adverse radiation effects (ARE: an adverse imaging-defined response includes increased enhancement and peritumoral edema) was 0.8% and 2%. CONCLUSION/CONCLUSIONS:It is feasible to achieve acceptable LC in BMs with low-dose SRS. Volume, melanoma histology, and margin dose seem to be predictors for LF. The value of a low-dose approach may be in the management of patients with higher numbers of small or adjacent tumors with a history of whole brain radio therapy or multiple SRS sessions and in tumors in critical locations with the aim of LC and preservation of neurological function.
PMID: 37326435
ISSN: 1524-4040
CID: 5613932